Longhorn Veised

Longhorn Veised


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Hispaanlased tõid esimesed pikakarvalised veised Ameerikasse aastal 1493. Nende pikkade sarvede järeltulijad moodustasid esimese veiste populatsiooni Põhja -Ameerikas. Mõned neist pääsesid loodusesse. Esimesed Euroopa asukad Texases tõid endaga kaasa lehmad. Need lehmad segunesid Hispaania tõugudega juba Texases ja kasvasid peagi märkimisväärseteks karjadeks. Arvatakse, et Ameerika kodusõja lõpuks oli Texases umbes kuus miljonit pikasarvikut.

19. sajandi teisel poolel viisid kauboid Texasest pikad sarved Abilene'i, Dodge City, Wichita ja Newtoni raudteele. Veisteäri levis lõpuks Kansasesse, Wyomingi, Montanasse, New Mexico, Colorado ja Arizonasse.

Aastal 1867 korraldas Joseph McCoy veiste kolimise Abilene'ist Chicagos asuvasse Union Stockyards'i. Pikad sarved oma pikkade jalgade ja kõvade sõralistega olid ideaalsed rajaveised; nad võtsid isegi kaalus juurde teel turule.


Longhorn Cattle - ajalugu

Texas Longhorn loodi täielikult Põhja -Ameerikas. See pärineb esivanematelt, kes olid peaaegu 500 aastat tagasi esimesed veised, kes astusid sammud Ameerika pinnasele, ja sai sellest "tugevaimate ellujäämise" usaldusväärne lõpptoode. Loodusliku valiku ja keskkonnaga kohanemise tõttu kujundatud Texas Longhorn on ainus veisetõug Ameerikas, mis ilma inimese abita on Ameerikaga tõeliselt kohanenud. J. Frank Dobie nendib oma raamatus The Longhorns seda olukorda hästi: "Kui nad oleksid registreeritud ja reguleeritud, vaoshoitud ja inimese eest hoolitsetud, poleks nad olnud sellised, nagu nad olid."

Kodusõjale järgnenud pühvlite hävitamisega kiirustati Longhornsi, et hõivata Great Plains, suur pühvlite poolt vabanenud rohuimpeerium. Karjapoisid tõid oma aretuskarjad põhja poole, et joosta Nebraska lääneosa, Wyomingi, Dakotase ja Montana rikkalikele karjamaadele. Nii varustati Great Plains suures osas nende edelast pärit „veiskodanikega”. Ja Texas Longhorns kohanes oma laieneva maailmaga hästi. Nad olid jõudnud oma ajaloolisse õitseaega, domineerides Põhja -Ameerika veiseliha areenil, nagu ükski teine ​​veisetõug pole pärast seda teinud. Romantiline Longhorni ajastu lõppes aga siis, kui nende levila oli aiaga piiratud ja künni all ning veiseliha omaduste "parandamiseks" toodi sisse kiiresti valmivate omadustega importveised. Intensiivne ristamine oli aastaks 1900 peaaegu kustutanud tõelise tüüpilise Longhorni.


Foto viisakalt Dickinson Cattle Co. Inc. www.texaslonghorn.com
Õnneks säilitas Ameerika Ühendriikide valitsus alates 1927. aastast Texase Longhorni metsloomade varjupaikades Oklahomas ja Nebraskas. Samuti pidasid mõned edela karjapoisid, kes olid veendunud Longhorni kui geneetilise lüli väärtuses ja olid mures nende säilimise pärast, aastate jooksul väikseid karju. Texas Longhornit on edasi põlistanud 1964. aastal moodustatud Ameerika Texas Longhorn Breeders Association of America liikmed. Seega päästeti Texas Longhorn väljasuremisest. Tänapäeva veiselihatööstuse jaoks oli aga kahetsusväärne, et suurem osa jätkuvast huvist Texas Longhorni vastu oli selle ajalooliste ja akadeemiliste aspektide vastu. Longhorni geneetilised väljavaated ja majanduslik potentsiaal jäid paljude aastate jooksul peaaegu täielikult tähelepanuta.

Nüüd näib pikksarv edasi uut olulist rada pidi. Lahja, naturaalne liha, mis pakub rohkem toite kalorite kohta, on nõudlik ja pikaparv täidab arve. Need, kes on maitsnud longhorn veiseliha, hääldavad seda õrnalt ja maitselt.

Kuid muutused USA toiduahelas ei toimu üleöö. Veiseliha maitsmiseks on vaja iga päev 107 000 veist ja pikkade sarvede arv on vaid umbes 100 000. Ehkki läheb aega, enne kui saame supermarketites "longhorn lean" küsida, on väljavaated optimistlikud, et selle ainsad omadused aitavad tugevdada teisi tõugu ja seeläbi taaselustada tööstust.

Omadused

Kõigist veistest kõige silmapaistvamalt värvitud, varjud ja kombinatsioonid on nii erinevad, et pole kahte ühesugust, saavutavad nad maksimaalse kaalu kaheksa või kümne aastaga ja jäävad vahemikku 800–1500 naela. Kuigi nende küpsemine on aeglane, on nende paljunemisperiood kaks korda pikem kui teistel tõugudel. Enamikul pikakarvalistel lehmadel ja pullidel on sarved nelja jala või vähem. Küpsete härgade keskmine ulatus on aga kuus jalga või rohkem ja 15-aastase sarveulatus ulatub kuni üheksa jalga.

Ei lähe kaheksa kuni kümme aastat, kuni Texas Longhorns saavutab oma maksimaalse kaalu ja nad pole sugugi aeglased. Texas Longhorni mullikad on teadaolevalt rasestunud, kui nad veel oma ema imetavad, ja toodavad ilma vasikata elava vasika enne, kui nad on isegi 16 kuud vanad. See pole aeglane küpsus.


Foto viisakalt Dickinson Cattle Co. Inc. www.texaslonghorn.com
Pikad sarved on loomuliku vastupanuvõimega kõige tavalisemate veistehaiguste ja parasiitide suhtes, sealhulgas lehmaveiste halvima vaenlase, kruviussi vastu. Varsti pärast vasika sündi annavad löök -kärbsed munad nabasse ja lehma saba alla. Lehmad lakuvad ussid koheselt vasikalt ja endalt. Kui ussid nakatavad mõnda pikasarve kehaosa, kuhu see ei ulatu, seisab ta tundide kaupa sügavas vees, uputades need.

Texas Longhorn veised söövad laiemat valikut rohtu, taimi ja umbrohtu kui enamik teisi veiseid. Texas Longhorni omanikud saavad kasutada karjamaid, mis vajavad vähem väetist ja umbrohutõrjevahendeid kui teiste tõugude veised.

Texas Longhorn toodab väga lahjat veiseliha (rohkem liha vähem rasva untsi kohta). Suuremate ülikoolide uuringud on näidanud, et Texase Longhorni veiseliha kolesteroolisisaldus on oluliselt madalam kui teistel lihaveiste tõugudel. Texas Longhorn's, keda kasvatati murul ilma kemikaalide ja toidulisanditeta, on liha kolesteroolitase madalam kui nahata kanarind. Texas Longhorni omanik võib end hästi tunda, teades, et toodab tarbimiseks südametervislikku toodet. Nende liha on väga maitsev ja ilus erkpunane.

Texas Longhorn on Vana Lääne elav sümbol.

Statistika

  • Lahja liha - tõug toodab tänapäeval terviseteadlikele inimestele loomulikult vähem rasva ja madalamat kolesterooli.
  • Pikaealisus - Texas Longhornid arenevad hästi teismeeas. Rohkem elus vasikaid aastate jooksul tähendab rohkem dollareid.
  • Sirvimise kasutamine - vähem lisasööta on vaja, sest veised kasutavad olemasolevat sööta.
  • Haiguste/parasiitide resistentsus - sajandite jooksul välja kujunenud loomulik immuunsus tähendab vähem veterinaararsti arveid ja vähem hooldust tänapäeva lehmade jaoks.
  • Paljunemisvõime - suured vaagnaavad ja väike sünnikaal põhjustavad vasikaid. Hõivatud karjakasvatajad võivad unetute öödega hüvasti jätta.
  • Paindlikkus - Longhorn veised on intelligentsed, neid on lihtne töödelda ja käsitseda.
  • Kohanemisvõime - tõug õitseb kliimas kuumadest, niisketest rannikualadest kuni karmide Kanada talvedeni.
  • Hübriidne jõud - päritav kvaliteet parandab teie praegust tõugu ja annab teile uue geneetilise kogumi.
  • Ei ole kahte ühesugust Texas Longhorni. Kõik need erinevad värvimustri, suuruse, sarve pikkuse ja isiksuse poolest.
  • Traditsioon ja nostalgia - Texas Longhorn on Vana Lääne elav sümbol. Kõikjal, kus soovitakse läänepoolset mõju-eesmine karjamaa, veiste ajamine või turismimagnet-leiate selle suurepärase tõu järele nõudluse.
  • Sarved ja peidik - Texas Longhorn on raha väärt ka pärast seda, kui see on veiseliha tootjana oma aja ära elanud. Populaarseid dollareid makstakse sarvede, koljude ja aluste eest, mida kasutatakse ettevõtete ja kodude populaarses edelakujunduses.
  • Pure Pleasure - intelligentne ja hõlpsasti töötav Texas Hornhorn on kergesti koolitatud näiteringis näitamiseks, paraadidel juhtimiseks või sõitmiseks, vagunite vedamiseks ja jah, isegi sõitmiseks!

Levitamine

Texas Longhornid on muutumas üsna populaarseks ning neid levitatakse peamiselt Ameerikas ja Kanadas, kuigi osa Texas Longhorni ekspordist kasvab.

Viited (ülaltoodud teave on viidatud järgmistelt saitidelt)


Nad on tagasi! Texas Longhorn veiste ajalugu

Hispaania maadeavastajaid tunnustatakse esimeste pika sarvega veiste uude maailma toomise eest. Columbus tõi nad 1493. aastal Santo Domingosse. Mõni aasta hiljem varustas Cortez oma härradesse Mehhikos Longhorni veiseid, nimetades selle suure mõisa Cuerno Vaca "sarve lehmaks".

Aastal 1540 võttis Coronado oma ekspeditsioonile Cibola seitsme linna leidmiseks toiduks tülika arvu lambaid, kitsi, siga ja vähemalt 500 Hispaania veist. Mõned neist Longhornidest jäeti tee ääres maha, jäeti loodusesse ja kakskümmend viis aastat hiljem oli neid tuhandeid, mis on kättesaadavad kõigile, kes neid püüda saavad.

Teised tõud võtsid pika merereisi Põhja -Ameerikasse, kuid ei suutnud oma uut ümbrust üle elada. Lõpuks õnnestus Briti kolonistidel 1600. aastate alguses Virginias säilitada inglise tõugu veiseid, keda hiljem nimetati põliselanike veisteks. Kuid just edela -Hispaania Andaluusia mägedest pärit Hispaania loomad mõjutasid lõpuks Põhja -Ameerika mandri ajalugu ja said Ameerika legendaarse veise - Texas Longhorni - nurgakiviks.

Aastaks 1783 saadeti ainult Buenos Airesest Euroopasse 1400 000 nahka. Mõned Mehhiko karjakasvatajad olid teadaolevalt kaubamärgid kuni 30 000 vasikat aastas. See uue maailma Hispaania veiste tõug sai tuntuks kui Criollo ehk "riigi veised".

Järgmise 300 aasta jooksul osteti, müüdi, varastati Texase Longhorni esivanemad Criollo, esivanemad ja võidelti nende üle. Mõned olid aretatud valikuliselt, samal ajal elasid tuhanded iseseisvalt väga hästi. 1800ndatel oli Longhorni veiseid Ameerika lääneosas palju. Kasvava kullaotsijate populatsiooni toitmine tõstis Longhorni veiseliha hinna San Francisco piirkonnas 1,50 dollarilt kuni 30,00 dollarini inimese kohta. 1876. aastal viidi Kanadasse Lõuna -Albertasse 1000 pead Longhorni veiseid, mis järgneva 8 aasta jooksul kasvas ligi 40 000 looma.

Pikakarvalised veised on läbi elanud külma ilma, üleujutuste ja põua, indiaanlaste haarangute, kodusõja ja karmide tingimuste tõttu, mille tõttu ei oleks ükski teine ​​veis suutnud ellu jääda. Enamik jooksis vabalt ja ei nõudnud, et keegi nende eest hoolitseks. Olles karm, südamlik ja paljudest teistest tõugudest mõjutatud haigustest kahjustamata, toetus Longhorn end ja oma poegade kaitsmisel toona intuitiivsele kavalusele, vastupidavusele, jõule ja pikkadele sarvedele.

Ükskõik, kas karjakasvatajad kasvatasid seda või loodusest ümardati, viidi Longhornid lõpuks fenomenaalsete karjaajamitega põhja poole. Ajaloo ja tänapäevaste võimude sõnul oli Longhorn vastutav Dodge City, Kansase karjaturu avamise eest. Ostjad New Yorgist Wyomingisse saabusid varakult, et lihtsalt vaadata, kuidas suurepäraseid pikkade sarvedega kariloomi hoiukohtadesse sõidutatakse.

Autor J. Frank Dobie vaimustus Longhornist viis selle teema intensiivse uurimiseni ja seejärel suurepärase raamatuni The Longhorns, mis kirjeldab selle erakordse veiste tõu ajalugu. Dobie kirjutab: „Pärast 1888. aastat muutus põhjavoolu Longhornsi oja tilgaks. Aastaks 1895 olid Texasest väljuvad rajad kõik aiaga piiratud või küntud. Ajavahemikul 1866–1890 sõideti nende üle kümme miljonit veist, nagu oli autoriteetselt hinnatud. ”

1920. aastateks oli Longhorni veistest saanud haruldane vaatepilt. Kuus karjakasvatusperet säilitasid ja aretasid puhtaid Texas Longhorni varusid. Need olid perekond Wright, Yates, Butler, Marks, Peeler ja Phillips. Igaüks kasvatas aastaid karja, mis ei olnud teiste karjadega täiesti seotud. Nende kavandatud või muul viisil tehtud jõupingutused olid oluline tegur, mis takistas tõu väljasuremist. Nende säilimise kindlustamiseks asutati 1927. aastal Oklahomas Cache's asuvasse Wichita mägede metsloomade varjupaika valitsuskari. Kõik tänapäeva Longhorni kasvatajad kasvatavad nende seitsme üksuse poolt kogutud ja kaitstud loomade otseseid surnuid.

Kuid isegi kahekümnenda sajandi keskel oli Longhorni veiste olukord ebakindel. Encyclopedia Britannica 1959. aasta väljaandes öeldakse, '. Ameerika läänepoolsetel aegadel arvukalt pikk -sarvseid veiseid. hispaanlaste poolt Ameerikasse toodud on nüüdseks praktiliselt välja surnud. '

Üle 500 aasta on Longhorni veised andnud olulise panuse selle mandri ajaloosse: toitnud maadeavastajaid, pioneere, indiaanlasi ja armeed. Koormaloomana tõmbasid nad läände rohkem koonuseid kui ükski tõug. Nad lõid ajaloolise rikkuse, tervise ja nüüd kaasaegse tööstuse, mis õitseb taas. Pärast väljasuremisohu üleelamist on Longhorni veiste arv, populaarsus ja kasumlikkus taas kasvamas. Looduslikult lahja liha poolest tuntud Longhorn veiseliha on ihaldatud oma tervislike omaduste poolest. Värvikad toornahad ja pikkade sarvedega koljud on muutunud populaarseks ja väärtuslikuks dekoratiivesemeks. Ratsutavad härjad ja karikaloomid tõmbavad tähelepanu oma õrnuse, värvikate mantlite ja tohutute sarvede tõttu.

2007. aastal mainekal Texase Longhorni pärandmüügil valisid lehmad, kellel oli üle 70 tolli sarveotsast otsani, teenides 113 lisatasu eest üle 2 000 000 dollari. Kui müts langes enim müüdud loomale, oli lõplik pakkumine 82 000 dollarit. 2006. aastal müüs üks lehm rekordi, purustades 100 000 dollarit. Ta pidas seda au vaid mõni minut, enne kui 150 000 dollari eest müünud ​​lehm ületas.

Kuskil ajas kasutati nende ainulaadsete Hispaania veiste kirjeldamiseks nime Texas Longhorn ja sellest sai nende ametlik nimi. Kogu Ameerikas, Kanadas, Mehhikos ja mõnes Euroopa osas kasvatatakse ja kasvatatakse Texas Longhorni veiseid. Loomakasvatajad soovivad säilitada selle tõeliselt uskumatu looma pärandit, lahja veiseliha kvaliteeti ja pärandit.

Selle ajalootunni kokkuvõtteks tundub asjakohane Dobiet uuesti tsiteerida. The Longhornsi sissejuhatuses ütleb ta: „Texas Longhorn tegi rohkem ajalugu kui ükski teine ​​veiste tõug, mida tsiviliseeritud maailm on tundnud. . ta jääb aluspõhjaks, millele rajaneb Ameerika lehmariigi ajalugu. '


Longhorn Cattle - ajalugu

& kopeeri David M. Hillis, Kahekordne heeliksi rantšo
Integreeriva bioloogia professor
Texase ülikool Austinis


L Brilliant Mary (Texas Longhorn lehm) vastsündinud vasikaga

Olen siin koos oma vastustega loetlenud mõned küsimused, mida mulle sageli Texase Longhorni veiste kohta küsitakse. Kui teie küsimusele Texas Longhorni veiste kohta pole siin vastust, saatke mulle e-kiri ja ma vastan teile ise või leian kellegi, kes saab.

Samuti võiksite minu lehelt Lingid otsida linke teistele Texas Longhornsi puudutavatele veebisaitidele, aga ka teiste Texas Longhorni karjakasvatusettevõtete ja karjasaitide veebisaite.

Mis on Texas Longhornsi päritolu?

Erinevalt enamikust veisetõugudest ei võtnud keegi ette Texase Longhorni veiste aretamist. Selle asemel arenesid nad Põhja -Ameerikas hispaanlaste poolt Ameerikasse 1400. aastate lõpus ja 1500. aastate alguses Ameerikasse toodud veiste järeltulijatest (esimesed veised toodi Hispaniolasse 1493. aastal). Veised ei laskunud aga otse Hispaania varudest. Pigem olid esimesed veised, mille esimesed Hispaania maadeavastajad importisid, Kanaari saartelt. Need veised olid omakorda imporditud Portugalist ja Texas Longhornsi lähimad sugulased olemasolevate Euroopa tõugude seas on Portugali veisetõud (näiteks Alentejana ja Mertolenga). See Ibeeria veiste varane import Kanaari saartelt muutus peagi metsikuks Põhja -Mehhikos (mis hõlmas maid, millest sai 1836. aastal Texase Vabariik ja 1845. aastal osa Ameerika Ühendriikidest). Need metsikud karjad läbisid intensiivse loodusliku valiku, ainsad veised, kes suutsid ellu jääda, olid väga haiguskindlad, võisid elada karmides levila tingimustes (põua, üleujutuste, kuumuse ja külma tõttu) ning kaitsta end ja oma vasikaid kiskjate eest.

1800. aastate alguses leiti metsikuid pika sarvega veiseid suuremas osas Texases. 1840. aastate lõpu ja 1850. aastate alguse California kullapalaviku ajal oli Californias suur nõudlus kariloomade järele ning nõudmisi rahuldama hakati kümneid tuhandeid veiseid Texasest välja ajama. Selle praktika katkestas USA kodusõda, samuti California kullapalaviku lõpp. Texases, kes pärast kodusõda Texasesse tagasi pöördus, oli vähe sissetulekuallikaid, kuid Texases oli palju metsveiseid ja USA idaosas jäi vähe veiseid. Texlased hakkasid veiseid ümardama ja ajama Kansase rööpapeade juurde, kus nad saadeti idaranniku linnadesse, et rahuldada kasvavat nõudlust veiseliha järele. Rajati palju kuulsaid veisteid, nagu Chisholmi rada ja Goodnight-Loving Trail, ning paljud miljonid veised (tollal nimetati "Texase veisteks") aeti nendest radadest üles ja saadeti itta.

Aastate lõpus hakati Texases rajama suuri rantšoid. Ehitati aiad, veised püüti kinni ja piirati ning vabapidamisega veiste päevad jõudsid lõpule. Kuigi need rantšod pidasid algselt Texas Longhornsi, pöördus enamik peagi "täiustatud" Euroopa veisetõugude importimise poole. Euroopa tõud tootsid palju rohkem rasva kui Texas Longhorns ja rasvasisaldus oli toona veiste hindade peamine liikumapanev jõud. Siiski pidasid mitmed karjakasvatajad Texase algveiste karju kas nostalgia pärast või seetõttu, et hindasid nende veiste võimeid ja omadusi. 1920. aastateks olid pikakarvalised veised piisavalt haruldased, et Ameerika Ühendriikide valitsus maksis Texase veiste karja kokkupanekuks Oklahoma edelaosas Wichita looduskaitsealal, et neid väljasuremise eest kaitsta. 1900. aastate esimesel poolel hoiti (või alustati sellest) umbes pool tosinat erakarja ning enamikku tänapäevaseid Texas Longhornsi saab jälgida nende seitsme pikkade sarvede perekonnast (Wichita Refuge, Butler, Marks, Peeler). , Phillips, Wright ja Yates read).

1964. aastal asutati Ameerika Longhorn Breeders Association of America (TLBAA) ja registreerimisprotsess. Nii sai Texas Longhorns registreeritud tõuks. Tänapäeval kasvatatakse ja hinnatakse Texas Longhornsi mitmel erineval põhjusel. Nende loomulikku tailiha peetakse nüüd eeliseks ning Texas Longhornsi võime areneda looduslikes levila tingimustes (ilma antibiootikumide, lisatud hormoonide või söödapartiide kasutamiseta) muudab need lemmikloomadeks lahja veiseliha puhul. veiseliha ja maheveise turud. Neid kasvatatakse laialdaselt ka ilusate värvide ja sarvede tõttu ning inimesed, kes hindavad tõu ajalugu ja omadusi. Texase Longhorni härgi kasutatakse sageli teiste tõugu veiste teenindajatena, sest ristandid tekitavad vähem sünnitusraskusi ja vasikaid, kes kasvavad kiiresti ja millel on vähe terviseprobleeme. Double Helix Ranchis meelitasid meid Texas Longhorns nende suure geneetilise mitmekesisuse ja sellega seotud kõrge sobivuse tõttu, lisaks nende ajaloolisele huvile ja ilule. Texas Longhornsi silmapaistvad tunnused on nende loomulik vastupanuvõime haigustele, suur pikaealisus, kõrge paljunemiskiirus, kerge sünnitus, võime areneda karmides levialaoludes ja võime end röövloomade eest kaitsta. Me pole kunagi kaotanud ühtegi Texase Longhorni vasikat haiguse või röövloomade tõttu ning nad õitsevad ilma põhjaliku hoolduse või täiendava söötmiseta.

Üksikasjalikuma teabe saamiseks Texas Longhorni veiste ajaloo kohta soovitan T. J. Barragy suurepärast raamatut „Gathering Texas Gold“, lisaks J. Frank Dobie klassikalisele raamatule "Pikad sarved". Vaata ka Alan Hoyt'i üheteistkümneosalist sarja Texas Longhornsi ajaloost (avaldatud algselt ajakirjas Texas Longhorn Journal).

Kas Texas Longhornsi on raske kontrollida ja kas need võivad olla ohtlikud?

Enamik tänapäevaseid Texas Longhornsi on õrnad veised ja kuuluvad tõugude hulka, mida on kõige lihtsam käsitseda ja kontrollida. Nende õrn iseloom ja silmatorkav välimus muudavad nad ratsutamisjuhtideks lemmikuteks ning nende üldine tervis ja kohanemisvõime muudavad need ideaalseks nädalavahetuse karjakasvatajatele. Inimestega regulaarselt suhtlevaid Texas Longhornsi on lihtne käsitseda nagu iga tõuga, kuid veised, kes harva inimesi näevad, võivad kasvada metsikuks ja ettevaatlikuks.

Loomulikult tuleb Texas Longhornide seas olla ettevaatlik pikkade sarvede tõttu. Kuigi meie veised ei ole kunagi sihilikult inimest rünnanud ega kahjustanud, võivad nad sarvedega esemeid manipuleerida ja keha kriimustada ja kasutavad neid, seega tuleks veiste ümber olla ettevaatlik, et vältida juhuslikku sarvedega kokkupuudet. Texas Longhorns kaitseb oma vasikaid ka koerte eest, seega oleme ettevaatlikud, et hoida oma koeri karjast ohutus kauguses.

Milliseid piireid on vaja Texas Longhornsi hoidmiseks?

Texas Longhornsi jaoks piisab mis tahes tarast, mis mahutab teisi tõugu veiseid. Eelistame kasutada okastraataedu, sest need on osutunud meie jaoks kõige töökindlamaks ja hoolduskulud on madalad. Paljud kasvatajad kasutavad aga suure eduga lihtsaid ühe- või kaheahelalisi elektrikarju ning loomulikult on plank-, toru- ja traatvõrk-aiad enam kui piisavad. Väldime elektrikarjuseid, kuna neid võib olla raske hooldada pikkade vahemaade tagant ning kuna need on seotud maandusprobleemidega (mis on tavaliselt tekkinud hirvede ületamise tõttu) ja välklambist meie riigis. Kui aga neid saab tähelepanelikult jälgida ja hooldada, on elektrilised aiad tõhusad Texas Longhornsi juhtimisel. Kui teil on aiad, mis hoiavad teie kinnistul muid või muid kariloomi, peavad need olema piisavad enamiku Texas Longhornide hoidmiseks.

Nagu iga veisetõu puhul, ei austa mõned üksikud pullid aedu ja hüppavad neist üle või lähevad neist läbi. Meil on aga olnud rohkem raskusi naabrite (teiste tõugude) pullide hoidmisega oma karjamaadelt kui oma Texas Longhorni pullide hoidmisega. Meil ​​oli kunagi härg, kes oli aiahüppaja, ja nii me ta hukkasime. Nüüd valime pullid osaliselt nende käitumise järgi ja meil on harva probleeme, kui meie pullid ületavad oma aiad.

Kas Texas Longhorns vajab palju veterinaarabi?

Ei. Texas Longhornidel on minimaalsed terviseprobleemid. Peaksite järgima oma riigi veiste standardset vaktsineerimisprogrammi, pakkudes mõistlikult head karjamaad või heina, piisavaid mineraalaineid, mis on teie piirkonna jaoks vajalikud, ja puhta joogivee allikat ning järgima regulaarset parasiitide tõrje programmi, nagu teie loomaarst soovitab . Kui heina või karjamaade kvaliteet on halb, peate võib -olla hooajaliselt oma dieeti täiendama. Kui Longhorns saab piisavalt toitu (sealhulgas mineraalaineid) ja on vaktsineeritud vastavalt teie loomaarsti soovitustele, on terviseprobleemid üsna haruldased.

Kas Texas Longhornidel on palju sünnitusprobleeme?

Ei. Meil ​​ei ole kunagi olnud probleeme ühegi Texas Longhorni vasikaga ja sünnitusprobleeme tõul praktiliselt ei esine. See on üks põhjus, miks paljud kaubanduslikud karjakasvatajad kasutavad Texase Longhorni tõugu härgi teenindajatena koos paljude Euroopa tõugude lehmadega. Saadud vasikad sünnivad raskusteta ja ristandveised võtavad tavaliselt väga kiiresti kaalus juurde.

Millised on Texas Longhornsi turud?

1. Tõuloom (eraõiguslike lepingute müük ja spetsiaalsed oksjonid)
2. Pullid teenindusmeestele
3. Tüürid ratsutamiseks ja lääne nostalgiaks
4. Varud rodeod (ropers)
5. Veised maheliha, lahja veiseliha ja veiseliha müügiks (vastavalt individuaalsele aretusprogrammile)
6. Veised peamiseks veiselihaturuks (lihtne müüa kohalikes müügilautades, kuid tavaliselt madalaim hind)

Kui kiiresti kasvavad Texas Longhornsi sarved? Kuidas nad kasvavad?

Aastal avaldatud artiklis Texas Longhorn Journal 1999. aasta detsembris tegi Malcolm Goodman ettepaneku, et Texas Longhorni pullid ulatuksid umbes ühe protsendi vanuselt (keskmiselt) umbes 50% -ni nende võimalikust tip-to-tip sarve mõõtmisest. Neljaks eluaastaks on nad saavutanud ligikaudu 95% oma maksimaalsest pikkusest. Keskmise Texas Longhorni lehma sarved jõuavad 50% -ni nende lõplikust tip-to-tip mõõtmisest veidi hiljem, umbes 15 kuu vanuselt, ja jõuavad 95% -ni viie kuni kuue aasta vanuselt. Nad kasvavad edasi, kuid tavaliselt aeglustuvad vanusega märkimisväärselt. Need on muidugi ainult keskmised ja sõltuvalt sarvede kujust on palju erinevusi. Härjasarved kasvavad jätkuvalt mõistliku kiirusega kogu elu, sest härgade madal testosteroonitase võimaldab sisemise luusüdamiku kasvuplaati muutmata jätta.

Sarved kasvavad alusest, mitte otstest, ja vanemate lehmade sarvede aluse lähedal on näha "kasvurõngaid". Lehmad toodavad koos iga toodetud vasikaga uue rõnga, kuigi need kasvurõngad võivad vanemate loomade puhul üsna lähedale sattuda. Sarved koosnevad luust südamikust, ümbritsetud liha ja verega ning seejärel keratiini väliskihist. Paljudel loomadel (eriti heledate, kiiresti kasvavate sarvedega loomadel) on keratiinikihi all olevast verevarustusest näha punakasvärvi, eriti kasvava aluse lähedal.

Millised on Texas Longhorni lehmade, pullide ja härgade laiemad sarved?

Sellele küsimusele on raske vastata, sest aastate jooksul on esitatud palju väiteid, mida on raske kontrollida. Lisaks on sarvede mõõtmiseks vähemalt kaks levinumat viisi. Tip-to-tip mõõtmist on kõige lihtsam reprodutseerida: see on lihtsalt sirgjooneline mõõt ühest sarveotsast teise. & Quottotal sarve & quot või küsitluse mõõtmine üritab mõõta sarve piki nende kõverat, et mõõta sarvede kogupikkust. Seda mõõtmist on palju raskem täpselt korrata, kuid see peegeldab paremini sarve kogupikkust. Otsast otsani mõõtmisel määratakse sirgetele külgsarvedele pikemad väärtused kui sama kogupikkusega ülespoole kaarduvate sarvede jaoks.

Arvestades erinevate inimeste tehtud mõõtmiste võrdlemise raskusi, oskan sellele küsimusele parima vastuse osutada iga -aastasele Horn Showcase võistlusele, mille korraldab Ameerika Longhorn Breeders Association of America. See võistlus ei hõlma ilmselgelt kõiki elavaid Texas Longhornsi, kuid pikima sarvega loomade omanikud kipuvad oma veiste üle väga uhked olema ja nii kuuluvad võitjad vähemalt kõige pikemate sarvedega Texas Longhornide hulka. Kuigi kauges minevikus on veel anekdoote isegi pikemate sarvedega härgade kohta, tähendab hiljutine väga pikkade sarvede valik seda, et tänapäeval elavad Texas Longhornid on tõenäoliselt üks pikima sarvega loomi, kes on kunagi olnud selle tõu osa.

2006. aasta sarvede vitriinis:
1. Kõige laiemate sarvedega Texas Longhorn lehm (otsast otsani mõõtmine) oli Day Feisty Fannie, 82 & quot;
2. Texas Longhorn lehm kõige laiemate sarvedega (sarv kokku)
Päikesetõusu lootus, 97 3/8 & quot
3. Kõige laiemate sarvedega Texas Longhorni pull (otsast otsani mõõtmine) oli Superbowl, 76 & quot
4. Texas Longhorni pull kõige laiemate sarvedega (sarvede kogumõõt) oli Wyomingi Warpaint, 96 1/4 & quot
5. Texas Longhorni tüür kõige laiemate sarvedega (otsast otsani mõõtmine) oli Watson 101, 101 & quot
6. Texas Longhorni tüür kõige laiemate sarvedega (sarvede kogumõõt) oli Gilbralter 126 1/2 & quot

Millised on registreeritud Texas Longhornsi kaubamärginõuded?

Registreeritud Texas Longhorns peab olema märgistatud hoidmisbrändiga (üksiku rantšo või omaniku kaubamärk) ning ainulaadse privaatse karja numbriga. Brändimist saab teha kas tulebrändide või külmutusbrändidega. Brändikujundused tuleks registreerida nii tõuliidus kui ka teie osariigis, maakonnas või provintsis (vastavalt kohalikele kaubamärgi registreerimise eeskirjadele). Texases tuleb veiste kaubamärgid registreerida igas maakonnas, kus rantšo tegutseb. Registreerimine toimub maakohus (ja seda uuendatakse kord kümne aasta jooksul).

Kus saab Texas Longhornsi kasvatada? Kas nad vajavad kuuma ja kuiva kliimat?

Texas Longhornsi kasvatatakse kogu Põhja -Ameerikas, samuti mõnes Euroopa riigis ja Austraalias. Nad õitsevad nii kuumas kui külmas kliimas ja kõik vahepeal. Väga edukaid Texas Longhorni kasvatajaid leidub kogu Põhja -Ameerikas, igas kohas, kus veiseid kasvatatakse. Nad õitsevad seal, kus teistel tõugudel on raske elada, kuid nad ei vaja kuuma ja kuiva kliimat. Samuti õitsevad nad Kanadas, Vaikse ookeani loodeosas, tasandikel, kirdeosas ja kaguosariikides.

Mida Texas Longhorns sööb?

Nagu kõik veised, söövad ka Texas Longhornid enamasti rohtu ja forbe. Kuid Texas Longhornid karjatavad (ja sirvivad) laiemat sorti taimi kui enamik veiseid. Kasutades laiemat sorti taimi, kahjustavad nad alampiirkonda vähem (kuna need ei ole suunatud vaid mõnele lemmikliigile) ja nad võivad areneda mitmesugustes tingimustes.

Kas Texas Longhornsi saab hobustega ohutult hoida?

Me hoiame oma hobuseid koos Texas Longhornsiga karjamaal, nagu paljud teised kasvatajad, ega ole kogenud mingeid probleeme. Kariloomade kvaliteedi säilitamiseks ja nii veiste kui ka hobuste parasiidikoormuse vähendamiseks on sageli soovitatav veiste ja hobuste koos karjatamine (kuna veiste siseparasiidid ei suuda hobustel ellu jääda ja vastupidi).


Texase pika sarve geneetilise ajaloo dekodeerimine

Texase Longhorni veistel on hübriidne ülemaailmne esivanem, selgus Austini teadlaste Texase ülikooli uuringust, mis sel nädalal avaldati ajakirjas Rahvusliku Teaduste Akadeemia toimetised.

Longhorni ja sellega seotud tõugude genoomi uurimine räägib põnevast inimeste ja veiste rände ülemaailmsest ajaloost. See ulatub läbi Christopher Columbuse teise reisi uude maailma, mauride sissetungi Hispaaniasse ja aurahhide iidsest kodustamisest Lähis -Idas ja Indias.

"See on tõeline Texase lugu, Ameerika lugu," ütles bioloogiaprofessor David Hillise labori doktorant Emily Jane McTavish. "Pikka aega arvasid inimesed, et need uue maailma veised on kodustatud puhtast Euroopa suguvõsast. Kuid selgub, et neil on keerulisem, hübriidsem ja globaalsem esivanem ning on tõendeid selle kohta, et see geneetiline mitmekesisus on osaliselt vastutav nende suurema vastupidavuse eest karmidele ilmastikutingimustele. ”

Texas Longhornsi geneetilise ajaloo rekonstrueerimiseks analüüsisid McTavish, Hillis ja kolleegid Missouri-Columbia ülikoolist peaaegu 50 000 geneetilist markerit 58 veisetõust. Siiani kõige põhjalikumat sellist analüüsi rahastas osaliselt Cattlemen's Texas Longhorn Conservancy, mis aitas teadlastel pääseda karjakasvatajate kasutatud proovidele.

Tulemuste hulgas oli ka see, et Texas Longhorni tõug on Uue Maailma esimese veise otsene järeltulija. Esivanemate veised tõi Kolumbus 1493. aastal Hispaniola saarele. Ülejäänud tee mandrile läbisid nad 1521. aastal hilisemate Hispaania kolonistide laevadel.

Järgmise kahe sajandi jooksul kolisid hispaanlased veised põhja poole, jõudes piirkonda, mis muutus Texasiks 17. sajandi lõpus. Veised pääsesid või lasti lahti lagendikul, kus nad jäid järgmise kahe sajandi jooksul enamasti metsikuteks.

“It was known on some level that Longhorns are descendants from cattle brought over by early Spanish settlers,” said Hillis, the Alfred W. Roark Centennial Professor in the College of Natural Sciences, “but they look so different from the cattle you see in Spain and Portugal today. So there was speculation that there had been interbreeding with later imports from Europe. But their genetic signature is co mpletely consistent with being direct descendants of the cattle Columbus brought over.”

The study reveals that being a “pure” descendant of cattle from the Iberian peninsula indicates a more complicated ancestry than was understood. Approximately 85 percent of the Longhorn genome is “taurine,” descended from the ancient domestication of the wild aurochs that occurred in the Middle East 8,000-10,000 years ago. As a result, Longhorns look similar to purer taurine breeds such as Holstein, Hereford and Angus, which came to Europe from the Middle East.

The other 15 percent of the genome is “indicine,” from the other ancient domestication of the aurochs, in India. These indicine cattle, which often have a characteristic hump at the back of the neck, spread into Africa and from there up to the Iberian peninsula.

“It’s consistent with the Moorish invasions from the 8th to the 13th centuries,” said Hillis. “The Moors brought cattle with them, and brought these African genes, and of course the European cattle were there as well. All those influences come together in the cattle of the Iberian peninsula, which were used to stock the Canary Islands, which is where Columbus stopped and picked up cattle on his second voyage and brought them to the New World.”

Once in the New World, most of the cattle eventually went feral. Under the pressures of natural selection they were able to re-evolve ancient survival traits that had been artificially bred out of their European ancestors. Selection for longer horns allowed them to defend against wild predators. They became leaner and more able to survive heat and drought.

“The Longhorns that were in the area when Anglo settlers arrived almost looked more like the ancestral aurochsen than like modern cattle breeds,” said McTavish. “Living wild on the range, they had to become very self sufficient. Having that genetic reservoir from those wild ancestors made it possible for a lot of those traits to be selected for once again.”

McTavish said it’s possible the indicine heritage in particular helped, because the climate in India and Africa tended to be hotter and drier than in Europe.

The Longhorns remained wild on the range, or very loosely managed, until after the Civil War, when Texans rounded up the wild herds and began supplying beef to the rest of the country. Since then the fortunes of the Longhorns have waxed and waned depending on how their unique genetic profile intersects with the changing needs of American consumers.

“The Longhorns almost went extinct starting in the late 19th century,” said Hillis. “A lot of the value of cattle at that time had to do with the fat they had, because the primary lighting source people had was candles, made of tallow, and Texas Longhorns have very low fat content. Ranchers began fencing off the range and importing breeds from Europe that had higher fat content. That’s when Americans began developing their taste for fatty beef, so then the other cattle became valuable in that respect as well. The only reason the Longhorns didn’t go extinct was because half a dozen or so ranchers kept herds going even though they knew that these other breeds were more valuable in some sense. They appreciated that the Longhorns were hardier, more self-sufficient.”

Hillis, who raises Longhorns of his own out at the Double Helix Ranch, said that the winds of history now seem to be blowing in the Longhorns’ direction. They can survive in hotter, drier climates, which will become increasingly important as the world warms. They provide lean and grass-fed beef, which is seen as healthier by many consumers. And their genes may prove valuable to ranchers, who can use the increasingly sophisticated genetic information to selectively breed the Longhorns’ toughness into other breeds of cattle.

“It’s another chapter in the story of a breed that is part of the history of Texas,” he said.


TEXAS LONGHORN CATTLE BREED OF CATTLE QUICK PROFILE OVERVIEW

CATTLE ⇒ COW BULL
Breed Color: Speckled hides of various colors but most commonly a golden brown Speckled hides of various colors but most commonly a golden brown
Breed Weight: 272 to 545 kgs 272 to 545 kgs
Breed Height: Unclear Unclear
Horns: Long lyre-shaped horns Long lyre-shaped horns
Temperament: Docile, active and intelligent Docile, active and intelligent. All bulls should be handled with extreme care and caution.
Matures at age: 6 to 8 months or 9 + months 6 to 8 months or 9 + months
Puberty Age: 6 to 15 months 9 to 1o months
Breeding Age: 13 to 15 months 1 aasta
Breeding Traits: See Cow breeding & Milking Info Cover 25 to 30 Cows in 1 season

The Wild History of the Texas Longhorn

What a difference a century makes. Today Texas longhorns are celebrated as living flags, rugged icons of the American Southwest. But a little more than 100 years ago, the big beasts had an image problem.

During the era of open ranges and extended cattle drives, longhorns thrived. Yet as industrialization took hold, they fell out of favor. With extinction looming, the breed was saved at the eleventh hour by organized conservation efforts — and a burst of Old West nostalgia.

Colonial Cattle

A 2013 genetic analysis found that Texas longhorns are descended from ancient lineages of both Middle Eastern and Indian cattle. Those two groups eventually came into contact in north Africa, resulting in hybrids who made their way to southwestern Europe.

Enter Christopher Columbus. On his transatlantic journey in 1493, the explorer took along several mixed-lineage bulls and cows acquired from the Canary Islands off the coast of Morocco. With these animals, Columbus introduced domestic bovines to the Caribbean — and by extension, the New World.

Other Spanish travelers arrived in the region with cattle from the same general stock. In 1521, the beasts spread into mainland Mexico. And as Spaniards colonized present-day Colombia, Venezuela and Texas, their livestock tagged along.

It didn't take long for Texan cattle to start going native. The San Francisco de los Tejas Mission established one of the area's first domestic herds in 1690. By 1710, what we now know as eastern Texas — where the mission resided — was teeming with feral cattle.

Survival of the Fittest

Wild cows and bulls in those days would've faced many of the same challenges as their ranch-reared counterparts. The area that is now Texas was full of predators, droughts were common and some native plants were poor in nutrients. Natural selection favored long-horned animals (of both sexes) because they had an easier time fending off wolves and coyotes. Likewise, lean cattle with a tolerance for extreme temperatures were more likely to survive in this harsh environment.

Early in the 19th century, a fresh wave of immigrants diversified the gene pool. At the invitation of Spain and Mexico, thousands of Anglo-American settlers came to the area. The transplants were accompanied by herds of cattle descended from northern European breeds.

As these bovine latecomers mingled with the wilderness-hardened natives, an all-new breed emerged. Originally called the "Spanish cattle," "mustang cattle," or simply the "wild cattle," it came to be known as the "Texas longhorn" after the American Civil War.

No matter what you call them, full-grown Texas longhorns are intimidating animals. On neutered bulls, or "steers," the eponymous horns often measure 7 feet (2.1 meters) across from tip to tip. The Guinness World Record-holder is a steer named Pancho Via who currently resides in Alabama. From end to end, his super-sized horns are a jaw-dropping 10 feet, 7.4 inches (3.2 meters) across!

Changing Priorities

Such weaponry presents logistical challenges. Jean Norman, the owner of Our Heritage Guest Ranch in Sioux County, Nebraska is an experienced rancher. She and her family have kept longhorns for many years. Norman recalls that one heifer her late father purchased was quite the escape artist.

"Her horns arched and curled forward," she says in an email. Using these, the animal plucked staples from a number of fenceposts, "thus freeing the barbed wire." Occasionally, the offending cow would join forces with other longhorns to create sizable holes in the fencing.

Barbed wire fences almost doomed the breed. There was huge demand for western cattle after the Civil War. Back then, most ranchers west of the Mississippi allowed their animals to graze freely instead of fencing them in.

Self-reliant Texas longhorns didn't need much supervision and they could subsist on all kinds of wild plants. So the breed was a good fit for this "open range" approach to ranching. Furthermore, lengthy cattle drives over vast distances became a common sight by the 1850s. Longhorns had the physical stamina to survive the treks.

But the spread of railroads made prolonged cattle drives obsolete. At the same time, the popularization of barbed wire fences in the 1880s basically killed the open range era. Cowmen were now expected to confine their animals with sturdy fencing.

Texas longhorns had a reputation for being standoffish. It was an attitude that served them well out in the wilderness, but enclosed ranches created a demand for more docile breeds — and fattier ones to boot. Another strike against the longhorn was a national panic about Texas Fever, a historic disease linked to cattle from the Lone Star State.

An American Comeback Story

At the dawn of the 20th century, it looked like the breed's days were numbered. And then a funny thing happened. With the longhorn population plummeting, romantics started to eulogize the animals. They were compared to the American bison, another victim of modernization and railroad expansion. Songs like "The Last Longhorn" used the beasts to remind listeners of a — supposedly — simpler time when the West was considered wild.

The University of Texas further mythologized the breed in 1906, when the school's athletic teams became officially known as "the Longhorns." The current live mascot goes by the name Bevo XV.

Twenty-one years later, U.S. Forest Service Rangers scored federal funding to raise a (real) longhorn herd in Oklahoma's Wichita Mountains Wildlife Refuge. Combing the Southwest, the activists assembled 37 cattle. By 1929, the protected herd had expanded to 54 animals. Other herds were soon established in Texas state parks while private ranchers organized an ambitious breeding program.

By 1988, there were 125,000 registered Texas longhorns. Since then, this figure has risen to more than a quarter-million individuals. One thing that helped the breed stage its comeback was an emerging health food market in the 1980s, weight-conscious consumers developed an appetite for lean, low-fat meats — and longhorn beef fit the bill.

Even NASA got in on the action. Visit the Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas and you'll find some magnificent steers grazing within a few hundred yards of a Saturn V Rocket. Launched in 1996, the Johnson Space Center Longhorn Project has set aside 60 acres (24 hectares) of grassy land for dozens of the iconic cattle. Here, grade school students lend a hand in both raising top-quality animals and showcasing them at livestock conventions.

Rocketry and longhorns. It doesn't get more Texas than that.

President George W. Bush hosted two Texas longhorns at his presidential inaugurations: the University of Texas' live mascot Bevo XIII at his first inauguration and Bevo XIV at his second.


Kategooriad:

The following, adapted from the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, is the preferred citation for this entry.

Donald E. Worcester, &ldquoLonghorn Cattle,&rdquo Handbook of Texas Online, accessed June 30, 2021, https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/longhorn-cattle.

Published by the Texas State Historical Association.

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History of the Texas Longhorns Part Eight: Dodge City Citizens 'Welcomed' Longhorn Drives

As the railroads and quarantine laws steadily moved westward, they left in their wake towns that the Texas Longhorns had built and established into prosperous entities. But as the cattle trade left, these towns settled down to quiet farming communities, usually glad to get rid of the 'hell-raising' cowboys that had made them prosperous. Along with the reasons for westward movement previously mentioned, the annihilation of the buffalo was a major cause for the opening of the limitless grasslands in the West.

When the white man had first seen the Great Plains, it appeared to be one big pasture of buffalo that ranged from South Texas to Canada. Sometimes, herds hundreds of miles across covered the earth like a slowly-moving brown quilt. In spring, the buffalo moved northward across Kansas, close-cropping the grass as they went. Most cattlemen knew that where the buffalo had ranged, the pastures would be spoiled for two years.

Everyone except the Indian seemed to want to wipe out the buffalo, for one reason or another: the soldiers wanted destruction of the herds as a means to keep the Indian on the reservations the railroads, deeply hurting from the depression of the seventies, were glad to haul meat, hides and bones to eastern markets freighters and merchants loved the business that came from buffalo hunting.

The Treaty of Medicine Lodge in 1867 gave the Indians the right to hunt buffalo in Kansas, but no white man could hunt south of the Arkansas River, which was then the southern boundary of Kansas. The Army never made any attempt to enforce the law, which highly upset the Indians.

In 1870, J. Wright Mooar asked the Commandant of Fort Dodge what might happen if he went hunting below the line. Officer Richard I. Dodge laughed and said, "Boys, if I were hunting buffalo, I would go where buffalo are."

Several efforts were made to save the buffalo, but they were turned down immediately. In 1872, the Kansas State Legislature passed an act to 'prevent the wanton destruction of buffalo,' but was countered with an executive pocket veto. Congress also tried in 1872 and 1874 to prevent 'useless slaughter of buffalo,' but were also vetoed. Meanwhile, the killing went on, setting the stage for the Texas Longhorn to take over the vast prairies being left vacated by the buffalo. During the heyday of the big hunts, one newspaper stated that a hunter from Dickinson County, Kansas, had killed as many as 658 buffalo in one winter. At seeing this, the editor of the Dodge City Times couldn't pass up the chance to prove the prowess of Ford County hunters: "Oh dear, what a mighty hunter! Ford County has twenty men who each have killed five times that many in one winter. The best record, however, is that of Tom Nixon, who killed 120 at one stand in forty minutes, and who, from the 15th of September to the 20th of October, killed 2,173 buffaloes. Come on with some more big hunters if you have any."

Finally, by 1877, Colonel Dodge wrote, "The buffalo is virtually exterminated. no legislation, however stringent or active, could now do anything for or against the trade of the 'buffalo products'." Colonel Dodge also believed that there was an Indian-dressed robe sent in for every five rawhides. In fact, during the years of 1872 to 1874, Dodge found a total of 1,215,000 buffalo killed by Indians compared to 3,158,730 killed by white men. In addition, because of fear that legislation would be passed to preserve the buffalo, the railroads conspired to keep secret the actual number of buffalo hides shipped over their lines. So with the buffalo exterminated and a majority of the warring Indian tribes 'loose-herded' on reservations, the Western United States was fair game for anyone wanting lush rangeland.

It is said that 'civilization follows the plow,' but if that is true in the western United States, then the plow followed the cowboys and the cowboys followed the Texas Longhorn steers. To understand the hardships endured by the Longhorns, along with their ability to endure just about anything, one must also understand the life of the American cowboy and the western cowtown. After all, it would be impossible, let alone unthinkable, to separate the cow from the cowboy in any historic narrative. Therefore, we will look at the hardships encountered by both the cattle and the men that drove them, along with the cowtown of all cowtowns----Dodge City.

Dodge City was different from the other cowtowns. It had been a boom town for buffalo hunters and bullwhackers for half a century. The men that followed the Santa Fe Trail were there. so were the soldiers from Fort Dodge. Everyone had a gun, in addition to excess of money and an abundance of liquor. The only thing on short supply in Dodge was women.

But from the first, the "citizens" of Dodge City were cattle-minded. As early as 1872, 19 year-old D.W. "Doc" Barton drove two thousand head of Longhorns to Dodge City. Because of Indian scares, he took a route through New Mexico and Colorado to the Arkansas River, following it downstream to Dodge City. At that time, there were no loading pens in Dodge, so he moved the herd on to Great Bend. It wasn't until 1875 that cattle started to be shipped out of Dodge on a regular basis. Then the town began working on her world-wide reputation as the Cowboy Capital. Many of the early citizens of Dodge were veterans of the other, earlier cowtowns: gamblers, gunfighters and prostitutes. Many of these were well-acquainted by the time they reached Dodge City, so they worked out a way of life that all could agree upon. As one historian said, "They knew how to raise hell and make it pay."

One summer day in 1876, a wagon train heading west came to Fort Dodge and camped on the prairie nearby. That evening, U.S. Army Surgeon, W.S. Tremaine and several other officers walked out to get the latest news from the travelers. They found the wagons deserted, with bullet holes and arrowheads stuck in their sides. Passing the wagons, they found the settlers kneeling with bowed heads, while their minister prayed: "Oh Lord, we pray Thee, protect us with Thy mighty hand. On our long journey, Thy Divine Providence has thus far kept us safe. We have survived cloudbursts, hailstorms, floods, strong gales, thirst and parching heat ----as well as raids of horse thieves and attacks by hostile Indians. But now, oh Lord, we face our gravest danger ---- Dodge City lies just ahead, and we must pass through it. Help us and save us, we beseech Thee. Amen."

This pretty well summed up the outsiders' view of Dodge City, also known as "The Deadwood of Kansas," "the rip-roaring burg of the West," "The Beautiful Bibulous Babylon of the Frontier," "Hell on the Plains." Dodge ---- a synonym for all that is wild, reckless and violent where was outfitted every expedition against Indians, horse thieves, outlaws where a saloon could be found for every fifty residents and where the only public buildings ever locked were the jail and the church.At first, Dodge had consisted of tents, small shacks and dugouts. Nearly everyone in town sold whiskey or opened a restaurant, but the town grew rapidly. A row of one-story frame buildings was built on both sides of the east-west railroad, forming the Plaza or Front Street. The nearest law was in Hays City, seventy-five miles away, with every imaginable danger between the two points.

Of course, not all of the residents or transients in Dodge were trigger-happy gunmen, gamblers, and "ladies of the evening." The majority of the citizens had come there to establish a new life and better themselves through farming, merchandising or ranching. But the public's imaginations was captured worldwide and forevermore by the American cowboys and the cattle they drove.

By the time Dodge City was established as a cowtown, the world's attention was on the massive cattle drives coming up from Texas and the Indian Territory. Most trail herds averaged twenty-five to thirty-five hundred and normally moved about 10 to 15 miles a day.

The Texas cattle didn't much resemble a 'modern' beef steer, which could never travel a thousand miles at that rate and gain weight at the same time anyway. Historian and author Stanley Vestal described the trailing Longhorns: "The Longhorn was wild, fierce, and sensitive, of mighty stamina, and muscled like a stag. There was nothing logy about him. He had narrow shoulders, a sharp backbone, tucked-up flanks, and a sway-back. There was more horn, hoof and bone to him, though he could get rolling fat. Most cattle get up slowly, hind end first, but the Longhorn ---- like the buffalo ---- seemed to spring up all at once, like a jack-in-the-box. He had a long tail, long legs, and was built to travel."

Buyers and owners reached Dodge well in advance of the herds. As soon as the brakeman on the slowing train shouted out "Dodge City," buyers from Wyoming to New York hurried across Front Street to either the Dodge House or the Alamo, where they immediately registered, then began talking about nothing but Longhorn steers, brands, cattle markets back East, cocktails and toddies.

The herds had started north as soon as the grass was high enough to feed them. Depending on their point of debarkation, they would reach Dodge City after 30 to 100 days on the trail.

For ten years, Dodge City was not only a cattle shipping point, but the greatest cattle market in the world. Many of the herds driven north to Dodge went straight on to Wyoming, Colorado, the Dakotas, Montana, and various Indian Agencies throughout the West.

Of 164 droves coming up the trail in 1880, 33 were herds of breeder cattle headed for the northern and western ranges. By the end of August 1880, 287,000 head of Longhorn had reached Dodge. In 1881, of 153,000 expected, over 100,000 had arrived by June 12. In the second half of that year, 100 railroad trains, made up of around 3,000 cars, each with a capacity of 20 head, carried 60,000 cattle out of Dodge.

In 1885, the last big year of the cattle trade, forecasts started to be made about the size of the Texas drive for the following season before the winter had even ended. Invitations were sent south to attract the cattlemen, and Dodge merchants got together to reduce prices on items in which the cowboys were interested.

While all of this was being advertised in Texas and the Indian Territory, Dodge went on it's annual cleanup campaign painting stores, replacing boards in the sidewalks (if they could be called that), and stocking up on supplies of every imaginable item. Cattle usually began to arrive around April and by May, a steady flow of Texas cattle and cowboys were blanketing the surrounding grasslands and the saloons (and even churches) of Dodge. By the middle of July, usually about 70 percent of the year's drive had been bought and sold.

But cattle would keep trickling in until mid-September, while cowboys who had been hired to drive "breeder herds" on to the north and west would be stopping back by to visit Dodge as late as October. So Dodge merchants found themselves catering to eastern buyers and speculators, northern ranchers, Texas cattlemen and drovers, and the ever-present shrill whistle of the locomotives about ten months out of the year. During the peak season, one thousand to two thousand cowboys would be found in and around Dodge. Many of these men would be busy branding, cutting out, and holding cattle for more fattening consequently, they might hang around Dodge for several months at a time.

Since these drovers received six month's to a year's pay as soon as the cattle were shipped out or sold, many of them worked off the boredom and hazards of the trail with liberal amounts of liquor, gambling, dancing with the saloon girls, or just plain having fun. The editor of the Dodge City Times, of course not knowing what these men had been through coming up the trail, wrote about the gun-toting Texas cowboy: "A gay and festive Texas boy, like all true sons of the Lone Star State, loves to fondle and practice with his revolver in the open air. It pleases his ear to hear the sound of this deadly weapon. Aside from the general pleasure he derives from shooting, the Texas boy makes shooting inside the corporate limits of any town or city a specialty. He loves to see the inhabitants rushing wildly around to 'see what all the shooting is all about,' and it tickles his heart to the very core to see the City Marshal coming towards him at a distance while he is safe and securely mounted."

"The program of the Texas lot then, is to come to town to bum around until he gets disgusted with himself, then to mount his pony and ride out through the main street, shooting his revolver at every jump. Not shooting to hurt anyone, but shooting in the air, just to raise a little excitement and let people know he is in town."

But the people of Dodge City seemed to put up with the minor hellraising by the cowboys, and even tried to protect them from gambling thieves, as is shown in this article from the Ford County Globe: "We believe that what is known as 'square games' are among the necessary belongings of any town that has the cattle trade. We don't believe there are a dozen people in Dodge who seriously object to this kind of gambling so long as this is a cattle town, but we appeal to our city officers 'to set down on' all showcase and other bare-faced robbing concerns. Keep them away from our town. They create more bad blood among both cattlemen and citizens than anything else. They are no good to any class of people in the community and they are even despised by gamblers themselves."

The common picture painted by television and Hollywood of the trail-drivin' cowboy has always been one of total independence, ruthlessness, rowdiness, drunkenness and extreme bravery, along with the willingness to shoot anybody down that got in his way or looked at him wrong.

A very few were that bad, but the majority of these men possessed qualities known primarily to mountain men, pioneers, and trailblazers. Their unflagging loyalty to their employer, to the point of dying to save the herd during Indian raids and floods, endeared him to all adventurous persons. Although the cowboy usually had little formal education, his "horse sense" more than made up for that. Like the tough Texas Longhorns he drove, he had found it most necessary to adapt to a wild and rough life, where danger could threaten his existence at any moment.

After being on the trail for months, then getting paid in Dodge City, the majority of these tough men (and the 15 to 18-year-olds which quickly became men) bought new duds, ammunition, possibly a new gun, and then got drunk until their money ran out or they had had enough of the high times of the wildest cowtown in the West. But these men, like the Longhorns, had adapted to the treacherous life of the Old West or they died trying.

James H. Cook, cowboy, plainsman, and author, described the role of the cowboy and plainsman in the West: "I desire to record one fact regarding those who made a success as good 'cowhands' or plainsmen or mountaineers, and who really aided, by their various activities, in paving the way for settlement in the West. Such men had to be known as men of deeds, men of action. No person, as far as I know, has ever accused Daniel Boone, Kit Carson, 'Bigfoot' Wallace, Jim Bridger, or others of their type whose names will remain indelible in the history of the West, of being either loafers, dance-hall artists, or desperadoes.

"The majority of the cowboys of the West were not a drunken, gambling lot of toughs. It required riders with clear heads, brave hearts, and strong bodies to do the work which was required in handling either the great trail herds or the cattle on the ranges. A drunken man riding one of those great herds of wild cattle was a sight I never witnessed. One could as well imagine a man being allowed to smoke cigarettes in a powder factory. A large percentage of the men who lived the life of the open chose and followed that life because they loved it."

One cowboy named Burt Taylor described one instance in which alcohol and cattle didn't mix: "There was another ferry that ferried across the Arkansas River a short ways back from the mouth before it emptied into the Virdigris. This ferry was run by Mrs. Lake Brewer, a Cherokee woman. After crossing the river, the trail from the ferry to Kansas was known as the Baxter Springs Road. Mrs. Brewer would at times, when the river was high, ferry cattle across the river on the ferry boat."

"One winter after I'd taken over the ferry, the river froze over real thick it had begun to thaw and the ice was slipping. Jeff and Floyd Nevins went to Ft. Gibson and bought a bunch of jake came back to the ferry pretty drunk. They got about a third of the way across the river, but because of the noise they were making, all the cattle got in one end of the ferry. Once there, the end the cattle were on, sank, throwing the other end away up out of the water. All the cattle drowned except one brindle steer."

"There was one man on the ferry that could not swim, the others had to hold him on the upper end of the ferry to keep him from jumping into the river as he got scared and lost his common judgment. All the men aboard got soaking wet a skiff was taken out to get Jeff and Floyd, on the way back to the bank, the skiff run upon a large snag and sank."

This same cowboy told of his experiences of swimming cattle across rivers, and the problems involved. "When the river was low, it wasn't much problem getting the Longhorns across, but when the water was high, it was a mightily hard job. The way we handled them when the water was high was, we would start two or three of them into the water, and after they got to where they had to swim, we would pull up beside and get on their backs. We had a stick, and when the steers tried to turn back or go in the wrong direction, we would beat them on the side of the head and make them go straight, after we got the first few started, the others were easy to make follow. A lot of times when the water was real high, it would take us three weeks and longer to get them across. Quite often, we would start a large bunch across the river, lose control of them and they would come out anywhere from one to two miles down the river on the same side we started from. We would ride the steers' backs, jumping from one to the other, we had to leave the steer we would be riding before he got to the bank for if we rode them out onto the bank they would turn and charge us. They were surely the old long horned Texas steers."

While researching this series of articles I drove thousands of miles to sift through court records and newspaper articles, and talked with people who let me glance through crumbling pages of the diaries of their cattle-driving forefathers in search of interesting materials which told of the ways of life--and death-- of the frontier cattlemen and their Texas Longhorns. These stories could be summed up into the dry "high school history book" style, but I would much rather use them in their entirety so as to preserve the colorful narrative that expressed the spirit, stamina, and the close-knit relationships between cowboy and cow.

I would once again like to quote cattleman and author James H. Cook, whose narratives captured the spirit and dangers encountered by the drovers: "I think I can understand how men whose spirits are fired by patriotism in time of war will stand all sorts of privations and hardships, as well as the most intense suffering, such as was endured at Valley Forge, and at times during the War of the Rebellion but what spirit fired and sustained the boys who drove the trail herds during the times of which I write is more than I can explain. I remember hardly an instance, and I think there were actually very few if any, in which men proved themselves to be quitters. To hold onto the stock seemed to be the first consideration with all engaged in the work."

"There are rough spots in the lives of all who have lived in the open, whether the life be that of a soldier, sailor, or plainsman but I think the wild and woolly 'cow waddie' received about as many rough knocks as anybody living on the sunset side of the Mississippi."

"During the storms, the cattle and horses would stampede, and to stay with them, we had to ride as fast as a horse could run. Sometimes it would be so dark that a rider could not see his horse's head. Then a flash of lightning would come, and we could see the cattle tearing madly along and locate their position. The next moment one would again be blinded by the flash. Many were the hard falls the boys had to take when a horse went down while running after stampeded stock on those dark and stormy nights."

"Many were the poor old 'leather-breeches' who came dragging themselves into camp the morning after a bad night, either with broken bones or carrying their saddle on their backs, because their pony had fallen and broken his neck or a leg. And I know personally a few of the boys who were crushed to death and had to be left by the side of the trail to wait for the call of the great trumpeter, Gabriel, because of those terrible runs at night."

The Texas cowboy had to endure hardships greater than any other type of frontiersman. Hunters, trappers, and soldiers could usually find some shelter from storms, tornadoes, and Indians, but the drover had to brave the elements in order to stay with the herd. The real cowboy would stay with the herd come 'hell or high water' because he had to. Many unmarked graves lie along the great trails because drovers froze to death in the saddle, were trampled by cattle stampedes or attacked from ambush by Indians. Others met their demise in the cowtowns by gamblers very efficient with their six-shooters, who oftentimes just for sport, prodded the proud cowpuncher into a fight he had no chance of winning.

Author's note: In the last part, I mentioned some investigation being done into the possibility of 'long-horned cattle' existing on the North American continent as early as the fifth century A.D.. Scientists are constantly searching for archaeological evidence to find out what type of life was here first. Some of the newest stories concern a Chinese legend found in the Llang Dynasty, telling of a Buddhist monk who discovered a land he called Fusang, about 13,000 miles east of China. Some persons researching this legend say this would have put the ancient explorers somewhere near southern California. Similarities between the empire noted by the monk and the highly developed civilizations of the fifth century Yucatan's in present Mexico do exist, but according to Professor of Geology, Stephen C. Jett, of the University of California at Davis, there is no substantial evidence to indicate these 'long-horned cattle' were indeed cattle. The animals might have been found to substantiate any claim that true cattle existed in America until Columbus brought that first small group on his second voyage in 1493 -- and those were Spanish cattle.

LONGHORN CATTLE

Longhorn are a breed of cattle descended from cows and bulls left by early Spanish settlers in the American Southwest. They are named for their long horns, which span about four feet (over one meter). By the end of the American Civil War (1861 – 1865) these cattle had multiplied and great numbers of them roamed freely across the open range of the West. Americans found the beef of longhorns stringy and tough. But ranchers in Texas bred the longhorns with other cattle breeds such as Hereford and Angus to produce better quality meat. As beef was in demand in the eastern United States, shrewd businessmen capitalized on the business opportunity, buying cattle for three to five dollars a head and selling them in eastern and northern markets for as much as $25 to $60 a head. Ranchers hired cowboys to round up, sort out, and drive their herds to railheads in places like Abilene and Dodge City, Kansas, which became famous as "cow towns" (raucous boom towns where saloons and brothels proliferated.) After the long trail drive, the cattle were loaded onto rail cars and shipped live to local butchers who slaughtered the livestock and prepared the beef. For 20 years the plentiful longhorn cattle sustained a booming livestock industry in the West: at least six million Texas longhorns were driven across Oklahoma to the cow towns of Kansas. However, by 1890 the complexion of the industry changed. Farmers and ranchers in the West used a new material, barbed wire, to fence in their lands, closing the open range. Railroads were extended, bringing an end to the long, hard, and much glorified cattle drives the role of the cowboy changed, making him little more than a hired hand. Big business took over the industry. Among the entrepreneurs who capitalized on beef's place in the American diet was New England-born Gustavus Swift (1839 – 1903), who in 1877 began a large-scale slaughterhouse operation in Chicago, shipping ready-packed meat via refrigerated railcars to markets in the East.

Vaata ka: Barbed Wire, Cattle Drives, Cowboy, Cow Towns, Chisholm Trail, Open Range, Prairie

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Longhorn Cattle - History

TEXAS LONGHORN BLOODLINE LEGACIES

From Near Extinction To Distinction

By the turn of the 19th century demand for the Texas Longhorn beef began to fade. It took less than 40 years of fencing,plows and demand for the fat English breeds to drive the Texas longhorn closer to extinction than the buffalo. Six cattle families along with the United States Government are responsible for preserving the Texas Longhorn as a breed.

The Butler family: Named for Milby Butler, a pioneer cattleman who began raising Texas Longhorns in the early 1900's. His cattle trace back to the wild cattle of east Texas and the Gulf Coast. Most of Milby's cattle were butchered after he died in 1971 but the best were saved by several selective breeders. The Butler line is known for exceptional horn growth. Perhaps the most famous Butler cattle were Bevo and Beauty. This sire and dam produced the bull, Classic among others.

The WR (Wildlife Refuge) bloodline: The WR line of Longhorns is a result of selective breeding that began with the acquisition of breeding stock in 1927. That year, the Wichita Refuge searched for Longhorn cattle to preserve the breed from extinction. Refuge employees(Earl Drummond,Heck Schrader, Joe Bill Lee and Elmer Parker Jr.) viewed thousands of cattle and finally located and acquired 20 cows and 3 bulls that were of the Longhorn type. Several bulls and cows were added to the original herd through the years. The success of the breeding program has made the WR line one of the most popular today.

The Peeler family: Named for Graves Peeler. Mr.Peeler raised longhorns, a tradition established by his father starting in 1931, extensively after losing many heads of English-bred cattle in a blizzard. One of the most well known of the Peeler cattle was YO Carmela I, the first cow registered by the TLBAA.

The Marks family: Named for Emil H. Marks. By 1920, Mr.Marks noticed that longhorns were disappearing from the marketplace. He began holding back some of his best animals just to keep the breed alive. The Marks line was among the oldest of the Texas Longhorn bloodlines.

The Wright family: Named for M.P. Wright. The Wright line originated in South Texas where the family had a ranching and slaughter business. When ranchers would bring in longhorns for sale, Wright would select the better longhorns for breeding stock. His first 100 animals were acquired in this way. In 1965, the Wright herd consisted of 222 registered Texas Longhorns.

The Yates family: Named for Cap Yates. Mr. Yates interest in Longhorns resulted in a bloodline known for purity toward the original "old type" Longhorn. Yates began developing an eye for cattle while working as a ranch foreman in 1910, and bought many cattle from Mexico after World WarI. At his ranches in south and west Texas, the only breed of cattle that could survive on the desolate, harsh land were Longhorns.

The Phillips family: Named for Jack Phillips. Jack followed his father and grandfather in raising Texas Longhorn cattle. Phillips had raised Longhorns for 30 years before the TLBAA was formed in 1964. Phillips always looked for long legs, long bodies, slender heads, long bushy tails and good horns. He used the selection rules of conformation first, followed by horns and color traits. Texas Ranger JP is perhaps the best known animals from this bloodline. Known as the sire for size.

OTHER IMPORTANT TEXAS LONGHORN BLOODLINES:
Scott - Developed by Walter B. Scott of Goliad Texas. A blend of Peeler and Marks bloodlines.
YO - Charles Schreiner III developed a blend of "WR" and Peeler along with the bull "BOLD RULER".
SPEAR-E - Elvin Blevins of Wynnewood, Oklahoma started this bloodline in 1952. Primarily "WR" with "YATES" influence.
SHAHAN - James T."Happy" Shahan line of Texas Longhorns is the result of selective inbreeding from the Marks, Butler, Peeler and Stanger bloodlines.
WOODS - Grady Woods, great-great grandson of Joshua Westbrook homestead in Newton County east Texas. These cattle are descendents of stock brought to Santo Domingo and Mexico by the Spaniards.
BLR - Bright Longhorn Ranch. Arthur Bright of Le Grand California. "WR" based heard on the west coast starting in 1962.
Ox Yoke T - This line of cattle was developed by Ken Humphrey of Okreek, South Dakota in 1950, utilizing the Fort Niobrara Refuge cattle for 50% with 25% "Yates" and 25% "WR".


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