GM ostab Chevrolet

GM ostab Chevrolet


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2. mail 1918 omandab Chevrolet Motor Company ettevõtte General Motors Corporation (GM), millest saab maailma suurim autofirma.

GMi asutas kümmekond aastat varem William C. “Billy” Durant, endine vagunitootja Flintist, Michigani osariigist, kelle ettevõte Durant-Dort Carriage Company oli võtnud kontrolli alla haige Buick Motor Company. 16. septembril 1908 liitis Durant Buicki uude üksusesse General Motors, mis selle kümnendi lõpuks oli tervitanud teisi juhtivaid autotootjaid, sealhulgas Oldsmobile'i, Cadillaci ja Oaklandi. Aastal 1910, kui GM oli majanduslikult raskustes, süüdistasid aktsionärid Duranti agressiivset ekspansionismi ja sundisid ta asutatud ettevõttest välja. Novembris 1911 käivitas ta ettevõtte Chevrolet Motor Company, mis sai nime oma partneri, Šveitsi võidusõiduauto juhi Louis Chevroleti järgi.

LOE LISAKS: Autod, mis tegid Ameerika

Olles siiski märkimisväärse osa GM -aktsiate omanik, hakkas Durant ostma rohkem ettevõtte aktsiaid, kui tema kasum Chevrolet'st lubas. Viimase sammuna kontrolli taastamiseks pakkus Durant GM aktsionäridele viit Chevrolet aktsiat iga GM aktsia aktsia kohta. Kuigi geneetiliselt muundatud aktsiate hinnad olid ülemäära kõrged, muutis turuhuvi Chevroleti vastu GM-i aktsionäridele vastupanu. Müügiga, mis sõlmiti 2. mail 1918, sai Durant tagasi kontrolli GM -i üle. Vaid kaks aastat hiljem tõrjus ta aga lõplikult välja Pierre S. DuPont, kelle perekonna võimas keemiaettevõte oli alustanud investeerimist algavasse autotööstusse, ostes GM -varu 1914. aastal. Pierre DuPont tõusis seejärel GMi juhatuse esimeheks ja sai presidendiks aastal 1920. Samal aastal sõlmitud lepingus maksis DuPont ära kõik Duranti võlad; vastutasuks lahkus vastuoluline asutaja ettevõttest.

Durant keeldus aga autotööstusest loobumast, asutades 1921. aastal Durant Motorsi ja tootmaks järgmise kümnendi autosarja. Suure depressiooni algus 1930. aastate alguses lõpetas Duranti karjääri autodes ja ta viskas oma ettevõtliku energia Michigani osariigis Flinti linnas Buicki kompleksi lähedal asuva bowlinguraja taha. Kui ka see ettevõtmine ebaõnnestus, tuhmus Durant avalikkuse eest. Ta suri 18. märtsil 1947 85 -aastaselt, vaid nädalaid enne teise autotööstuse pioneeri Henry Fordi surma.


GMi Hiina päästmise salajane ajalugu

Kui USA maksumaksjad jagasid 2009. aastal 50 miljardi dollari suuruse arve General Motorsi päästmiseks, võisid vähesed arvata, et Detroidi suurimad kolm (GM, Chrysler, Ford) jätkab Hiina autode importimist Ameerika Ühendriikidesse. Ometi vaid seitse aastat pärast riigi rahastatavat ja kõrgelt politiseeritud päästmist ütleb GM, et teeb täpselt seda: järgmise aasta alguses hakkab autotootja tarnima Hiinas toodetud Buick Envision ristmikke üle Vaikse ookeani, müües oma pistikuga -järgida Cadillaci CT6 lipulaeva sedaani hübriidversiooni. Igaüks, kes uskus, et GM-i päästmine loob kaitseraua kaua kardetud Hiina autode tulva vastu, võib olla hämmingus, et leida sama Hiina autotootja Hiina impordi eest. Tegelikult on see samm alles viimane muster, mis pärineb aastast 2009, mil GM sai salajase Hiina „päästeabi”, mis näib olevat muutnud Ameerika suurima autotootja oma Hiina partneri jaoks Trooja hobuseks.

Oma raamatus 2011 Ameerika rattad, Hiina teed autor Michael Dunne uurib GMi suurt edu Hiina turul, mis sai alguse 1995. aasta „Shanghai GM“ partnerluse loomisest Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporationiga (SAIC). Ta kirjeldab kahe ettevõtte suhteid kahekümnendate aastate alguses vastastikku kasulikuna, kuid kui 2008. aasta majanduslangus viis GM-i pankrotti, võttis partnerlus murettekitava pöörde. Kuna USA auto töörühm keeldus lubamast GM -il kulutada TARP -abi oma välisoperatsioonidele, oli GM sunnitud abi saamiseks pöörduma SAIC poole. Sellest tulenev tehing muudaks igavesti Shanghai GM ühisettevõtte õrna jõudude tasakaalu ja ajendaks GM -i ümber kujundama kogu oma globaalse strateegia ümber oma partnerluse SAIC -iga.

GM-i Aasia turu hädad 2009. aastal keskendusid Korea operatsioonidele, mida tollal nimetati GM-Daewoo Automotive Technology Company (GMDAT). Kui GM oli ülemaailmne kodutuba odavate väikeautode projekteerimiseks ja eksportimiseks arenevatele turgudele, sealhulgas Hiinale, tekkis GMDATil tõsiseid rahavooguprobleeme, kui see kaotas 2009. aasta esimeses kvartalis ainuüksi välisvaluutas 1,5 miljardit dollarit. GM suundus pankrotti , USA valitsuse päästjad, kes ei soovinud maksta ülemereprobleemide eest, finantskriisist suures osas külmutatud krediiditurud ja Korea Arengupank keeldus laenu andmast kaugemale kui 2 miljardit dollarit, mille talle GMDAT juba võlgnes, oli GM ainus võimalus pöörduda oma Hiina partneri poole likviidsuse eest.

2009. aasta novembri keskpaigaks oli GM-il äkki 491 miljonit dollarit, mida kulutada GMDAT-i pöördele, kuid polnud kohe selge, kust see raha tuli. Detsembris selgusid esimesed üksikasjad: GM müüs SAIC -le 1% Shanghai GM -ist, andes Hiina partnerile ettevõtmises kontrollpaki. Samuti muutis see oma hädas GM India divisjoni ühisettevõtteks, kus SAIC sai 350 miljoni dollari suuruse lisainvesteeringu eest 50% osaluse. Toona ütlesid GM -i juhid, et tehing võimaldab SAIC -il ka ühisettevõtte tulu konsolideerida ja et see on aidanud GM -il „saada rahastamist Hiina pangandussektori muudeks tegevusteks, mida oleks olnud meie jaoks raske teha oma. ” 2010. aasta lõpul SEC-i esitatud taotluses selgitas GM lõpuks, et SAIC aitas tal tagada 400 miljoni dollari suuruse kommertspangalaenu, mille osaluseks oli Shanghai-GM.

85 miljoni dollari suurune hind, mille SAIC maksis Shanghai kuldse aktsia eest “kuldse aktsia” eest, oli esimene märk sellest, et tehingus oli rohkem kui esmapilgul. Ärikultuuris, mis on kinnisideeks guanxivõi "soodsama majanduse" jaoks oli SAIC -i abi GM -i meeleheitehetkel eepiliste mõõtude kasuks ja selline, mis nõuaks märkimisväärset strateegilist hüvitist. Nagu Dunne märgib, oli Hiina ühisettevõtte autotööstuse strateegial hõlpsasti tuvastatavad eesmärgid:

Samm: moodustage ühisettevõtteid juhtivate ülemaailmsete autotootjatega.

2. etapp: võtke kasutusele välispartneri tehnoloogiad, mis on seotud autode projekteerimise, projekteerimise ja tootmisega.

Samm: ehitage autosid Hiina enda kaubamärgi all.

Pankrotistunud partneri ülekaaluga SAIC -l oli võimendus selles tegevuskavas tõsiseid edusamme teha. GM ostab lõpuks kuldse aktsia tagasi, kuigi mitte enne, kui SAIC sai ühisettevõtte müügiettevõttes kontrollpaki. Kuid isegi see märkimisväärne eelis ei aidanud arvet kokku: kuldaktsiate tehingule järgnenud aastatel hakkas GM SAIC -i tagasi maksma Hiina tööstuspoliitika strateegiliste tingimuste kohaselt.

Alates 2010. aastast alustas GM enneolematut tehnoloogiasiirde ja ühise arendamise lainet, mis seob need kaks ettevõtet lähemale kui kunagi varem ja paneb sajandivanuse autotootja oma tõusnud Hiina partneriga üha enam võrdsetele alustele. GM teatas, et arendab koos SAIC-iga välja järgmise põlvkonna globaalseid väikeseid gaasimootoreid ja esmakordset kahe siduriga käigukasti teadus- ja arendustegevuse rajatises, mille mõlemad ettevõtted olid Shanghais asutanud. Samal ajal allkirjastas ta vastastikuse mõistmise memorandumi, milles nõustutakse „pikaajalise strateegilise koostööga“ „uute energiasõidukite”-Hiina valitsuse terminiga pistikühendusega hübriidsõidukite ja puhtalt elektrisõidukite osas. Ajal, mil kasvavad heitkoguste eeskirjad kogu maailmas muutsid kütusesäästliku ja elektrifitseeritud sõidukitehnoloogia iga autotootja tuleviku jaoks kriitiliseks, sidus GM selle tuleviku oma Hiina partneriga. Kuna GM impordib nüüd Hiina tipptasemel Cadillac CT6 pistikhübriidi Hiina ühisettevõttest, on see tulevik juba saabuma hakanud.

Isegi GM praegune põhitehnoloogia hakkas ootamatult ilmuma Hiina partneri kätte. Aasta Chevrolet New Saili kirjeldati kui esimest täielikult Hiinas ühiselt välja töötatud sõiduautot, kuid selle naha all oli Gamma II platvorm, mis toetab endiselt GM -i alamkompaktseid pakkumisi, nagu Chevrolet Spark, Sonic ja Trax. Aastaks 2012 oli SAIC välja töötanud sõidukid, mis kasutasid GM -i Delta II kompaktseid ja Epsiloni keskmise suurusega platvorme, andes sellele juurdepääsu kõigile kolmele GM -i ülemaailmsele autoplatvormile. Sel aastal tõi SAIC turule ka oma esimese kahe siduriga käigukastiga sõiduki Roewe 550, pekstes oma saja-aastast partnerit. Vaid kolme aasta jooksul pärast kuldaktsiatehingut näis SAIC tehnoloogiliselt GM -ist eespool olevat.

Kuid edu Hiinas nõudis enamat kui uusim tehnoloogia ja GM nihutas ka oma odava, areneva turu fookuse Koreast Shanghaisse. Kolmepoolne ühisettevõte SAIC, GM ja Wuling oli oma spartalike mikrokaubikute müüki kiiresti laiendanud ja 2011. aastal tungis see peavoolu oma esimese kaubamärgiga sõidukiga, mis on välja töötatud GM-i platvormil: Baojun 630. 2012. aastal hakkas Baojuni kaubamärk tootma oma vana Chevrolet Sparki versiooni ning on sellest ajast peale lisanud alamkompaktse maasturi ja väikeauto, mis põhinevad tema enda ühiselt arendatud platvormil. Peaaegu iga neljas Hiinas müüdud geneetiliselt muundatud auto on nüüd Baojun, kuid vaid 44% Shanghai partneri GM-Wuling GMi osa kasumist on isegi väiksem kui Shanghai GM.

Kuna SAIC-l oli Hiinas ülekaal ja GM-i äri Indias ühiselt juhtis, toimus suhetes veel üks nihe: GM hakkas eksporditurgude jaoks oma partneri Hiina kaubamärgiga sõidukeid uuendama. Chevrolet ’kaubamärgiga Wulingi kaubikute eksport algas juba 2008. aastal ja pärast kuldaktsiatehingut kiirenes kogu maailmas kokkupandavate komplektide eksport GM-tehastesse kokkupanekuks. 2013. aastal muudeti Baojun 630 - mis oli kavandatud ekspordimudeliks - eksportimiseks erinevatel arenevatel turgudel Chevrolet Optra nime all. Samal aastal ületas GM ülemaailmne Hiina autode eksport 100 000 ühikut ja kui küsiti, kas Hiina toodetud autosid võidakse ühel päeval USA-s müüa, vastas GM China president Bob Socia: "see võib väga hästi juhtuda."

GM-i ja SAIC-i ülemaailmsete strateegiate viimine kulmineerus sellega, et nad teatasid ühiselt väljatöötatud uuest arhitektuurist, mis toetab kõiki väljaspool Euroopat ja USA-d müüdavaid GM-i väikeautosid. Selle platvormi ja ühiselt välja töötatud väikeste gaasimootorite perekonna vahel on GM ja SAIC vaheline piir enamikul maailma turgudel peaaegu kustutatud. See ei tähenda ainult seda, et GM peab jagama kogu tulevase kasvuturu kasumi SAIC -iga, vaid tähendab ka autoritasude lõppu, mille GM teenis kunagi iga mootori ja arhitektuuri abil ehitatud auto eest. Igal turul, millel on tugev tulevase mahu kasvupotentsiaal, on GM-i ainulaadsed eelised oma äsja volitatud partneri suhtes taandatud kaubamärkidele, mida ta kasutab Hiina toodete ümber tekkinud häbimärgi läikimiseks.

Buick Envisioni importimine on GM-i Hiina ümberkorraldamise esimene suurem mõju USA turule, kuid GM-i eelpostidel Koreas ja Austraalias on valu tunda palju otsesemalt. Aastal 2013 teatas GM, et lõpetab kogu oma tootmise Austraalia divisjonis Holden, asendades raevukalt sõltumatu arendus- ja tootmiskeskuse imporditud mudelitega. Veel 2003. aastal ütlesid GM-i juhid, et Holdeni viimast ainulaadset sõidukit Commodore-mis imporditi USA-sse 2004. – 2006. Aasta Pontiac GTO-na-võidakse eksportida Hiinasse 2017. aastaks, see auto valmistatakse tegelikult Hiinas ja eksporditakse Austraaliasse. kus Holdenist jääb järele vaid müügi- ja teenindustegevus.

GMDAT nimetati 2011. aastal ümber GM Koreaks, "et see peegeldaks tema kõrgendatud staatust GM -i ülemaailmsetes operatsioonides" vastavalt GM ametlikule teadaandele, kuid näis, et nime muutmisel on täpselt vastupidine mõju. Olles kord pakkunud põhitehnoloogiat paljude GM-i kõige edukamate Hiina turutoodete taga, on GM Korea kaotanud oma staatuse GM-i areneva turu „kodutoana” Shanghai-GM-i uuele areneva turu ühisele platvormile. 2013. aastal, kui GM otsustas lõpetada Chevrolet ’kaubamärgi müümise Euroopas, kadus turg, mis moodustas üle 20% GM Korea toodangust, peaaegu üleöö. Olles aastaid hoidnud GMDATi vee peal miljardite Korea Arengupanga laenudega, leiavad korealased end nüüd alla neelamas kibedaid koondamisi ja valmistumas tõenäoliseks tehase sulgemiseks.

Kogu Aasias on märke SAIC-i tõusust: GMi Indoneesia tegevus asendatakse S-GM-Wuling tehasega, GM tühistas kavandatud laienemise Tais pärast seda, kui SAIC tuli turule teise partneriga, ja GM kolis oma viimased jäänused rahvusvaheliste operatsioonide vähenemine Singapuri. SAIC vähendas 2012. aastal oma osalust GM Indias vaid 7% -ni, kuid ainult sellepärast, et GM -i Socia andmetel oli SAIC valmis GM -iga konkureerima. Kuna mõlemad ettevõtted pakuvad peagi sama arenevate turgude perekonda, mida nad Shanghais koos arendavad, pole SAICi usaldus vaevalt üllatav. Kuna GM ja ühiselt väljatöötatud tehnoloogia on juba klassikalise Briti MG (Morris Garagesi) kaubamärki kandvate autode valiku aluseks, on SAIC tungimas ka sellistesse turgudesse nagu Austraalia ja Ühendkuningriik, kus GM on aastaid taganenud.

Tänu oma enneolematule juurdepääsule GM-i infrastruktuurile, tehnoloogiale, kaubamärkidele ja koostööle pärast kuldaktsiatehingut on SAIC-st saanud turuväärtuse järgi maailma kõige kiiremini kasvav autotootja. GMi viimased tooted ja platvormid debüteerivad Hiinas enne teisi turge ning selle 12 miljardi dollari suurune kolmeaastane investeerimiskava Hiina jaoks on rohkem kui kaks korda suurem kui USA turule samal perioodil eraldatud 5,4 miljardit dollarit.

Asjaolu, et Korea ja Austraalia on võtnud GM-i Hiina-keskse ümberkorraldamise löögi, tõestab, et GM on oma koduturul toodangu ja kasumi täiendamiseks pikka aega tuginenud ülemereoperatsioonidele. Kuid Ameerika maksumaksjad peaksid teadma, et Austraalia valitsuse ja Korea Arengupanga aastatepikkune avalik abi ei takistanud GM -il arendus- ja tootmistööde Hiinasse viimist. Lohutav müüt, et valitsuse abi võib peatada GM -i strateegilise ülemineku Hiinasse, pole lihtsalt kinnitust leidnud.

Kui USA tarbijad ei vallanda Hiina toodetud Buicksi kohalikku GM-edasimüüjat, tundub tõenäoline, et GM eelistab jätkuvalt oma praegu domineerivat partnerit, kelle osa USA turu kasumist kasvab. Uue United Auto Workersi lepinguga, mis tõstab USA palku ja eeldatav föderaalreservi intressitõus võib potentsiaalselt dollari väärtust tõsta, muutub Hiina import ainult kulude konkurentsivõimelisemaks. Kuigi GM -ist ei pruugi paberil kunagi saada täielikult Hiina ettevõte, integreerub ta jätkuvalt oma endise Hiina kaitseväega ja on selle eest varjutatud. Olles toetunud guanxi kui Hiina partner on meeleheitel, võib GM selle teene igavesti tagasi maksta. Ja seni, kuni USA turg ei suuda Hiinale kasvuvõimalusi pakkuda, ei pruugi meie 2009. aasta investeering GM -i kunagi end kusagil nii kenasti ära tasuda.


Chevrolet ’ajalugu

Chevrolet (IPA: / ˌʃɛvroʊˈleɪ / - prantsuse päritolu) (tuntud ka kui Chevy) on automark, mida toodab General Motors (GM). See on enimmüüdud geneetiliselt muundatud mark, kusjuures "Chevrolet" või "Chevy" on kohati GM -i sünonüümid.

Chevrolet pakub oma koduturul 18 sõidukit ja palju erinevaid täiustatud versioone. Sõidukid ulatuvad kompaktsetest autodest kuni keskmise koormusega kaubikuteni. Selle number üks müüja Ameerika Ühendriikides on Silverado pikap. Chevrolet on jätkuvalt General Motorsi Põhja -Ameerika jõudluse, hinna, MPG ja väärtuste liider.

Põhja -Ameerika ajalugu

Chevrolet asutasid Louis Chevrolet (Šveitsi-Prantsuse) ja William C. Durant (Ameerika). Louis Chevrolet oli võidusõiduautojuht ja General Motorsi asutaja William Durant oli 1910. aastal GM-ist välja sunnitud. Ta tahtis kasutada Chevrolet ’disainilahendusi, et taastada oma mainet autotööstuse jõuna. Buick Motor Company juhina oli Durant enne GMi asutamist palganud Chevrolet ’, kes Buicksi promovõistlustel sõidutab.

Esimest korda kasutas Chevrolet oma "bowtie" logo 1913. aastal. See olevat kujundatud tapeedist, mida Durant kunagi Prantsuse hotellis nägi. Teine teooria on, et see on stiliseeritud versioon kas Šveitsi kuju või rist Šveitsi lipul, Louis Chevrolet 'sünnikohal.

1915. aastal rajas Durant Kanadas Torontos Chevrolet ’tootmisrajatisi. Hiljem samal aastal New Yorgis lõunasöögi ajal kohtumisel "kolonel Sam" McLaughliniga, kelle McLaughlin Motor Car Company valmistas McLaughlin-Buick autosid, lepiti kokku, et Kanada ettevõtte tootesarja lisanduvad McLaughlini disainitud kerega Chevrolet'd. Kolm aastat hiljem ostis GM kaks Kanada operatsiooni (Chevrolet oli selleks ajaks Ameerika Ühendriikides GM -i osa), et saada General Motors of Canada Ltd.

Aastaks 1916 oli Chevrolet piisavalt kasumlik, et võimaldada Durantil osta enamus GM aktsiaid. Pärast tehingu lõpuleviimist 1917. aastal oli Durant General Motorsi president ja Chevrolet liideti GM -iga, saades eraldi divisjoniks. Mudeliaastal 1918 tutvustas Chevrolet mudelit D-V8-mootoriga mudelit nelja- ja viie reisijaga tourer-mudelites. Nendel autodel oli 288 tolli 35 hj (26 kW) mootorid Zenith karburaatorite ja kolmekäigulise käigukastiga.

Kuulsate Chevy mudelite hulka kuuluvad suur ja luksuslik Impala (1958) ning uuenduslik õhkjahutusega tagamootoriga Corvair. Chevroletil oli 1950ndatel ja 1960ndatel suur mõju Ameerika autoturule. Aastal 1957 valmistas Chevy esimese kütuse sissepritsega mootori. 1963. aastal oli iga kümnes USA -s müüdud auto Chevrolet.

Chevrolet ’väikeplokkide V-8 põhidisain on pärast esmaesitamist 1955. aastal jätkuvalt tootmises püsinud kauem kui ükski teine ​​masstoodanguna toodetud mootor maailmas, kuigi praegustel versioonidel on vähe, kui üldse osi, mida saab originaaliga vahetada. Tänapäeval tootmises oleva väikese plokiga OHV V-8 põhiplatvormi järeltulijaid on palju muudetud selliste edusammudega nagu alumiiniumplokk ja -pead, elektrooniline mootorihaldus ja järjestikune pumba sissepritse. Väikest plokki Chevrolet V-8 kasutatakse praeguses tootmismudelis (2008) Impala sedaanides, mitmesugustes kerge ja keskmise töövõimega Chevrolet veoautodes ning praeguse põlvkonna Corvette sportautos. Sõltuvalt sõidukitüübist on need sisseehitatud töömahuga 4,8–7,0 liitrit, väljundvõimsusega 180–638 hobujõudu (476 kW), nagu tehases paigaldatud. Seda kasutatakse ka jõudlusvõimalusena Chevrolet Camaro eelseisval (2009. mudeliaasta) taaselustamisel. Mootorikujundust on aastate jooksul kasutatud ka Pontiaci all ehitatud ja müüdud GM toodetes. Nimesildid Oldsmobile, Buick, Opel (Saksamaa) ja Holden (Austraalia). Hiljuti on C-6 Corvette jaoks mõeldud väikese plokiga V-8 6-liitrine, 400 hobujõuline (300 kW) versioon paigaldatud Cadillac CTS sedaani tehasesse ehitatud suure jõudlusega versioonile, mida tuntakse CTS-V nime all. .

Austraalia

Kuigi tänapäeva Austraalia turg koosneb peamiselt Aasia ja Euroopa automarkide kõrval Austraalia enda autofirmadest, oli Austraalial kunagi ka õiglane osa Ameerika autodest. Aastakümneid kuni 1960. aastate alguseni toodeti ja müüdi Chevrolet ’autosid Austraalias Lõuna -Austraalia osariigis Chevrolet’ kaubamärgi all. Vintage Chevrolet mudeleid, nagu Bel Air, Impala jne, leidub endiselt paljudes Austraalia osariikides. Tootmine on nüüdseks lakanud ja tänase päevani on Ameerika autode osas Dodge, Jeep ja Chrysler järgnenud. 1998-2001 Chevrolet Suburban oli Austraalias müügil kaubamärgiga GM Holden. Tänapäeval põhinevad mitmed Chevrolet ’disainilahendused Austraalia kolleegidel (GM Holden). Chevrolet laiendab Austraalia turul suurte pick -upide ja maasturite kättesaadavust.

Ladina-Ameerika

Ajalooliselt olid paljud GM Ladina-Ameerika turul kasutatavad sõidukid GM-i Põhja-Ameerika ja Euroopa tegevusest pärit vanemate mudelite modifitseeritud tuletised. Praegused S10 ja Blazer näitavad seda strateegiat. Nüüd aga turustatakse turutingimuste muutudes ja konkurentsi tihenedes kaasaegsemaid sõidukeid. Lisaks vanematele mudelitele, mis on valmistatud Mehhikos, Ecuadoris, Colombias ja Mercosuri riikides, on Korea päritolu autod endistest Daewoo tehastest mõnedel turgudel ka kohalike mudelite kõrval ka Saksa Opeli ja USA valmistatud Chevrolet.

Brasiilias põhines Chevrolet Opala 1960. aastate lõpust pärit Saksa Opel Rekordil, jätkates tootmist kuni 1990. aastate alguseni, mil see asendati Opel Omega versiooniga. Teised väiksemad Chevroletid Brasiilias, nagu Kadett ja Monza, põhinesid vastavalt Opel Kadettil ja Asconal. Chevrolet ’tootevalik Brasiilias sisaldab nüüd mõningaid eksklusiivseid disainilahendusi, nagu Corsa B-põhine Celta, mida müüakse Argentinas Suzuki kaubamärgi Astra all, ja uhiuus Brasiilia disainitud Vectra, mis põhineb praegusel Opel Astral, samas kui praegune Corsa on ehitatud ja Omega nime kasutatakse nüüd Holden Commodore'il. Kommunaal- ja nelikveoliste sõidukite valikusse kuuluvad S10, Blazer ja Montana. Montana on Corsal põhinev kompaktne pikap, mida müüakse ka teistel Ladina -Ameerika turgudel. 1960ndatest kuni 1980ndate keskpaigani oli olemas ka suur universaal, mis pärineb [[ChevProxy-Connection: keep-life Cache-Control: max-age = 0

las C/ K | C10]] veoauto (mõnevõrra sarnane äärelinnaga), nimega Veraneio.

Chevrolet ’tootmine Tšiilis algas 1962. aastal, kuigi algul kohalike partnerite kaudu (antud juhul Avayu koos Nova II -ga). GM komplekteerib Isuzu D-Maxi endiselt LUV D-Maxina Aricas ning Isuzu F- ja N-seeriat Huechurabas, Santiagos.

Chevrolet on Ecuadoris tegutsenud 80 aastat. GM Ecuador müüb USA Chevrolette koos GM Daewoo ja Opeli päritolu mudelitega. See müüb ka 1983. aasta Suzuki Supercarrit Chevrolet nime all ja Isuzu Rodeot müüdi Chevrolet Rodeo nime all kogu 1990. aasta.

Venezuelas tegutseb Chevrolet alates 1948. aastast, kui Caracases alustati veoautode tootmist. 1979. aastal kolis tootmine Chryslerilt ostetud Valencia tehasesse. Chevrolet pani Venezuelas esimese 50 aasta jooksul kokku rohkem kui 1 500 000 sõidukit.

Argentina

Aastal 1924 alustab General Motors Chevrolet Double Phaetoni mudelite importimist ja on suure nõudlusega teretulnud.

1925. aastal otsustab General Motors Argentina turul kulude vähendamiseks Argentinas tootmist ja hakkab tootma sedaani, rodsterit, veoauto šassii ja Chevrolet Double Phaetonit, mis kannab nüüd nime "Especial Argentino" - mudel, mis on mõeldud ainult argentiinlasele. turul. Müük kasvas ja peagi liideti konveierile Oldsmobile, Oakland ja Pontiac üksused.

Teise maailmasõja puhkedes olid operatsioonid keerulised. 1941. aastal valmistatakse Chevrolet 250 000, kuid toodete puudus muutis autotootmise võimatuks. Viimane Chevrolet läheb tehasest välja augustis 1942. Täieliku seisaku vältimiseks valmistas ettevõte muu hulgas elektri- ja kaasaskantavaid külmikuid ning autotarvikuid. Pärast sõda alustas GM Oldsmobile ja Pontiac liinide tootmist ning hiljem lisandub Chevrolet.

Aastal 1959 laiendatakse tootmisettevõtteid, mis toodavad autosid, pikape ja veokeid. 25. jaanuaril 1960 tutvustati esimest argentiinlast auto Chevrolet. Järgmisel aastal kiidab riigi valitsus heaks 45 miljoni dollari suuruse investeerimiskava, mis sisaldas 12 000 m2 suurust tehast. 12. märtsil 1962 valmistati esimene Chevrolet 400 Põhja -Ameerika Chevy II baasil. Esialgses plaanis arvestati riikliku integratsiooniga 50% esimesel tootmisaastal, see summa peab olema 1964. aastal 90% ja toodang 15 000 ühikut. 1969. aastaks esitatakse Chevy liin, mis pärineb Ameerika Chevy Novast.

Seitsmekümnendate keskel vähendati General Motorsi turuosa järsult, 9% -lt 1976. aastal 2% -le 1978. aastal. Kahjum ületas 30 miljonit dollarit ja USA peakontor otsustab tootmistegevuse Argentinas peatada.

Chevrolet kaubamärk ilmub uuesti 1985. aastal pikapi tootmiseks selle versioonides C-20 ja D-20. 1995. aastal realiseeriti spetsiaalselt Brasiiliasse ja teistesse Mercosuri riikidesse ekspordiks mõeldud tootmise plaan, ehitades uue tehase Rosario lähedale Santa Fe'sse Opelil põhineva Chevrolet Corsa ja Suzukil põhineva Chevrolet Grand Vitara 4x4 tootmiseks. .

Mehhiko

Mehhikos müüakse mõnda neist Opeli päritolu Chevrolet mudelitest koos USA mudelitega. Näide on Vectra kohta. Kui Brasiilia Vectra põhineb Opeli praegusel Astra Sedaanil, siis Mehhiko Vectra on tegelikult praegune Euroopas müüdav Opel Vectra. Mehhikos on ka mõned oma autod, näiteks Chevy C2, mis on ümbertöödeldud viimase põlvkonna Corsa, Sonora (mis on ümbermärgiga Tahoe) ja Cheyenne (mis sarnaneb Silveradoga, kuid on sama erinev) nagu Sonora on äärelinnas). Chevrolet Optrat, mille GM Daewoo on Lõuna -Koreas kokku pannud, müüakse ka Mehhikos.

Euroopa

Chevrolet Europe on Šveitsis asuv ettevõte (Zürichis), mis müüb GM Daewoo ümberbränditud tooteid.

Kuni 2005. aastani müüs Chevrolet Europe mõningaid mudeleid, peamiselt Ameerika Ühendriikide siseturu (USDM) mudeleid, mis olid kohandatud vastavalt Euroopa eeskirjadele. Nende hulgas olid Chevrolet Alero (mis oli uuenenud Oldsmobile Alero) ja Chevrolet Trans Sport (mis oli Chevrolet Venture koos Pontiac Trans Sport esiosaga). Teiste Chevrolet Europe müüdud mudelite hulgas olid Camaro, Beretta, Corvette, Blazer ja TrailBlazer. Viimase aasta Euroopas on saadaval ka praeguse põlvkonna Põhja-Ameerikas toodetud sedaanid Chevrolet Impala V-8, mida turustatakse nii suurte perede sedaanidena kui ka ökonoomsema hinnaga alternatiividena Jaguaridele ja BMWdele kui suure jõudlusega juhiautodele.

2005. aastal nimetati kõik GM Daewoo peamised mudelid Euroopas ümber Chevrolet'iks (endise Daewoo sarja maasturite mudelite omandiõigus oli selleks ajaks Ssangyongi omandisse tagasi jõudnud). Kuid Daewoo nimi säilitati Lõuna -Koreas ja Vietnamis. Mujal maailmas on enamik Daewoo mudeleid Chevrolet ’märki kandnud alates 2003. aastast. Eranditeks on Suzuki märgi kasutamine Ameerika Ühendriikides ja Kanadas, Pontiaci märk Kanadas, Holdeni märk Austraalias ja Uus -Meremaal ning Buicki märk Hiinas teatud GM Daewoo mudelitele.

Corvette'i turustatakse Euroopas eraldi turustuskanali kaudu, mida haldab Hollandis asuv Kroymans Corporation Group. Kuna Chevrolet kaubamärk esindab nüüd Euroopas väärtushinnangutega autosid, tehti Corvette nimest Euroopa ja Jaapani jaoks eraldi märk.

Tais ja Lähis -Idas ning Lõuna -Aafrikas on Holden Commodore Chevrolet Lumina märgiga. Pikemat teljevahe Holden Statesman müüakse Lähis -Idas Chevrolet Caprice nime all.

Lähis-Ida

Lähis-Idas hangitakse Chevrolet ’märgiga autosid, veoautosid, maastureid ja ristmikke GM Daewoolt (Lõuna-Korea), Põhja-Ameerikast GM ja Austraaliast GM Holdenilt. Lähis-Ida turul on eraldi osakond nimega Chevrolet Special Vehicles (CSV), mis (2007. aasta detsembri seisuga) hangib Holdeni erisõidukite suure jõudlusega 400 hj (300 kW) CR8 sedaani.

Pakistan

Pakistanis tutvustas Chevrolet oma autosid koostöös kohaliku autotootjaga nimega Nexus Automotive. Praegused saadaolevad mudelid on Chevrolet Optra ja Chevrolet Joy. 2005. aasta detsembri seisuga pannakse Chevrolet Joy kokku Pakistanis. 2008. aastaks avas Chevrolet oma veebisaidi ning lisas Chevrolet Aveo ja Chevrolet Colorado.

India

Chevrolet on üks India uusimaid kaubamärke, mille on käivitanud GM India tegevus. Kuni 6. juunini 2003 (Chevrolet ametlik sünnipäev) müüs GM India (mis oli algselt ühisettevõte Hindustan Motorsiga) Opel Corsa, Opel Astra ja Opel Vectra. Corsa ja Astra ehitati Gujarati Haloli tehases.

Sellest ajast alates müüb Chevrolet praegu Chevrolet Optra, Chevrolet Aveo, Chevrolet Tavera, Chevrolet SRV, Chevrolet Spark ja Chevrolet Aveo U-VA. Chevrolet Forester, uuesti hinnatud Subaru, imporditi Jaapanist otse Fuji Heavy Industriesist kuni 2005. aastani. Optra ja Tavera on ehitatud Haloli tehases. Viimane Indias turule toodud Chevrolet on Chevrolet Captiva maastur, uuenenud Holden Capitva.

Chevrolet on ka ainuke üheistmelise seeria Formula Rolon mootori tarnija Indias.

Tai

Ameerikas toodetud Chevrolet Colorado pikapi toodetakse ka Tais Rayongis.

General Motors uurib praegu oma ümberkorralduskava raames kulude kärpimise võimalusi. Üks neist valikutest hõlmab Tai Rayongi tehase laiendamist, et lisada täiendavat võimsust Colorado USA -sse eksportimiseks. See võimaldaks sulgeda Louisiana osariigi Shreveporti tehase (kus toodetakse ka Coloradot). See stsenaarium on usutav ainult siis, kui USA ja Tai vahel sõlmitakse vabakaubandusleping, kuna Ameerika Ühendriikide tollitariif imporditud pikapidele väljastpoolt vabakaubanduspiirkonda on praegu 25%. Ühendatud autotöötajad on tariifistruktuuri muutmise kõige valjem vastane.

Jaapan

2000. aastate keskel importis ja turustas Suzuki Jaapanis TrailBlazerit ja Chevrolet Optra universaali. General Motors Asia Pacific (Jaapan) turustab ja turustab praegu Chevrolet TrailBlazerit väga piiratud koguses. GM -partner Suzuki komplekteerib ja turustab ka Chevrolet Cruze alamkompakti ja Chevrolet MW kei -autot. MW oli algselt uuendatud Suzuki Wagon R. Alates 2008. aastast on see uuenenud Suzuki Solio. Praegu turustab ja turustab Mitsui G-Van ja Chevrolet Trailblazer Chevrolet Tahoe, Chevrolet Express, Chevrolet HHR ja Starcraft versioone. General Motors Japan impordib ja turustab otse Corvette'i, mida turustatakse oma kaubamärgi all. Seega on Chevroleti kaubamärgiga sõidukite jaoks kolm erinevat turustuskanalit ja Corvette kaubamärgiga autode jaoks eraldi võrk.

Lõuna-Korea

Chevrolet ’kaubamärgiga sõidukeid Lõuna-Koreas ei müüda. Paljud maailmaturu Chevrolet sõidukid on aga pärit Lõuna-Korea GM Daewoost.

Lõuna-Aafrika

Lõuna -Aafrikas oli Chevrolet GM peamine kaubamärk kuni 1982. aastani, Chevy nime all ehitati 1964. aastast mitmeid Vauxhall Motorsi ja Holdeni tuletisinstrumente. 1970. aastatel ilmus reklaammäng "braaivleis, ragbi, päikeseline taevas ja Chevrolet" (kohandatud from the US "Baseball, Hot Dogs, Apple Pies and Chevrolet") came to epitomise the ideal lifestyle of white male South Africans. Holden in Australia used the jingle "Football, Meat Pies, Kangaroos and Holden cars". Originally, Chevrolets were CKD kits of US models assembled in their plant in Port Elizabeth. However, since South Africa was right-hand drive and the US was left-hand drive, along with encouragement by the South African government to use local content, Chevrolets such as the Biscayne were eventually made entirely in South Africa, along with GM's "own car for South Africa": the Ranger.

By the 1970s, larger South African Chevrolets were based on Holden models, the Kommando being based on the Kingswood and the Constantia on the Premier, while the smaller Firenza was based on the Vauxhall Viva. The Chevrolet Nomad sold in South Africa was entirely different from the Nomad sold in America whereas the American Nomad was originally conceived as a station wagon version of the Corvette and eventually became the station wagon version of the Bel Air, the South African Nomad was an SUV of truck proportions before SUVs were popular.

However, these were replaced by Opel models like the Rekord, Commodore, and Senator, and in 1982 the Chevrolet brand name was dropped in favour of Opel. Because of the political climate at the time, GM decided to divest from South Africa in 1986, and a local group eventually bought out GM's South African operations (including the Port Elizabeth plant) and renamed the company as the Delta Motor Corporation, which concentrated on Opels, Isuzus, and Suzukis, built under licence.

However, thanks to an improved political climate in the 1990s, GM decided to reenter South Africa, eventually buying out the whole of Delta. In 2001, the Chevrolet name made a comeback, used on the Lumina, a rebadged Holden Commodore, and later on, on the Daewoo range of cars. Current Chevrolets include the Spark (a rebadged Daewoo Matiz), Aveo, Optra, the Lumina (including the Ute model), and the Vivant, an MPV that is a rebadged version of the Daewoo Tacuma.

Venemaa

In Russia, various Chevrolet models are available. Current Chevrolets include the Spark, Aveo, Lanos, Lacetti, Rezzo, Epica, Captiva, TrailBlazer, and Tahoe. All of these models (with the exception of the TrailBlazer and Tahoe) are rebadged Daewoo models.

The Chevrolet brand is currently undergoing a product restructuring in North America along with all other GM brands in order to fit into the parent company's turnaround efforts. Since the 2007 hiatus of the Monte Carlo, there is an unknown status as of January 2009. In early 2009 Chevrolet will bring back the Chevrolet Camaro muscle car for the 2010 model year. At the 2009 Detroit Auto Show, the production version of the Chevrolet Beat was displayed under the nameplate of Spark Chevrolet announced that the Spark along with the Chevrolet Orlando would go into production in the US. Orlando is most likely to replace the HHR. In 2010 Chevrolet will introduce two more models: the plug-in electric Chevrolet Volt and the Chevrolet Cruze which will be the successor to the Cobalt.

In 2007, Chevrolet launched its first watch collection under the Louis Chevrolet watch brand. The watch collection pays tribute to Louis Chevrolet, co-founder of the brand, who was born in a family of a watchmaker and in his childhood helped his father at the workbench. The collection was called Frontenac, the name inherited from the race car company founded by Louis Chevrolet. The Chevrolet watch collection comprises automatic, manually-wound and quartz models, equipped with ETA and Ronda movements.

The Louis Chevrolet Frontenac watches, manufactured in Courgenay, the Swiss Jura region, feature the styling cues suggested by the Chevrolet cars. The collection was developed while applying the same materials as used in the car industry. Pearled appliques on the Chevrolet watches' dials remind the metal forms of the old dashboards. The number '8,' Chevrolet's racing number, is sported on the case back.

Chevrolet globally has had their marketing campaigns, songs, taglines, and slogans, these include,


GM buys Chevrolet - HISTORY

The Chevrolet
From 1916 to 1934



_____________________________

The life and times of the
Chevrolet logo

A Brief History of the Chevrolet

The Chevrolet began it's life in 1911 when a race car driver and automotive engineer Louis Chevrolet cofounded the Chevrolet Motor Car Company with William C. Durant and investors William Little and Dr. Edwin R. Campbell.
The design for the first Chevy, the Series C Classic Six was drawn up by Etienne Planche and was ready for production long before Chevrolet was actually incorporated.
This design was made by M. Etienne Planche on 15 March 1911 at a garage premises at number 707, later 3939 Grand River Avenue, Detroit. It appears that the small second story space above the garage was used for new engine design and construction only. Prototypes of the Chevrolet were produced in what would today be called a "pilot plant" in the 1145, West Grand Boulevard Plant that was used between August 1911 and August 1913.
By November 3, 1911 The Chevrolet Motor Car Company entered the turbulent automobile market.
Durant envisioned his new company as an inexpensive competitor to the Ford Model T.
He chose to name the company after its designer, Louis Chevrolet, because he liked the sound of the name and because Chevrolet was a prominent name in motor sports.
The Chevrolet family was poor and Louis was given only a basic education before he left home. He was not capable to be a designer/drawer, but got a great deal of technical experience, first in the wine and bicycle business in Europe, and then with several car dealers in New York after arrival in 1900. After joining the racing car business, chasing Barney Oldfield and others with success he was engaged by Durant first to the Buick racing team No. 1 with his brother, and later as a consultant adviser for the new car Durant had in mind.
Finally in 1934, GM put Louis Chevrolet on their payroll as a mechanic in one of the factories. Illness forced him to retire in 1938.
However the Louis' car: The Classic Six was far too expensive (USD 2100,-) to compete with the T-Ford, so Durant had to skip the big, expensive car and go for small, simple ones as the Little Four. As before, Louis disagreed. He "lost" his name to the car, but left with $10,000 and 100 shares in the Chevrolet Motor Car Company, and started working with another racing enthusiast, Albert Champion, on his racing career again.

The production of Chevrolet type C Six was so delayed that it became a 1913 model. From April 1912 until end of the year the Little Motor Company (owned by Chevrolet Motor Co.) produced 2999 Little Four's. All had "Little" as the emblem on the radiator (not Chevrolet). Regrettably there is still the published misnomer that Chevrolet built 2999 Classic Sixes as 1912 models as its first year of production. The first Chevrolet Six was ready for the dealers 2nd Jan. 1913, and was delivered to the first consumer 13th March. During July and August of 1914, all the remaining parts were used up and the Type C Classic production ended at Flint. Advertisements in August 1913 announced that the Little cars were now to be called "Chevrolets". Its 299 cubic inch, 6 cylinder engine could reach a top speed of 65 miles per hour.
The Chevrolet Bow Tie has been one of the World's most recognized trademarks since 1913, when William C. Durant first introduced the symbol that represents Chevrolet's winning success! The Bow Tie was used on the renamed Little cars for the 1914 season (late 1913).
A story in Chevrolet Pro Management Magazine, October 1986, which was copied in the May 1987 G&D, told that W.C. Durant did not copy the design from the wallpaper in a French hotel room, and that according to Mrs. Durant, the bow tie emblem was first seen by her husband in an illustrated Virginia newspaper, while they were vacationing in Hot Springs, Virginia around 1912. Mrs. Durant was quoted as recalling, "We were in a suite reading the papers, and he saw this design and said, 'I think this would be a very good emblem for the Chevrolet' " She did not explain how the newspaper used the emblem.
Chevrolet first used the Bowtie emblem in 1913. It is said to have been designed from wallpaper Durant once saw in a French hotel but there are several other versions of how the bow tie came about.
The success of the 490 sales in 1915 gave Chevrolet a flying start in the low price market. The 490 sold at that time for $490. However, the 490 was already too under priced when introduced, as all margins had been as low as possible from start. Ford fought back by reducing his price (several times) and Durant had to increase the price for his 490's after some few months. He could not challenge the continuously cheaper T-Ford mass production, so Durant used a different method of competing. he added sought after features like electric lights and starter etc. and he introduced the closed bodies to capture some of the low price market. This method worked.
Ford was far ahead with much higher volume, but Durant made much higher profits on each car, which was one of the reasons that he was able to regain the ownership in GM in 1916.
Chevrolet continued to improve their cars and add options that the public wanted. Chevrolet offered the first radio option in 1924.
Chevrolet sold it's first truck in 1918 and in that year joined GM Corporation.
GM nearly went out of business in 1920, when up to 100,000 cars of the "490" were stored at the
factories, unsold for some time.

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I would like to invite any one that has a favorite Chevrolet picture or a Web Page that they would like added to this page to E mail me a copy.


Chevy Engine History - The History Of Chevrolet, Part X

Editor's note - Heading into the new century, we felt compelled to take a look back at what will undoubtedly be one of the 20th century's biggest contributions to daily life-the automobile. Of course, Super Chevy looks at the history of the automobile through the eyes of the Chevrolet enthusiast. The following is the tenth in a series that will run throughout the year 2000 and cover the highlights of Chevrolet-from the creation of a company at a time when 270 other companies were vying for buyers of new automobiles, to the present day, when the competition is limited to just a handful of serious automobile makers. Much of the information is taken straight from Chevrolet sources, and some will be from the pages of this magazine's more than 25 years as "The # 1 Chevrolet Enthusiast's Magazine."

Chevy Engines Through Time
When Chevrolet began building vehicles, they were powered by a 299ci, six-cylinder engine. These automobiles could reach a top speed of 65 mph "without taxing themselves," and accelerated from zero to 50 in an "astounding" 15 seconds. By today's standards this isn't too impressive, but at the time Chevrolet was one of the fastest vehicles on the road.

In the early years, there was a great deal of research and development dedicated to coming up with a powerful engine that could be produced for a reasonable price. Chevy's first V-8 engine was released in 1917. The 90-degree overhead-valve design debuted in the D-series, the last of the original long-wheelbase cars. The eight-cylinder lasted only two years, as Chevrolet dropped these "large" powerplants to develop four-cylinder versions. It would be 1929 before a six-cylinder reappeared, and a V-8 wouldn't be available again until the introduction of the legendary small-block in 1955, 36 years later.

New engine technology-including "copper-cooled" models-was explored during Chevy's first decade. These were superior vehicles with air-cooled engines instead of the traditional liquid-cooled models. The engine was the smallest in Chevrolet history a diminutive 135 cubic inches with a miniscule 20 horsepower. The experiment was brief the engine was plagued with production problems and was scrapped after only 759 units were built-yet it was a bold move by a growing automaker willing to take chances in an oft-skeptical market. Another attempt at air-cooling would take place 37 years later with the '60 Corvair.

By 1925, Chevrolet was considering the use of six-cylinders again. Having just designed a small six for the Oakland division, Chevrolet realized it would have to maintain the corporate advertising image, "Valve-in-Head, Ahead in Value." The valve-in-head "Stovebolt Six" resulted: 3.2 liters big and 46 horsepower strong.

At first, the industry looked upon this six with doubt. Manufacturers were heading toward using aluminum to save weight, but Chevrolet made the decision to persevere with iron. The engine was derided as the "Cast-Iron Wonder," and the "Stovebolt Six" moniker was originally meant to mock the engine. But it gained respect for its durability and easy-to-service features in both cars and trucks. Advertised as, "A Six for the Price of a Four" in 1929 models, the "Stovebolt Six" was better, more powerful, and in the same price range as the previous year's four-cylinder.

A "power war" was developing between the major auto companies during the mid-'30s: Ford's V-8 versus the six-cylinder engines from Chevrolet and Chrysler. To battle Ford's horsepower and top speed claims, Chevrolet introduced a new high-compression design, the "Blue Flame" Six, in 1934. It generated 15 more horsepower than previous sixes without increasing engine displacement. Chevrolet promoted the achievement by advertising "80 horsepower at 80 miles per hour," the only time in Chevy history that top speed was advertised.

Ford was pumping the market with V-8 engines during this time, and Chevy developed a new four-main-bearing six for its 1937 cars and trucks. The Chevy engine produced as much horsepower as the Ford, but with better economy (estimated 15 to 18 mpg).

In 1950, Chevy introduced a more powerful "Blue Flame" Six (with 235 cubic inches), and 300,000 Chevrolet cars equipped with "Powerglide" models were sold the first year. a record production year in which a whopping 2,108,273 Chevrolets were built!

As most Chevy enthusiasts know, the '55 Chevy made a huge impact on the automotive market when it showed up, and much of that impact came from the all-new 265-inch V-8 engine under the hood. An engineering milestone, the small-block almost instantly changed the poky image that Chevrolet had earned with its Stovebolt six. The new V-8 was peppy, smooth, tough, compact, and, unlike competitors' V-8 powerplants, it was light. The mouse motor, as it became known as, made big strides in its first few years, jumping from a 180 hp top offering in '55 to 225 available ponies the next year. Optional fuel injection in '57 helped a bigger, 283-inch small-block hit the magical, one-horsepower-per-cubic-inch mark. This made screamers out of both fullsize Chevys and Corvettes, and it certainly caught the attention of hot rodders, who soon started swapping small-blocks into just about every kind of car imaginable.

Chevrolet offered an all-new engine for 1958-the W-block 348 (which would eventually grow into the famed 409). Paired with the year-old Turboglide transmission, the 348 looked good on paper especially the 315hp version equipped with three two-barrel carbs. But most 348s could still be regularly outrun by the lighter, high-winding 283s. It would take a few more cubic inches before these early "big-blocks" would earn more performance respect.

The '59s were most notable under the hood, where an optional V-8 engine produced up to 315 bhp. This "burner" thrived during the "more power" competition between the manufacturers.

The SS Impala and its optional 409-cid V-8 quickly proved itself on the performance circuit. One of the first cars equipped with this new powerhouse blew away the competition at the 1961 Winternationals Drag Racing Championships, held in Pomona, California. In fact, the 409, coupled with a four-speed transmission and some handling extras, placed the Impala SS among the world's fastest automobiles at the time. For 1962, the SS package could be combined with an even gutsier, dual-quad, 409-horse 409.

An innovative departure from the crowd was introduced on the Corvair. An air-cooled, rear-mounted six-cylinder "pancake" engine powered the car (the first air-cooled Chevy since the mostly experimental 1923 copper-cooled model). Another compact car was the Monza Spyder a 150-horse, turbocharged "mover" that could outrun any Ford Falcon or Plymouth Valiant of the day.

Throughout the '60s the inline six remained popular, but it was the small-block V-8s that really came into their own. Fuel-injected 327s making up to 360 hp were highlights of the next generation of Corvettes, the Sting Rays. Carbureted 327s found their way into the '65-67 Nova SSs. The '66 Nova SS, when equipped with the available 350hp (L79) version of the 327 "Turbo-Fire" V-8, was one of the hottest performers in the compact class. In 1967, the most popular configuration of the small-block V-8, the 350, made its debut. It found a welcome home in the newly introduced Camaro.

Of course, a new generation of big-block V-8s made a big impact in the '60s as well. The 396 made its debut in 1965, and was a standout performer in Corvette trim, pumping out 425 hp. A 375-horse version made it into a select few '65 Chevelles (Z-16s), and by '66 the SS396 package was a big seller in the Chevelle line. A larger, 427-inch big-block added more heat to the 'Vette that year, paving the way for the legendary L88 the following few years. The big-block eventually grew to 454 cubic inches, and by 1970 cranked out 450 hp in LS6 trim.

For 1971, ratings would be displayed as "net" horsepower, rather than the brawny "bhp," or brake horsepower ratings that had been performance benchmarks. The plummeting numbers began to reflect the awakening of energy conservation an awareness that would increase dramatically in this new decade. In addition, the 1973 oil embargo caused gas prices to double within two years. Suddenly, fuel economy was important. very important. Fuel concerns led to smaller, more efficient cars.

Though the big-motored behemoths were gone from the dealerships, performance was still on the minds of more than just a few buyers. The second-generation Chevrolet subcompact-Monza-evolved in 1975 as a sporty offshoot of the Vega platform. A front-engine, rear-drive hatchback, Monza provided smaller engines for the energy-conscious, yet offered optional V-8 power for those still wanting punch under the hood. In fact, its 262-cid V-8 was the smallest eight-cylinder in Chevrolet history.

The Chevy Sprint, a unique three-cylinder minicar, was introduced on the West Coast in 1984, and was the smallest car to ever wear a Bow-Tie. Imported from Suzuki Motor in Japan, Sprint economy was so outstanding that it became the fuel-miser champ in 1986 when the "ER" arrived-EPA-rated at of 55 mpg city and 60 mpg highway. (There was even a sporty limited production turbo version, a founding member of the now-burgeoning sport compact car craze.)

Chevrolet introduced the special Corvette ZR-1 in 1990. Designed in a cooperative effort between General Motors and Lotus, the LT5 V-8 engine sported four cams and 32 valves, producing 375 horsepower. 1993 marked a number of upgrades and improvements. The outstanding Corvette ZR-1 received a refined LT5 engine, cranking out an unbelievable 405 horsepower.

Trucks weren't ignored throughout Chevy's history, either. On a much less obvious basis, many half- and three-quarter ton pickups over the years were ordered with a stout big-block beneath the hood. One hauler was even promoted as a performance version, and was called the 454 SS. Under the hood of the 454 "SS" was a 454-cid Mark V big-block V-8, hence the name (despite the fact that the power levels didn't live up to its moniker, it still made the competition nervous, and it could definitely haul things to the dump).

The Ever-Popular Small-Block
When you think of the best engines of all time ,there's one that definitely stands out-the 1955 Chevy small-block. While that engine has unquestionably set the standard by which all engines since have been judged, it's not the only milestone in Chevrolet's history. Many of the various powerplants that have provided motivation for Chevy's cars and trucks throughout time were innovative works of art in their own right, but none ever came close to having the same effect on our hobby as the little mouse motor has.

Fortunately, Chevy hasn't rested on its laurels. Today an array of impressive powerplants are available (though most of the really exciting ones-sans the LS1-can only be had through the GM Performance Parts division and not on the cars found on the dealer's showroom floor).

Today's vehicles are primarily designed to simply get people from one place to the next without much emphasis placed on performance. Corvette and Camaro are the only holdouts from the high-performance arena. Both of Chevy's sports cars currently offer the impressive LS1 engine and a performance package at a price that's nothing short of phenomenal. Sadly, sales of these two vehicles (the F-body's are dismal and the 'Vette only accounts for a small percentage of Chevy's overall revenue) has left them without many supporters in GM's corporate structure. Furthermore, the Camaro is said to go on hiatus following the 2002 model year for an undisclosed period and there are no guarantees on what type of ride, if any at all, will emerge from the other end of that dark tunnel.

One Horsepower Per Square Inch
For a long time, one horsepower per cubic inch (of displacement) was the unobtainable goal. A milestone to be pondered: "Wouldn't it be cool to get a horse per inch?" Today, reaching that level is a fairly simple task (although few production cars make it there). With simple bolt-ons from the performance aftermarket, enthusiasts can achieve well in excess of one horse per cubic inch. Super Chevy magazine has built engines that churn out horsepower three times the displacement numbers.

Chevrolet first hit the one-horsepower-per-cubic-inch level in 1957. The 283 small-block was fitted with Rochester mechanical fuel injection (called "Ramjet injection") and churned out an impressive 283 ponies (a number that grew to 290 the following year). Unfortunately, though, Chrysler beat Chevy to the punch by making a whopping 355 horsepower with its 354 cubic-inch Hemi a year before.

Many of the higher-horsepower engines were actually power packages added to the base engine. Engineers knew that the standard-equipment engines benefited greatly from a little better breathing. The answer was to offer special packages that featured bigger carburetors (or multiple carbs, or fuel injection). The dual-quad carburetor setup (also immortalized in the Beach Boys song "409") was part of a power package designed to beat the competition in the horsepower game. At one time there were 158 different versions of the small-block being produced by Chevrolet-that's a lot of different ways to get power.


By the end of 1919, General Motors became only the second company in America to be capitalized at $1 billion.

Alfred P. Sloan Jr., a slim and serious man, took over General Motors as president in 1923 and dominated the company for the next 30 years. Mr. Sloan saw his immediate task clearly: a battle with Ford, the other great automaker at the time, for the “low-price, high-volume” automobile market. The Fisher deal made it possible for GM to compete with closed-body vehicles, which were, as he put it, “by far the largest single leap forward in the history of the automobile since the basic car had been made mechanically available.”

Mr. Sloan understood the future. Closed-body cars made a new driving experience possible, quite different from the open-air thrill that Henry Ford pioneered. With a hard roof, year-round travel was possible. Drivers could go on longer journeys (especially as roads improved). Closed-body cars also offered more anonymity, a potential boon for the small but rising number of African-American drivers. Suddenly, everyone wanted to be on the road.

But closed-body cars sold at high prices. After inking the deal with Fisher, GM was able to work its way toward selling closed two-door Chevrolets at prices that were within striking distance of Ford’s Model T. “The rise of the closed body made it impossible for Mr. Ford to maintain his leading position in the low price field, for he had frozen his policy in the Model T, and the Model T was pre-eminently an open car design,” Mr. Sloan wrote. “The old master had failed to master change,” he added. “Don’t ask me why.”

The company did more than just sell cars it revolutionized consumer behavior. In 1919, it created the General Motors Acceptance Corporation so that customers could buy cars on credit. This vastly expanded the market for mass production, and beyond the auto industry, it transformed the way that expensive items are bought and sold. It also used planned obsolescence: Vehicles debuted as new annual models. GM thrived by betting on the diversity of consumer preference. It was the first to offer cars in colors other than black and invested heavily in design. Its cars have become ingrained in American culture, from the 1957 Chevrolet Bel Air to the 1977 Pontiac Trans Am. Car buffs exult at the tail fins of an Eldorado or the split windows of a Corvette Stingray as if they were sculpted by Michelangelo.

Although GM profits certainly enriched stockholders, they also fueled the rise of the middle class. That included the company’s huge labor pool, particularly after a sit-down strike in 1936-37 won the United Auto Workers the right to bargain collectively. Later, GM pioneered an employee benefit plan, akin to a 401(k), to entice the workers that it desperately needed. That, plus no-interest loans on the homes the company built, spurred a migration of new workers from around the world. America would never be the same.

General Motors and its army of workers transformed scores of American cities, including Detroit and Flint Janesville, Wisc. Lordstown, Ohio Trenton, N.J. Indianapolis and many other places that were built around their GM and Fisher plants — physically, politically and culturally. Like a photo negative, recent plant closures and cuts reveal how urban history is interlaced with General Motors history. Even in cities like Flint, where it has been in retreat for decades, GM’s shadow still looms: Mammoth vacant lots where auto plants once stood have required decades of work to repurpose, thanks in part to extensive soil contamination. At the same time, the patronage of yesteryear is visible in institutions like the Flint Institute of Arts, the Flint Symphony and Kettering University, the cooperative college formerly known as the General Motors Institute, founded in 1919.

But if GM was ahead of its time in some ways, it reflected it in others, especially around race. Its neighborhoods for working families were for whites only. Home prices kept out African-Americans, who were relegated to GM’s lowest-paying jobs. Insultingly, the same deed restrictions that prohibited livestock, liquor sales and outhouses in these sparkling new subdivisions also stipulated that they could not be occupied by anyone who was not “wholly of the white or Caucasian race.” In an ad from the 1920s, the exclusive realtor of GM homes assured buyers that “no shacks, huts, or foreign communities will be allowed.”

GM was far from alone in pushing a lily-white vision of the country’s future . And in putting its muscle behind segregation, it helped create patterns of inequality that remain with us today. This was exacerbated by the highways built through black neighborhoods to subsidize the new motoring class of suburban drivers. Disinvestment has consequences. It is not a coincidence that safe, affordable drinking water has been difficult to get in Flint, still recovering from a water crisis, or in Detroit, plagued by shut-offs.


16 Bad: 2008 Chevy Silverado

The 2008 Chevy Silverado had the potential to be a very solid pickup truck, but it really had far too many issues at the end of the day. This is largely because of the apparent fact that Chevy really did not look over the clear malfunctions of this truck before it was released. The 2008 Chevy Silverado is widely considered to be one of the worst trucks of the late 2000s and it definitely is not worth investing in at this present time. The Silverado is a prized series of pickups that have given us some truly wonderful trucks, but this one was a complete lemon.


Chip woes: GM to keep Fairfax plant down into July

Detroit — General Motors Co. updated its semiconductor plant impacts Friday, saying it will keep one plant down through the first week of July as the company continues to battle the chip supply shortage.

The Detroit automaker confirmed that Fairfax Assembly in Kansas, where the Cadillac XT4 and Chevrolet Malibu are built, which has been down since Feb. 8, will remain down through at least the week of July 5.

General Motors employees work on the assembly line Friday, April 26, 2019 at Fairfax Assembly & Stamping Plant in Kansas City, Kansas. The Fairfax facility produces the Cadillac XT4. (Photo: Jim Barcus for General Motors, File)

The CAMI Assembly plant in Ingersoll, Ontario, where the Chevrolet Equinox is built, will remain down through June 28. It has also been down since the week of Feb. 8.

Additionally, GM's Lansing Grand River Assembly, where the Chevrolet Camaro and Cadillac CT4 and CT5 are built, will take downtime beginning the week of May 10 and through the week of June 28. The plant will still have pre-production volume of the 2022 model year Cadillac Black Wing in June.

The San Luis Potosi Assembly plant in Mexico, where the Chevrolet Equinox and GMC Terrain are built, will take downtime the weeks of May 17 and May 24. GM's Ramos Assembly plant in Mexico, where the Chevrolet Blazer and Equinox are built, will take downtime beginning the week of May 3 and through the week of May 24.

GM also noted that its midsize truck and commercial van plant, Wentzville Assembly in Missouri, has temporarily moved from three production shifts to two shifts. But the plant will continue running Chevrolet Colorado and GMC Canyon mid-size pickups full volume until the scheduled launch changeover in late May.

This began the week of April 26 and will last until the plant goes down for its scheduled launch changeover the week of May 24.


Daewoo's Epic Flop Wasn't the End for Its Cars

Remember Daewoo? The third South Korean automaker snuck quietly onto the American scene in 1998, with three models and a sales plan that involved college students hawking the cars, Avon-style, to their friends. So what ever happened to Daewoo? The dealers disappeared in 2002, but their cars are still very much of a presence here in the U.S. Here's what happened, and why.

The New Daewoos Are in Early This Year

Daewoo certainly got an auspicious start. While Hyundai and Kia both started with a single model (the Excel and Sportage, respectively), Daewoo started with a comprehensive lineup of three. The entry-level Lanos was available as both a two-door hatch or a four-door sedan, powered by a 105-hp 1.6-liter engine. With power steering, antilock brakes, power windows and power locks as standard, it was a good buy for $8,900. The compact Nubira came as a sedan, wagon and a short-lived, bizarre-looking hatchback, Like the Lanos it was quite lavishly equipped for its $12,000 price. Power came from 129-hp, 2.0-liter engine available with a stick or a four-speed automatic.

Top of the lineup was the Giugiaro-penned Leganza, its name a portmanteau of the Italian words elegante (elegant) and forza (power), neither of which really applied to the car. But it was brisk enough with its 131-hp, 2.2-liter engine. Four-wheel discs, a stick shift, A/C and a 100-watt premium stereo were standard, and a full leather interior was optional, making it a viable Camry alternative at a rock-bottom $15,000 price.

Daewoo Gets Educated

All three were just-okay cars, a hodgepodge of mechanical parts from Holden and Opel, General Motors' Australian and European bureaus. (GM at the time had a stake in Daewoo, and the 1988-94 Pontiac LeMans was an Opel Kadett assembled in Korea by Daewoo.) But Daewoo had an innovative idea for selling them, using college student "campus advisers" who got a $300-$500 commission on each lead that turned into a sale. These advisors got a free trip to Seoul for training, use of a car for 90 days, and a 50 percent discount off the sticker price.

Sales were slow, though, and it shouldn't come as a big surprise that more than half of the cars sold in those first few months were bought by the campus advisors themselves. The students later filed a class-action lawsuit against Daewoo not only did they have to pay sales tax on the full sticker price, but they were surprised to learn that the 50 percent discount was reported as income to the IRS.

Student uprisings aside, Daewoo didn't last long: Their U.S. foray corresponded with the 1997-98 Asian financial crisis. Daewoo Motors soon found itself in trouble, and in 1999 the car division was sold off to General Motors and reorganized as GM Daewoo and later GM Korea. Daewoo sales never took off in the States, and their American experiment was halted in 2002.

Daewoo's Absurd Afterlife: The Chevy/Suzuki Era

And what of the cars? Though Daewoo gave up on the U.S., the cars lived a lot longer than you might expect—even here in the States.

Production of the Lanos ceased in 2002, but GM continued to sell the car in knocked-down kit form to developing markets and third-world nations. As of 2020 you can still buy a Lanos in Egypt, though it's now labeled as a Chevrolet. Meanwhile, GM Daewoo's replacement for the Lanos, the Kalos, was available stateside as the thoroughly-awful Chevrolet Aveo.

The Nubura was redesigned after Daewoo's 2002 retreat as the Daewoo Lacetti, though that was just one of many monikers it wore. Fans of classic Top Gear will recognize the Lacetti as one of the show's Reasonably Priced Car stars. In 2004, the Lacetti came to Stateside Suzuki dealerships, where it as known as the Forenza in sedan and wagon form and the Reno as a (more conventional than the original) four-door hatchback.

The Leganza's return was a bit more bizarre: It too was refashioned as the Daewoo Magnus, and those ingenious Koreans managed to shoehorn a 2.5-liter inline six-cylinder engine sideways between the car's front wheels. Still playing up its Italian heritage, the car was brought to the States as the Suzuki Verona. A colleague who reviewed it told me it reminded him less of Verona, Italy, and more of Verona, New Jersey.

The Daewoos did well for Suzuki the brand topped 100,000 U.S. sales for the first time in 2006, and the Forenza, Reno, and Verona must have played some part in that, no matter how small. But Suzuki sales fell off a cliff during the 2008 economic downturn. The cars disappeared, and so did the Suzuki brand.

The Daewoo Is Coming From Inside the House

But Daewoo is not gone from the U.S.—not by a long shot. GM Daewoo became GM Korea in 2011, and it plays a significant role in General Motors engineering, perhaps a bigger role than GM would like to let on to the gung-ho buy-American section of its buyer base.

Today, GM Korea handles the bulk of engineering for GM's smaller vehicles. The Chevrolet Spark and about-to-be-discontinued Sonic are GM Korea designs, as are the Buick Encore (and Encore GX), and Chevrolet's Trax and Trailblazer. Bolt EV? Yep, that's a Daewoo, too—in fact, GM has partnered with Korea-based LG Chem for the Ultim Cells battery system, which will power the upcoming GMC Hummer EV.

Incidentally, Daewoo built other types of vehicles as well, and those divisions has been scattered to the winds. The truck division was sold to Indian automaker Tata in 2004, and Tata-Daewoo is now the second-largest truck producer in South Korea. Daewoo's bus business was spun off into Zyle Daewoo Commercial Vehicle, and sells buses in Korea and several developing markets.

Still want a Daewoo? Travel to South Korea and you can find plenty. Or you could just buy a Chevrolet Trailblazer. Sorry, though—no 50 percent student discounts.


Autode kaubamärkide juhend

Here we list each major car brand and its parent corporation, including some retired brands whose products are still readily available as used cars.

Bränd: Parent Company

Acura: Honda Motor Company
Alfa Romeo: Stellantis
Audi: Volkswagen Group
BMW: BMW Group
Bentley: Volkswagen Group
Buick: General Motors
Cadillac: General Motors
Chevrolet: General Motors
Chrysler: Stellantis
Dodge: Stellantis
Fiat: Stellantis
Ford: Ford Motor Co.
GMC: General Motors
Genesis: Hyundai Motor Group
Honda: Honda Motor Co.
Hyundai: Hyundai Motor Group
Infiniti: Renault-Nissan-Mitsubishi Alliance
Jaguar: Tata Motors
Jeep: Stellantis
Kia: Hyundai Motor Group
Land Rover: Tata Motors
Lexus: Toyota Motor Corp.
Lincoln: Ford Motor Co.
Lotus: Zhejiang Geely Holding Group
Maserati: Stellantis
Mazda: Mazda Motor Corp.
Mercedes-Benz: Daimler AG
Mercury*: Ford Motor Co.
Mini: BMW Group
Mitsubishi: Renault-Nissan-Mitsubishi Alliance
Nikola: Nikola Motor Company, with a supply relationship with General Motors.
Nissan: Renault-Nissan-Mitsubishi Alliance
Polestar: Zhejiang Geely Holding Group
Pontiac*: General Motors
Porsche: Volkswagen Group
Ram: Stellantis
Rivian: Rivian Automotive, with investments from Amazon and Ford, among others.
Rolls-Royce: BMW Group
Saab: brand owned by Saab AB assets owned by National Electric Vehicle Sweden
Saturn*: General Motors
Scion*: Toyota Motor Corp.
Nutikas: Daimler AG
Subaru: Subaru Corp.
Suzuki*: Suzuki Motor Corp. Owns a small stake in Toyota.
Tesla: Tesla Inc.
Toyota: Toyota Motor Corp.
Volkswagen: Volkswagen AG.
Volvo: Zhejiang Geely Holding Group



Kommentaarid:

  1. Chayson

    Very useful idea

  2. Goltikasa

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  3. Dean

    Eksklusiivne idee))))

  4. Brydger

    Minu arvates teete vea. Teen ettepaneku seda arutada. Saada mulle e -kiri, me räägime.



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