Washingtoni kindluse piiramine, 15. – 16. November 1776

Washingtoni kindluse piiramine, 15. – 16. November 1776



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Washingtoni kindluse piiramine, 15. – 16. November 1776

Üks väheseid piiramisi Ameerika Vabadussõja ajal. Washingtoni kindlus oli üks paaridest kindlustest Hudsoni jõe vastaskaldal, mis ehitati selleks, et Briti sõjalaevad ei pääseks jõe ülemjooksule. Kindlus ehitati Washingtoni kõrgustele, tugevale positsioonile 230 jalga Hudsoni kohale, kuid selle välised kaitseliinid olid liiga pikad (viis miili) ja kindlusest liiga kaugel. Kindluse relvad ei suutnud seega toetada välisliinide kaitsjaid, samas kui välisjooned vajasid kaitsmiseks väga suurt garnisoni. 1776. aasta novembris oli Ameerika garnison kolm tuhat tugevat ja sisaldas hinnaliste kontinentide tugevat kontingenti.

Oktoobri lõpuks oli Fort Washington ainus Ameerika valdus Manhatteni saarel, Washington oli taandunud Mandri -Valgele tasandikule. Britid kindral Howe juhtimisel võisid garnisoni ületada vähemalt kolm kuni üks. Mis veelgi hullem, Briti sõjalaevad tõestasid peagi, et suudavad Forts Washingtoni ja Lee vahelt läbi sõita ilma tõsiseid kahjustusi kannatamata. Washington seisis nüüd silmitsi kahe küsimusega - kas tema mehed saaksid Washingtoni kindlust kaitsta ja kui peaksid, siis peaksid?

Kindluse kaotamiseni viinud sündmused heidavad Washingtoni juhtimisstiilile huvitavat valgust. 8. novembril kirjutas ta kohalikule ülemale Nathanael Greene'ile, avaldades kahtlusi, kas kindlus võidakse kinni pidada, kuid ta ei andnud kindlat käsku taganeda, vaid soovitas lihtsalt, et ta ei tahaks riskida meeste või varude kaotamisega. linnus. Nii Greene kui ka kindluse ülem kolonel Robert Magaw olid kindlad, et seda saab kaitsta Briti rünnaku eest. Washington tahtis enne otsuse langetamist alati ise olukorda näha ja 14. novembril külastas ta Fort Washingtoni. See kontroll kinnitas ilmselt tema pessimismi kindluse kaitseks, kuid Greene ja Magaw lasid end selles veenda. Fort Washington pidi toimuma.

Päev pärast Washingtoni visiiti tegid britid oma sammu. Howe viis oma mehed haavatavate Ameerika liinide ümber oma positsioonile ja valmistus ründama kõiki kolme poolt korraga. Howe andis Magawile võimaluse alistuda, kuid ta teatas, et on valmis kindlust kaitsma „viimase äärmuseni”.

Rünnak algatati 16. novembril. Põhjast juhtis kindral Wilhelm von Knyphausen hesslasi Marylandi ja Virginia rügementide vastu, keda juhtis kolonelleitnant Moses Rawlings. Nad pidid kohtuma kõige sihikindlama opositsiooniga ja said suuri kaotusi. Läänest oli kindral Edward Mathews, Cornwallis varus, silmitsi miilitsatega, samas kui lõuna pool, oli kindral Percy, kes oli päästnud päeva pärast Lexingtoni ja Concordi, vastamisi pennsylvanialastega, keda juhtis kolonelleitnant Lambert Cadwalader.

Britid said suuri kaotusi, 300 surnut, kuid pärast kolme tundi kestnud võitlust olid kõik kolm rünnakut õnnestunud. Ülejäänud Ameerika väed sunniti tagasi linnusesse, kus nende moraal varises kokku. Jõudnud selle viimase piirini, andis Magaw sel pärastlõunal alla. Ameerika kaotused said 54 surma, 100 haavatut ja 2858 vangi, kokku kaotasid ühe päeva jooksul üle 3000 mehe. Washington tundis peagi kibedat kaotust, sest ta oli sunnitud taanduma, mis lõppes alles detsembri alguses Delaware'i jõe ääres. Lühidalt näis Ameerika asi olevat suures ohus, kuna Cornwallis jõudis New Jersey tagaajamisel korduvalt Washingtoni püüdmise lähedale. Alles ootamatud võidud Trentonis ja Princetonis taaselustasid Ameerika lootused aasta lõpus.


Washingtoni lahing

Võitlejad Fort Washingtoni lahingus: Briti ja Saksa väed Ameerika kontinentaalarmee vastu.

Kindralid Fort Washingtoni lahingus: LeitnantKindral William Howe juhtis Briti armeed.

Kui kindral George Washington juhtis üldiselt Ameerika armeed, kes vaidlustas brittide sissetungi New Yorgi kolooniasse, siis kindral Nathan Greene juhtis Ameerika vägesid Fort Lee ja Fort Washingtonis. Greene täitis oma käsku Fort Lee'st, Hudsoni jõe vastasküljel Fort Washingtonist, kolonel McGaw juhtis Fort Washingtoni ümbruse vägesid.

Mägirügemendi ohvitser: Fort Washingtoni lahing 17. novembril 1776 Ameerika vabadussõjas: Pilkington Jacksoni kujuke

Armeede suurus Fort Washingtoni lahingus: 8000 Briti ja Saksa sõdurit ründasid umbes 2900 Ameerika sõjaväelast.

Vormiriietus, relvad ja varustus Fort Washingtoni lahingus: Britid kandsid punaseid mantleid, grenadieridele karunahast mütsid, pataljonikompaniidele trikornmütsid ja kergejalaväele mütsid.

Kaks Ameerikas teeninud kergete draakonite rügementi, 16. ja 17., kandsid punaseid mantleid ja nahast harjaskiivreid.

Saksa jalavägi kandis sinist kitlit ja säilitas Preisi stiilis grenadier -mitra korgi koos messingist esiplaadiga.

Ameeriklased riietusid nii hästi kui suutsid. Sõja edenedes kandsid mandriväe regulaarsed jalaväerügemendid sinist vormiriietust, kuid miilits jätkas karedas riietuses.

Mõlemad pooled olid relvastatud musketite, tääkide ja kahuritega, enamasti väikese kaliibriga. Pennsylvania rügemendid ja teised metsa mehed kandsid pikki, väikese kaliibriga vintpüssirelvi.

Fort Washingtoni lahingu võitja: Inglased ja sakslased. Kui ameeriklased Washingtoni kindlusesse tagasi lükati, olid nad sunnitud alistuma.

Major Murray ja Black Watch Highlanders Fort Washingtoni lahingus 17. novembril 1776 Ameerika vabadussõjas

Briti rügemendid Washingtoni lahingus:
Grenadieride, kergejalaväe ja jalakaitsjate liitpataljonid (1., 2. ja 3. kaardivägi)
4., 10., 15., 23. (Royal Welsh Fusiliers), 27., 28., 33., 38., 42. (Black Watch), 43., 52. Foot and Fraser’s Highlanders.

Ameerika rügemendid Washingtoni lahingus:
Kolonel Shee 3. Pennsylvania rügement, kolonel Magawi 5. Pennsylvania rügement, kolonel Moses Rawling ’s Maryland ja Virginia laskurid ning kolonel Baxteri Bucksi maakonna miilits, Pennsylvania.

Kaart Fort Washingtoni lahingust 17. novembril 1776 Ameerika vabadussõjas: John Fawkesi kaart

Kasutaja Washingtoni lahing:
1776. aasta novembris oli ameeriklaste viimane positsioon Manhattani saarel Fort Washingtoni ümbrus põhjaosas, tuntud kui Harlem Heights. Kindral Nathan Greene käskis Ameerika positsioonidel diskreetselt tagasi astuda, kui ta seda vajalikuks peab.

Hesseni ohvitser ja musketär: Fort Washingtoni lahing 17. novembril 1776 Ameerika vabadussõjas

Kindral Howe kavandas kolm rünnakut. Brigaadikindral Lord Percy pidi ründama saare lõunast ülespoole. Brigaadikindel Matthews koos kergejalaväe ja kaardiväega pidi ületama Harlemi jõe ja ründama idaküljel kolonel Baxteri juhitud Bucksi maakonna miilitsa, keda toetas kindral Cornwallis koos grenaderide ja 33. jalaga.

Peamine rünnak pidi olema Rawlingsi positsioonile kindral von Knyphauseni juhitud Hessi vägede poolt. 42. istungil pidi kolonel Sterlingi juhtimisel samal küljel toime tulema täiendav rünnak.

15. novembri alguses 1776 kutsus Howe Fort Washingtoni alla andma. Sellest keelduti. Briti patareid, mis olid paigutatud Harlemi jõe kaugemale, ja fregatt Pearl alustasid Ameerika positsioonide pommitamist.

16. novembril 1776 kell 10 hommikul läks Lord Percy rünnakule. Keskpäeval maandus brigadir Matthews Manhattanile ja alustas oma rünnakut.

Kolonel Baxter tapeti ja tema Pennsylvania miilits põgenes linnusesse.

Fort Washingtoni lahing 17. novembril 1776 Ameerika vabadussõjas

Knyphausen ületas Kingsbridge'is Manhattani ja hakkas kell 10 hommikul liikuma lõunasse. Kaks Hessi kolonni ründasid Ameerika positsioone ja pärast rasket võitlust langesid Rawlingsi laskurid linnusesse tagasi.

Maandumine idaküljel: lahing Fort Fortis 17. novembril 1776 Ameerika vabadussõjas

Percy ründas Cadwalladerit lõunas ja 42. maandus idaküljel ning lükkas Cadwalladeri positsiooni taha sisemaale, sundides ameeriklasi linnusesse tagasi langema.

Kuna kõik Ameerika väed olid Washingtoni kindluses tugeva tule all, oli Magaw sunnitud alistuma Hessi kindralile Knyphausenile.

Ohvreid kl Washingtoni lahing: Briti pool sai 450 inimohvrit, millest 320 olid hesslased. Ameeriklased kannatasid 2900 inimest, millest ülekaalus olid vangid.

Järelmeetmed Washingtoni lahing: Pärast lahingut Fort Lee Hudsoni läänekaldal hüljati ning Washington ja Continental Arm taandusid Delaware'i.

Margaret Corbin 17. novembril 1776 Washingtoni Fort lahingus Ameerika vabadussõjas

Anekdoodid Washingtoni lahingust:

  • Briti vägedest olid nõudlike ülesannete täitmiseks korpused, mida regulaarselt kasutati grenaderide, kergejalaväe ja jalavalvurite liitpataljonides ning 33. ja 42. jalaga (Black Watch). Liinirügementidest omas 33. järjekindlalt kõrget mainet 1740. ja 1750. aastatel ning teda tunti kui ‘muster‘.
  • Ameeriklanna, meditsiiniõde Margaret Corbin, saatis oma abikaasa John Corbini, kui ta asus püssipositsioonile, silmitsi kindral von Knyphauseni hesslaste rünnakuga Kingsbridge'is. John Corbini surma järel asus Margaret oma kohale relvastusmeeskonnas, kuni ta sai haavata. Pärast lahingut vahetati Margaret haavatud võitlejana, ta jätkas teenimist Ameerika mandriarmees ja talle määrati pärast sõda pension.

Viited Washingtoni lahing:

Briti armee ajalugu, autor Sir John Fortescue

Revolutsioonisõda, autor Christopher Ward

Ameerika revolutsioon, autor Brendan Morrissey

Ameerika vabadussõja eelmine lahing on Valgete tasandike lahing

Ameerika vabadussõja järgmine lahing on Trentoni lahing


Washingtoni lahing

Washingtoni kindlus asus mäe otsas Manhattani loodeosas umbes 230 jalga Hudsoni jõe kohal. Mõne arvates "Ameerika Gibraltar" pakkus linnus ja selle sõsarinstallatsioon Fort Lee Briti mereväele väljavaadet keelata Hudsoni kontroll. Fort Washington oli läänest ründamatu, kuid ülejäänud kolmest suunast oli see vähem muljetavaldav. See oli ehitatud viiepoolse muldkonstruktsioonina, millel oli mitu kõrvalist kahtlust, millest tähelepanuväärseim oli Fort Tryon. Fort Washington oli puudega suhteliselt väikese suuruse ja siseveevarustuse puudumise tõttu. Naaberriigi Fort Lee ehitamise ajal 1776. aasta suvel soovitas kindral Israel Putnam kindluste läheduses jõkke uputada vanad laevad, et pakkuda Briti mereväele täiendavaid takistusi. Seda ettevaatusabinõu kasutati ja see suurendas mõlema kindluse ülema Nathanael Greene'i veendumust, et tema positsioon on põhimõtteliselt kindel. Pärast ameeriklaste kaotust oktoobri lõpus White Plainsil otsustas kindralmajor William Howe loobuda otsesest rünnakust kontinentaalarmee vastu ja pööras tähelepanu hoopis Fort Washingtonile. Novembri alguses andis Ameerika desertöör William Demont Briti ohvitseridele üle kindluse joonised, mis võimaldasid neil oma rünnakuplaane maksimaalse efekti saavutamiseks täpsustada. 5. novembril sõitsid Hudsonist üles kolm Briti laeva, libisesid linnustest mööda ja vältisid uppunud vrakke. See sündmus häiris sügavalt George Washingtoni, kes oli kandnud märkimisväärseid kahtlusi Fort Washingtoni vallutamise üle. Enesekindel Greene lükkas Washingtoni ettepaneku kindlus maha jätta, jättes paigalduse juhtima Pennsylvania koloneli Robert Mcgawi ja liitus New Jersey peakorteris. 15. novembril saadeti Briti ohvitser vaherahu lipu all Fort Washingtoni. Ta nõudis rajatisele viivitamatut alistumist, seejärel ähvardas, et kui tema pakkumine tagasi lükatakse, ei anta kaitsjatele eelmises lahingus veerandit. Mcgaw lükkas pakkumise tagasi. Järgmisel hommikul avasid Briti väed ümbritsevates küngastes kindluse ja selle kõrvaliste rajatiste pihta suurtükitule. Washington, Putnam ja Greene ületasid Fort Lee'st Hudsoni, et uurida olukordi Fort Washingtonis, kuid jõudsid järeldusele, et nad ei saa abi pakkuda ja pöördusid tagasi New Jersey osariiki. Seejärel alustasid britid koordineeritud kolmeosalist rünnakut ja neile osutus esialgu karm vastupanu. Ameerika sõdurid Fort Tryonis, sealhulgas Margaret Cochran Corbin, võitlesid kindlalt enne tagasilööki või vangistamist. Nii palju sõdureid väljastpoolt positsioone otsis varjupaika Fort Washingtonist, et selle tõhusust vähendas ülerahvastatus. Olulise panuse andsid Briti eesmärgile Saksa väed kolonel Johann Ralli juhtimisel, kui neil õnnestus linnuse järsk põhjasein skaleerida. Pärastlõunaks oli kolonel Mcgaw'le selge, et lahing kaotati ja ta võttis vastu pakkumise alistuda. Ameerika kaitsjate ähvardatud tapmist ei toimunud, seda otsust langes mõnel pool ümmargune kriitika. Mitmed Briti ohvitserid uskusid, et kui Fort Washingtoni sõdurid oleks tapetud, oleks Ameerika otsusekindlus nõrgenenud ja sõda oleks kiiresti lõppenud. Britid loetlesid 67 hukkunut, 335 haavatut ja kuus kadunut. Ameeriklane kaotas 54 hukkunut ja üle 2800 vangi - see oli tohutu löök Patrioti eesmärgile. Lisaks sattus Briti kätte 43 suurtükki ja mitmesugust elutähtsat varustust. Paljud vangistatud Ameerika ohvitserid vabastati hiljem, kuid tavalistel sõduritel polnud nii palju õnne. Sadu vangistati uskumatult kehvadel Briti vangilaevadel, kus nad surid arvukalt alatoitluse ja haiguste tõttu. Fort Washingtoni kaotamine avaldas ülemjuhatajale sügavat mõju. Washington kahetses, et lubas Greene'il kindluse kaitsmisel viimase sõna öelda. Tulevikus tugines kindral vähem teiste ettepanekutele ja rohkem oma sisetundele. Teine kaotuse tulemus oli Charles Lee üha kriitilisem hoiak. Kunagi ei peitnud ta oma valgust põõsastiku alla, pidas Lee otse Kongressi liikmetega kirjavahetust, soovitades asjatundmatu Washington välja vahetada ja pakkudes end häbematult asendajaks.


Washingtoni lahing

Fort Washingtoni lahing oli Briti võit ja jõhker kaotus ameeriklastele, kelle ohvrid olid üle 6 korra suuremad kui Briti ohvrid.

1776. aasta novembris oli Fort Washington ainus punkt Manhattani saarel, mida ameeriklased veel omasid. Kontinentaalne armee paiknes kindral Nathanael Greene juhtimisel Harlemi kõrgustel Washingtoni kindluse lähedal. Nad taandusid siia pärast Valgete tasandike lahingut. Kindral Nathan Greene vastutas nende positsiooni jälgimise eest brittide ees ja kui ta pidas seda vajalikuks, andis ta käsu taganeda.

Britid, keda juhtis kindral William Howe, kavandasid kolme rünnakustrateegiat: kindrallord Percy pidi ründama lõunast, kindral Mathews ja lord Cornwallis pidid ületama Harlemi jõe ja ründama idast, samal ajal kui peamine rünnak oli Kindral Von Knyphausen ja Hessi väed Ameerika ja#8217 positsiooni rindel. Kindral Howe otsustas, et saadab ameeriklastele sõnumi, andes neile võimaluse alistuda enne rünnaku saatmist.

Vaade rünnakule Fort Washingtoni vastu ja mässuliste redoutidele New Yorgi lähedal 16. novembril 1776 Briti ja Hessi brigaadide poolt. Thomas Davies umbes 1776. aastal. | Avalik domeen, New Yorgi avaliku raamatukogu viisakalt Wikimedia Commonsis.

15. novembri varahommikul 1776 saadeti Ameerika kindlusesse sõnumitooja, kes palus neil alistuda. Ameeriklased, teadmata, mis nende väikese kindluse ees ootab, keeldusid. Siis läks kõik põrgu lahti. Kell 10 ründasid Percy ’s mehed, neile järgnesid keskpäeval Mathews ja Cornwallis. Nad said kindlusele augu ja Briti miilitsad tulid sisse.

Sel hetkel ületasid hesslased jõe ja hakkasid patrioote peast ründama. Ameeriklased olid täiesti hämmingus ja olid sunnitud linnuse sisse põgenema. Kuna kõik ameeriklased tungisid Fort Washingtoni sisse ja britid lakkamatult nende pihta tulistasid, olid patrioodid sunnitud Fort Washingtoni alistuma ja loobuma oma viimasest osast Manhattani saarel.

See oli Ameerika armeele kurb kaotus. Nad kaotasid võitluses Fort Washingtoni kaotamise eest 2900 sõdurit. Britid kaotasid vaid 450 meest, enne kui ameeriklased oma positsiooni loovutasid.


Washingtoni kindlus

16. novembril 1776 Manhattani saarel peetud Fort Washingtoni lahing oli kindral Washingtoni katastroofilise New Yorgi kampaania viimane laastav peatükk.

Pärast augustis Long Islandil suure võidu saamist hakkas Briti kindral William Howe septembri keskel New Yorgi vastu liikuma. Kuna Washington ei soovinud Manhattanit täielikult hüljata, andis ta kindral Nathanael Greene'ile korralduse kaitsta kindlust. Kuigi Washingtoni linn oli kiiruga ehitatud, tegi ta laastamistööd Briti sõjalaevadele, mis üritasid Hudsoni jõest üles sõita. Samamoodi õnnestus see novembri alguses Hessi rünnakute tagasilöömisel. Need varased õnnestumised andsid Greene'ile ja kindluse garnisoniülemale kolonel Robert Magawile vale turvatunde.

Pärast 28. oktoobril White Plainsi lahingus Ameerika armeele veel ühe lüüasaamist põhjustanud Howe otsustas keskenduda oma tähelepanu Fort Washingtonile. Kui kindral Washington jäi Hudsoni vastasküljele, oli viimane Ameerika kindlus Manhattanil täiesti üksi.

Nähes, kui ebakindel oli Ameerika positsioon, alustas Howe kolmeosalist rünnakut Fort Washingtoni ja selle väliste kaitsetööde vastu. Ühendatud Briti-Hessia ründejõud koos 8000 mehega ületasid kindluse 3000 kaitsjat. Sellegipoolest nautisid ameeriklased esialgset edu, põhjustades suuri inimohvreid ja lükates tagasi kaks Hessi süüdistust.

See edu ei kestnud. Mõõn hakkas pöörduma, kui 3000 meest Briti kindrali Hugh Percy juhtimisel lõi läbi kindluse lõuna pool olevate kaitseliinide. Peaaegu samaaegselt ületasid kindral Edward Mathew ja kindral Charles Lord Cornwallis kindluse idapoolse kaitse, saates mandrid rüselusse tagurpidi. Kui välimistööd olid kõrgema jõu poolt igast küljest rikutud ja ümbritsetud, mõistis Magaw, et olukord on lootusetu.


Pelli punkt

Pell’s Pointi lahing on üks osa New Yorgi kampaaniatest 1776. aasta augustist oktoobrini. Briti väed võitsid patrioodid järjestikustes lahingutes Brooklynis ja Manhattanil. Ometi vältis mandriarmee täielikku hävitamist, kui ajastas taganemisi ja kasutas ära brittide vastumeelsust edasi liikuda. Oktoobriks 1776 plaanis Briti kindral William Howe New Yorgis Harlem Heightsis Washingtoni mehi tabada.

12. oktoobri 1776 varahommikul kerkis Long Island Soundi vee kohal hõljuvast tihedast udust välja kaheksakümmend Briti vägesid transportivat praami. Praamide maandumisel sadas fregatt avamerel Manhattani Throgi kaela poolsaarel kaanonitule alla. Briti kindral William Howe alustas oma amfiibrünnakut New Yorgi vastu.

Howe lootis ümbritseda ja lõksu püüda saarel kontinentaalse armee ja selle ülemjuhataja George Washingtoni. Vaid kakskümmend viis patrioodisõdurit Pennsylvania koloneli Edward Handi all olid valmis Throgi kaelast maandudes kohtuma Howe 4000 sõduriga, peamiselt hesslastega. Handi mehed liikusid kiiresti, põletades silla üle poolsaare väikese oja ja asetades end puukuhja taha. Sellest vaatenurgast valisid ameeriklasest laskurid pudelikaela voolavad punased mantlid ja hoidsid edukalt tohutut armeed, kuni saabus täiendus. Lõpuks käskis Howe rünnaku jätkamise asemel taanduda. Britid laagrisid saarel kolm ööd, andes Washingtonile lisaaega reformimiseks ja ettevalmistusteks.

Howe mehed lahkusid laevalt, maandudes taas kohas, mis asub Throgi kaelast kolm miili põhja pool ja mida nimetatakse Pell's Pointiks (praegu Pelham Bay Park). Briti pealetungi järel paigutas Continental'i ülem John Glover oma 750 sõdurist koosneva väeosa, mis koosnes peamiselt Massachusettsi meestest, maastikku risustavate looduskivimüüride taha. Punamantlite edenedes tõusid patrioodipüssid püsti, tulistasid ja taandusid järgmise seina taha. Punamantlid läksid ette, uskudes, et neil on eelis, vaid tulistada iga seina taga asuvast varjatud teisest Patriootide veerust tulega. Kuigi see polnud Ameerika võit, ei viivitanud Patriots'i taktika Pell’s Pointi lahingus brittide sissetungi eduga, põhjustas brittidele suuri kaotusi ja ostis Washingtoni aja.

Pärast kihlust kolis Washington oma ülemjuhataja kindral Charles Lee nõudmisel oma väed Valgele tasandikule, mis päästis armee Briti kahepaiksete rünnakute järgmisest lainest, kuid ei takistanud neid kaotamast. järgnenud Valgete tasandike lahing 28. oktoobril 1776.


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    Uus-Meremaast saab ametlikult Suurbritannia koloonia Napoleon Guerin (NYC) patenteeris korgist valmistatud elupäästjad. Vene kohus mõistis Fjodor Dostojevski surmanuhtluse eest valitsusvastase tegevuse eest, mis on seotud radikaalse intellektuaalse rühmitusega. Tema karistus muudetakse hiljem Amsterdami postkontorisse. Nieuwezijds Voorburgwal avab Moskvas Campbelli jaama lahingus Moskva lahingus Aleksandr Ostrovski näidendi & quot; Groza & quot;, 492 põhjuslikku seost Konföderatsiooni taandumine Lovejoy's, Gruusia Hispaania parlamendis, ja Quorthe Cortes valib ametlikult Itaalia vürsti Amedeo Ferdinando Maria Hispaania kuningaks Amadeo I Ühenduseks esmakordselt renditud New Yorgi osariigis Gundeti lahingus: Etioopia keiser Yohannes võitis egiptlasi William Bonwilli, patenteeris hambamalli, et mõjutada kulda õõnsustesse Briti püssipaat HMS Flirt tulistab ja hävitab Abari küla Nigeeris Dekoraatorite väed jõuavad Lääne -Aafrikasse Nikki ica

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1916 esietendus NYC -s Eugene O'Neilli "Bound East Cardiffile"

    I. Berlin, V. Herbert, H. Blossomsi muusikalised esilinastused NYC -s Vene La Satannaya laskemoonavabrikus plahvatas, tappes 1000 Briti okupeeritud Tel Avivi ja Jaffat saada taastatud Ungari Kuningriigi regendiks Austraalia Qantas Airways, mis asutati Wintonis, Queenslandis kui Queensland ja Northern Territory Aerial Services Limited 1. postmargi mõõtja asub Stamford Connis

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1922 paavst Pius XI kutsub Belgia rahvast ühinema

Ottomani impeeriumi lõpp

1922 Ottomani kaliif, sultan Mehmed VI palub Briti armeelt abi

Viimane Ottomani sultan Mehmed VI lahkub pärast monarhia kaotamist oma paleest Istanbulis
    Cleveland Bulldogs (endine Canton) kaotab Frankford Yellowjacketsile, lõpetab 31-mängulise kaotuseta seeria (NFL ja võimsa jalgpalli rekord) Ameerika Ateismi Edendamise Assotsiatsioon (NY)

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1933 Brasiilia president Getulio Vargas kuulutab end diktaatoriks

Muusika Esietendus

1935 esietendub NYC -s Richard Rodgersi ja Lorenz Harti muusikal & quot; Jumbo & quot;

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1935. aastal lõpeb pärast 420 etendust New Yorgi 46. tänava teatris Cole Porteri muusikal "Kõik läheb"

    Saksa õhujõud alustasid Madridi pommitamist

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    Saksa U-paadi torpeedotanker Sliedrecht Iirimaa lähedal II maailmasõda: vastuseks Saksamaa tasandile Coventry, Inglismaa kaks päeva varem, pommitasid kuninglikud õhujõud Hamburgi. Saksa väed vallutavad Kertshi (tõenäoliselt) USA B-17 lendavate kindluste rünnaku Sidi Ahmedi lennujaamas Teise maailmasõja ajal: Ameerika pommitajad löövad Norra Saksamaal Vemorkis hüdroelektrijaama ja raskevee tehast. USA 9. diviis ja 1. armee rünnakud Geilenkircheni Yeshiva kolledžis (ülikool), prahitud NY -s, USA esimene juudi kolledž UNESCO asutamine, ÜRO haridus-, teadus- ja kultuuriorganisatsioon Glenn Seaborg, James, Morgan ja Albert Ghiorso avastasid kaks uut elementi kuulutati välja: ameerikium (aatomnumber 95) ja curium (aatomnumber 96) demonstreerisid Brüsselis 15 000 inimest natside kerge karistuse vastu

NBA Rekord

1957 Celtic Bill Russell püstitas NBA rekordi-49 lauapalli-võitis Philadelphiat 111: 89

Mõrv Huvi

1957 ameerika mõrvar ja keremees Ed Gein tapab oma viimase ohvri

Kõik silmad Briti rokenrolli sünnikohal

1957. aasta BBC esimene popmuusikasaade "Kuus-viis erilist" edastatakse Londoni pisikesest kohvikust 2i's Coffee Bar

    Richard Rodgersi ja Oscar Hammerstein II muusikal "Muusika heli" avatakse NYC -s Lunt Fontanne'i teatris 1443 etendusele. NL -i löögimeister Dick Groat võitis MVP Ühendkuningriik piirab sisserännet Rahvaste Ühenduse riikidest

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1961 USA president JFK otsustab suurendada sõjalist abi Lõuna -Vietnamile ilma USA lahinguvägesid kohustamata

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1962 Wilt Chamberlain NBA SF Warriorsist kogub 73 punkti ja NY Knicks

    Toledo, OH ajalehtede streik algas

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1966 Piraatide ääremängija Roberto Clemente nimetati NL MVP -ks

    Ilmub The Temptations album "Parimad hitid" (Aasta Billboardi album 1967) Derry kodanike tegevuskomitee eirab Põhja -Iirimaal Derry linnas marssimise keeldu, marssides hinnanguliselt 15 000 inimesega 1968. aasta laia veresauna 347 kuni 504 relvastamata lõunaosas USA sõdurite Vietnami tsiviilisikutest teatati esmakordselt USA presidendist Nixonist sai ametis olles esimene president, kes osales hooajal NFL-i mängus: Dallas Cowboys võitis Washingtoni Redskinsit 41-28 President Nguyen Cao Ky kaitseb operatsioone Kambodžas, sest kommunistlikud jõud võivad Lõuna-Vietnami 24 tunni jooksul vallutada, kui seal tegutsevad väed tagasi tuuakse. Comptoni uurimus avaldatakse, tunnistades, et interneerituid koheldi halvasti, kuid lükkas tagasi väited süstemaatilise jõhkruse või piinamise kohta Iirimaa) USA suurendab õhutegevust, et toetada Kambodža valitsust, kuna võitlus läheneb Phnom Penh & quo -le tDear Oscar & quot avatakse NYC Playhouse teatris viieks etenduseks

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1972 Suurbritannia peaminister Edward Heath hoiatab ühepoolse iseseisvusdeklaratsiooni eest


Ameerika legendid

George Washington Ameerika revolutsioonis, autor Junius B. Stearns, 1854.

Enam kui sajandi jooksul oli Inglismaal 13 kolooniat, mis ulatusid Kanada ja Florida vahelisele rannikule. Suurbritannia parlament võttis vastu seadusi, mis tulid kasuks Inglise kaupmeestele, ning oli 1750. aastaks vastu võtnud palju seadusi, mis soodustasid kaubandust tema kolooniatega. Mõned seadused keelasid neil kaubelda teiste riikidega või isegi mõnel juhul üksteisega. Kui kõik need seadused oleksid jäigalt ellu viidud, oleks võinud suur revolutsioon enne seda toimuda. See on ajajoon sündmustest läbi revolutsioonilise sõja, mis näeks rahvuse sündi ja maailma vabaduse majakat.

Briti reformid ja koloonia vastupanu:

1764

Ilma esinduseta ei maksustata

Veebruar 1764 – James Otis nõuab tungivalt ühist reageerimist Inglismaa hiljutistele tegudele. Väljend “Maksustamine ilma esinduseta on türannia ja#8221 omistatakse tavaliselt James Otisele

Juuli 1764 – James Otis avaldab “ Briti kolooniate õigused kinnitatud ja tõestatud. ”

August 1764 – Boston, Massachusetts, kaupmehed alustavad Briti luksuskaupade boikoteerimist.

1765

22. märts 1765 – Suurbritannia parlament võttis vastu templiseaduse.

24. märts 1765 ja#8211 Kvartaliseadus kohustas Ameerika koloniste majutama Briti vägesid ja varustama neid toiduga.

Juuli 1765 – Moodustatakse tempelseaduse vastane salaorganisatsioon The Sons of Liberty.

Detsember 1765 – Üle 200 Bostoni kaupmehe keeldub maksmast templimaksu.

1766

Jaanuar 1766 – New Yorgi assamblee keeldub kvartaliseadust täielikult jõustamast.

18. märts 1766 – Margiseadus tunnistatakse kehtetuks.

August 1766 – New Yorgis puhkes vägivald Briti sõdurite ja Vabaduspoegade liikmete vahel.

1768

Juuli 1768 – Kaupmehed Bostonis ja New Yorgis boikoteerivad Briti kaupu

September 1768 – Inglise sõjalaevad sõidavad Bostoni sadamasse, jättes kaks rügementi Inglise vägesid korda hoidma.

1770

Märts 1770 – Toimub Bostoni veresaun ja Briti väed lasevad Massachusettsi osariigis Bostonis maha neli töötajat.

1773

16. detsember 1773 – Bostoni teeõhtu toimub siis, kui Massachusettsi patrioodid, kes on riietatud mohawk -indiaanlasteks, protestivad Briti teeseaduse vastu, visates Bostoni sadamasse kastid teed.

1774

1774 – The First Continental Congress meets in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

March 1774 – The Coercive Acts, called Intolerable Acts by Americans, are implemented.

The American Revolution Begins:

1775

February 9, 1775 – The English Parliament declares Massachusetts to be in a state of rebellion.

April 14, 1775 – Massachusetts Governor Thomas Gage is ordered by the British to enforce the Coercive Acts and suppress any rebellion among colonists by using all necessary force.

April 18, 1775 – General Thomas Gage orders 700 British soldiers to Concord to destroy the colonists’ weapons depot. Paul Revere and William Dawes are sent from Boston to warn the colonists. Samuel Adams and John Hancock, who were hiding in Lexington, Massachusetts were able to escape.

April 19, 1775 – The first shots are fired at Lexington and Concord, Massachusetts where the weapons depot is destroyed. “Minute Men” force British troops back to Boston. George Washington takes command of the Continental Army.

April 19, 1775 – American Militia defeated British regulars at Concord, Massachusetts.

April 23, 1775 – The Provincial Congress in Massachusetts orders 13,600 American soldiers to be mobilized. Colonial volunteers from all over New England assemble and head for Boston and begin a year-long siege of the city.

May 10, 1775 – The Second Continental Congress convenes in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania with John Hancock elected as its president.

May 10, 1775 – American forces led by Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold capture Fort Ticonderoga and its artillery in New York.

May 15, 1775 – The Second Continental Congress places the colonies in a state of defense.

Battle of Lexington, April 19, 1775. illustration by John H. Daniels & Son, 1903.

June 15, 1775 – The Second Continental Congress unanimously votes to appoint George Washington general and commander-in-chief of the new Continental Army.

June 17, 1775 – The first major fight between British and American troops occurs at Boston, Massachusetts in the Battle of Bunker Hill.

July 3, 1775 – General George Washington assumes command of Continental Army, about 17,000 men, at Cambridge, Massachusetts.

July 5, 1775 – The Continental Congress adopts the Olive Branch Petition which appeals directly to King George III for reconciliation.

July 6, 1775 – The Continental Congress issues a Declaration on the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms. It details the colonists’ reasons for fighting the British and states the Americans are “resolved to die free men rather than live as slaves.”

The American Revolution, the American War of Independence, led by George Washington begins between Great Britain and the 13 British colonies in North America.

July 26, 1775 – An American Post Office is established in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania with Benjamin as Postmaster General.

August 1775 – King George III refuses even to look at the petition submitted by the Continental Congress and instead issues a proclamation declaring the Americans to be in a state of open rebellion.

November 10-21, 1775 – Patriots are sieged by the British at Ninety-Six, South Carolina. The battle ended in a truce.

November 28, 1775 – The American Navy is established by Congress.

November 29, 1775- Congress appoints a secret committee to seek help from European nations.

December 1775 – Congress is informed that France may offer support in the war against Britain.

December 11, 1775 – Virginia and North Carolina patriots routed Loyalist troops and burned Norfolk.

December 22, 1775 – At Great Canebrake, South Carolina Colonel William Thomson with 1,500 rangers and militia captured a force of Loyalists.

December 23, 1775 – King George III issues a royal proclamation closing the American colonies to all commerce and trade, to take effect in March of 1776.

December 23-30, 1775 – During the Snow Campaign in South Carolina against Loyalists, the Patriot militia is impeded by 15″ of snow.

1776

February 27, 1776 – North Carolina militia defeated South Carolina Loyalists at Moore’s Creek, North Carolina inflicting heavy casualties.

View of Boston from Dorchester Heights, by Robert Havell, 1841.

March 4-17, 1776 – At Dorchester Heights, Massachusetts, American forces capture Dorchester Heights which overlooks Boston harbor. The British evacuate Boston and set sail for Halifax.

March 17, 1776 – British Navy evacuated Boston, Massachusetts and moved to Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Washington’s Army then occupies Boston.

April 6, 1776 – The Continental Congress declares colonial shipping ports open to all traffic except the British

April 12, 1776 – The North Carolina assembly is the first to empower its delegates in the Continental Congress to vote for independence from Britain.

May 2, 1776 – The Continental Congress gets the much needed foreign support they had been hoping for. King Louis XVI of France commits one million dollars in arms and munitions. Spain then also promises support.

May 10, 1776 – The Continental Congress authorizes each of the 13 colonies to form provincial governments.

Leaders of the Continental Congress, John Adams, Morris, Hamilton, Jefferson, by A. Tholey

June 7, 1776 – Richard Henry Lee, a Virginia delegate to the Continental Congress, presents a formal resolution calling for America to declare its independence from Britain. Congress decides to postpone its decision on this until July.

June 8, 1776 – Patriot attempt to take British position in Three Rivers, Canada failed.

June 11, 1776 – Congress appoints a committee to draft a declaration of independence. Committee members are Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Roger Livingston, and Roger Sherman. Thomas Jefferson is chosen by the committee to prepare the first draft of the declaration, which he completes in one day.

June 28, 1776 – Thomas Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence is ready and is presented to Congress, with changes made by John Adams and Benjamin Franklin.

June 28, 1776 – At Sullivan’s Island, South Carolina, British naval attack failed when the palmetto logs held against the bombardment.

June-July, 1776 – A massive British war fleet arrives in New York Harbor consisting of 30 battleships with 1200 cannon, 30,000 soldiers, 10,000 sailors, and 300 supply ships, under the command of General William Howe and his brother Admiral Lord Richard Howe.

July 1, 1776 – Incited by British royal agents, the Cherokee attacked along the entire southern frontier.

July 2, 1776 – Twelve of 13 colonial delegations (New York abstains) vote in support of Richard Henry Lee’s resolution for independence.

Declaration of Independence by Arthur Szyk

July 4, 1776 – The Congress formally endorses Thomas Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence, with copies to be sent to all of the colonies.

July 12, 1776 – As a show of force, two British frigates sail up the Hudson River blasting their guns. Peace feelers are then extended to the Americans. At the request of the British, General George Washington meets with General William Howe’s representatives in New York and listens to vague offers of clemency for the American rebels. Washington politely declines before he leaves.

July 15, 1776 – At Lyndley’s Fort, South Carolina, Patriots defended against attack by Indians and the British dressed as Indians.

August 1, 1776 – At Seneca, South Carolina, Americans are ambushed by Cherokee Indians. Patriot forces saved by a mounted charge.

August 10, 1776 – Cherokee Indians defeated by Andrew Pickens at Tugaloo River, South Carolina.

August 1776 – In the Ring Fight in South Carolina, 200 Cherokee Indians attacked Andrew Pickens and 25 militia. From a circle, firing in turn, the Patriots held off attackers until a rescue force arrived.

August 12, 1776 – Colonel David Williamson and Andrew Pickens defeated a large Cherokee war party and burned the Indian town near Tamassee, South Carolina.

August 27, 1776 – George Washington’s army defeated is defeated but, escaped by night in the fog at Long Island, New York.

The Battle of Long Island, New York by Virtue and Co. Click for prints & products.

August 27-29, 1776 – General William Howe leads 15,000 soldiers against Washington’s army in the Battle of Long Island, New York. Washington, outnumbered two to one, suffers a severe defeat as his army is outflanked and scatters. The Americans retreat to Brooklyn Heights, facing possible capture by the British or even total surrender.

September 11, 1776 – A peace conference is held on Staten Island, New York with British Admiral, Lord Richard Howe, meeting American representatives including John Adams and Benjamin Franklin. The conference fails, however, as Howe demands the colonists revoke the Declaration of Independence.

September 16, 1776 – After evacuating New York City, Washington’s army repulses a British attack during the Battle of Harlem Heights in upper Manhattan, New York. Several days later, fire engulfs New York City and destroys over 300 buildings.

September 19, 1776 – Colonel David Williamson’s patriots were attacked by Cherokee south of Franklin, North Carolina in a gorge known as the Black Hole. Americans eventually cleared the pass.

September 22, 1776 – After he is caught spying on British troops on Long Island, New York, Nathan Hale is executed without a trial, his last words, “I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country.”

September 26, 1776 – Congress appoints Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, and Silas Deane to negotiate treaties with European governments. Franklin and Deane then travel to France seeking financial and military aid.

October 11, 1776 – With makeshift boats on Lake Champlain, Benedict Arnold engaged a British squadron. Arnold was defeated but delayed the British until it was too close to winter to continue their campaign.

Yankee Doodle, A.M. Williard, 1776.

October 28, 1776 – After evacuating his main forces from Manhattan, George Washington’s army suffers heavy casualties in the Battle of White Plains, New York from General William Howe’s forces. General George Washington then retreats westward.

November 16, 1776 – American commander surrendered Fort Washington, New York to the Hessians.

November 20, 1776 – Lord Charles Cornwallis captured Fort Lee, New Jersey. Nathanael Greene abandoned the position.

December 6, 1776 – The naval base at Newport, Rhode Island is captured by the British.

December 11, 1776 – General George Washington takes his troops across the Delaware River into Pennsylvania.

December 12, 1776 – With concerns of a possible British attack, the Continental Congress abandons Philadelphia for Baltimore, Maryland.

December 26, 1776 – General George Washington re-crosses the Delaware River and conducts a surprise raid on a Hessian brigade and defeated it. Known as the Battle of Trenton.

1777

George Washington in military uniform, by Rembrandt Peale.

January 3, 1777 – A second victory for General George Washington as his troops defeat the British at Princeton and drive them back toward New Brunswick.

Winter, 1777 – General George Washington establishes winter quarters at Morristown, New Jersey. During the harsh winter, Washington’s army shrinks to about a thousand men as enlistments die and deserters flee the hardships. By spring, with the arrival of recruits, Washington will have 9,000 men.

March 12, 1777 – The Continental Congress returns to Philadelphia from Baltimore after Washington’s successes against the British in New Jersey.

April 27, 1777 – American troops under Benedict Arnold defeat the British at Ridgefield, Connecticut.

May 20, 1777 – The Cherokee sued for peace and lost most of their land east of the mountains in the Treaty of DeWitt’s Corner, South Carolina.

June 14, 1777 – The flag of the United States consisting of 13 stars and 13 white and red stripes is mandated by Congress.

June 14, 1777 – John Paul Jones is chosen by Congress to captain the 18 gun vessel Ranger with a mission to raid coastal towns of England.

June 17, 1777 – A British force of 7,700 men under General John Burgoyne invades from Canada, sailing down Lake Champlain toward Albany, planning to link up with General William Howe who will come north from New York City, thus cutting off New England from the rest of the colonies.

July 6, 1777 – General John Burgoyne’s troops surprise the Americans with the capture of Fort Ticonderoga, New York on Lake Champlain. Its military supplies are greatly needed by Washington’s forces. The loss of the fort is a tremendous blow to American morale.

July 23, 1777 – British General William Howe, with 15,000 men, sets sail from New York for the Chesapeake Bay to capture Philadelphia, instead of sailing north to meet up with General John Burgoyne.

July 27, 1777 – Marquis de Lafayette, a 19-year-old French aristocrat, arrives in Philadelphia and volunteers to serve without pay. Congress appoints him as a major general in the Continental Army. Lafayette will become one of General Washington’s most trusted aides.

Continental Army by Henry Ogden

August 1, 1777 – General John Burgoyne reaches the Hudson River after a grueling month spent crossing 23 miles of wilderness separating the southern tip of Lake Champlain from the northern tip of the Hudson River.

August 6, 1777 – British column with Iroquois warriors attack Oriskany, New York from Oswego. rescue troops ambushed.

August 16, 1777 – British General John Burgoyne detached Hessians, British regulars, Loyalists and Iroquois against Bennington, Vermont. American militia attacked and defeated the British. Known as the Battle of Bennington.

August 23, 1777 – Benedict Arnold intended to siege Fort Stanwix, New York but the Indians and Loyalists deserted and the British retired.

August 25, 1777 – British General William Howe disembarks at Chesapeake Bay with his troops.

September 9-11, 1777 – At Brandywine, Pennsylvania, General George Washington and the main American Army of 10,500 men are driven back toward Philadelphia by General William Howe’s British troops. Both sides suffer heavy losses.

September 11, 1777 – Once again worried about an attack, Congress leaves Philadelphia and resettles in Lancaster, Pennsylvania.

September 26, 1777- British forces under General William Howe occupied Philadelphia. Congress relocates again to York, Pennsylvania.

Surrender of General Burgoyne at Saratoga New York

October 17, 1777 – General John Burgoyne surrendered his British Army to American Major General Horatio Gates at Saratoga, New York. It is the first major American victory of the Revolutionary War.

September 21, 1777 – British troops attack with bayonets and surprised Americans at Paoli, Pennsylvania. Americans called it the “Paoli Massacre.”

October 4, 1777 – At Germantown, Pennsylvania, an American attack on British positions failed.

November 15, 1777 – Congress adopts the Articles of Confederation as the government of the new United States of America. Conditions are terrible for the soldiers.

December 17, 1777 – At Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, the Continental Army led by General George Washington sets up winter quarters.

1778

February 6, 1778 – France signed a treaty with the Continental Congress which would provide troops, ships, and supplies to America.

George Washington at Valley Forge in 1777 by P. Haas

February 23, 1778 – Baron von Steuben of Prussia arrives at Valley Forge to join the Continental Army. He then begins much-needed training and drilling of Washington’s troops, now suffering from poor morale resulting from cold, hunger, disease, low supplies, and desertions over the long, harsh winter.

March 16, 1778 – A Peace Commission is created by the British Parliament to negotiate with the Americans. The commission then travels to Philadelphia where its offers granting all of the American demands, except independence, are rejected by Congress.

May 8, 1778 – British General Henry Clinton replaces General William Howe as commander of all British forces in the American colonies.

May 30, 1778 – A campaign of terror against American frontier settlements, instigated by the British, begins as 300 Iroquois Indians burn Cobleskill, New York.

June 18, 1778 – Fearing a blockade by French ships, British General Henry Clinton withdraws his troops from Philadelphia and marches across New Jersey toward New York City. Americans then re-occupy Philadelphia.

June 19, 1778 – General George Washington sends troops from Valley Forge, Pennsylvania to intercept General Henry Clinton.

June 27-28, 1778 – The Battle of Monmouth occurs in New Jersey as Washington’s troops and General Henry Clinton’s troops fight to a standoff.

July 2, 1778 – Congress returns once again to Philadelphia.

July 3, 1778 – British Loyalists and Indians massacre American settlers in the Wyoming Valley of northern Pennsylvania.

Illinois Campaign during the American Revolution.

July 4, 1778 – Kaskaskia, Illinois is captured by Colonel George Rogers Clark.

July 8, 1778 – General George Washington sets up headquarters at West Point, New York.

July 10, 1778 – France declares war against Britain.

September 14, 1778 – Benjamin Franklin is appointed to be the American diplomatic representative in France.

August 8, 1778 – American land forces and French ships attempt to conduct a combined siege against Newport, Rhode Island. But bad weather and delays of the land troops result in failure. The weather-damaged French fleet then sails to Boston for repairs.

December 29, 1778 – The British begin a major southern campaign with the capture of Savannah, Georgia, followed a month later with the capture of Augusta.

1779

Major General William Moultrie

February 3, 1779 – Major General Moultrie defeated a British detachment at Port Royal Island, South Carolina.

February 14, 1779 – At Kettle Creek, Georgia, Andrew Pickens and Elijah Clarke and their Georgia and Carolina militia defeated North Carolina Loyalist militia who were traveling to Augusta to join the British forces.

February 24, 1779 – Loyalists and Indians recaptured Vincennes, Indiana but, George Rogers Clark forced them to retreat.

March 3, 1779 – British Lieutenant Colonel Augustine Prevost defeated Americans under General John Ashe at Brier Creek, Georgia.

April 1-30, 1779 – In retaliation for Indian raids on colonial settlements, American troops from North Carolina and Virginia attack Chickamauga Indian villages in Tennessee.

May 10, 1779 – British troops burn Portsmouth and Norfolk, Virginia.

May 11-13, 1779 – In Charleston, South Carolina Major General Augustine Prevost had to break his siege as American forces under Major General Benjamin Lincoln approached.

British General Henry Clinton

June 1, 1779 – British General Henry Clinton takes 6,000 men up the Hudson River toward West Point, New York.

June 16, 1779 – Spain declares war on England, but does not make an alliance with the American Revolutionary forces.

June 20, 1779 – At Stono River, South Carolina Major General Benjamin Lincoln engaged a British rear guard. The indecisive battle resulted in many casualties.

July 10, 1779 – Naval ships from Massachusetts are destroyed by the British while attempting to take the Loyalist stronghold of Castine, Maine.

July 5-11, 1779 – Loyalists raid coastal towns in Connecticut, burning Fairfield, Norwalk, and ships in New Haven harbor.

July 16, 1779 – At Stony Point, New York, Americans attacked with bayonets only resulting in extensive British casualties.

July-August 1779 – American attempt to dislodge British along the Penobscot River in Maine failed.

August 13, 1779 – At Paulus Hook, New Jersey, the Americans make a successful surprise attack on British outposts.

August 14, 1779 – A peace plan is approved by Congress which stipulates independence, complete British evacuation of America and free navigation on the Mississippi River.

August 28, 1779 – After two terrible massacres, American forces moved into the Indian territory of New York and burned villages. Iroquois and Seneca power was diminished although they remained hostile.

August 29, 1779 – At Elmira, New York American forces defeat the combined Indian and Loyalist forces at Elmira, New York. Following the victory, American troops head northwest and destroy nearly 40 Cayuga and Seneca Indian villages in retaliation for the campaign of terror against American settlers.

September 16-Oct 19, 1779 – American Army under Major General Benjamin Lincoln failed to dislodge British from Savannah, Georgia.

“I have not yet begun to fight!” – John Paul Jones, painting by Charles J. Andres.

September 23, 1779 – Off the coast of England, John Paul Jones fights a desperate battle with a British frigate. When the British demand his surrender, Jones responds, “I have not yet begun to fight!” Jones then captures the frigate before his own ship sinks.

September 27, 1779 – John Adams is appointed by Congress to negotiate peace with England.

November 11, 1778 – At Cherry Valley, New York, Loyalists and Indians massacre over 40 American settlers.

December 26, 1779 – British General Henry Clinton sets sail from New York with 8,000 men and heads for Charleston, South Carolina, arriving there on February 1, 1780.

Winter 1779-1780 – Morristown, New Jersey sheltered the main encampments of the American Continental Army and served as the winter quarters of its commander-in-chief, General George Washington.


REVOLUTIONARY WAR SITES IN FORT LEE, NEW JERSEY

George Washington was named the head of the Continental (American) Army by Congress on June 15, 1775. His first task was to travel to Philadelphia from Boston, where a successful siege which drove British forces from the city was an early victory. The next chapter would prove to be much more difficult, and nearly disastrous to the Continental Army.

After British forces were driven from Boston in March 1776, General Washington headed to New York City, where he arrived on April 13, 1776. The task for him and his army was to protect New York from British invasion. The city was of great strategic importance, and New York harbor offered control of the Hudson River. The British had a large and powerful navy, and their strategy was to use their ships to gain control of the Hudson River in order to split the thirteen colonies in two.

On June 29, British ships began arriving in the New York harbor. Over the next two months, a steady stream of additional ships would arrive, carrying more and more British and Hessian troops. (Hessians were German mercenary soldiers hired by the British to fight in the war.)

While the main body of Washington's army was on Manhattan and Long Island, work began on a fort here in July 1776, which was originally called &ldquoFort Constitution.&rdquo It would later be renamed &ldquoFort Lee&rdquo in honor of General Charles Lee. Across the Hudson River, another fort called Fort Washington had already been constructed. The idea was that these two forts on opposite sides of the river could be used to stop British ships from sailing up the Hudson River.

On July 4, the Declaration of Independence was adopted by the Continental Congress in Philadelphia, raising the stakes of the war. British ships continued to sail into New York harbor throughout the summer, bringing a total of more than 31,000 British and Hessian troops. This was the largest invading force in history up to that time. As the British and Hessian forces continued to grow on Staten Island, General Washington was uncertain as to where they would attack first. He therefore kept some of his troops on Manhattan Island and some in Brooklyn on Long Island.

The first test for the effectiveness of Fort Washington came when two British ships, the Roos ja Phoenix, sailed up the Hudson River on July 12. Cannon fire from Fort Washington made little impact the two ships suffered no serious damage, and no casualties. Despite these poor results, General Washington stuck to the plan of defending the river with the forts, and so work continued to complete Fort Lee.

The initial attack by British and Hessians came on Long Island on August 22, in which the Americans were forced to evacuate defenses they had spent months building. Over the following weeks, the Continental Army suffered a series of defeats and retreated north across Manhattan. By the end of September, British were in control of all of Manhattan, except Fort Washington.

The decision was made to defend Fort Washington, even though its effectiveness had been shown to be ineffective in its purpose of stopping British ships from sailing past it on the Hudson River.

On November 16, British and Hessian troops attacked Fort Washington, easily and quickly overrunning its defenses and capturing 2,800 American troops. Washington ordered General Nathanael Greene to manage an evacuation of Fort Lee, while Washington himself was headquartered ten miles away at the Zabriskie house in Hackensack. [2] A surprise invasion several days later would keep the evacuation from being an orderly one.

On the night of November 19-20, 5000 British and Hessian forces under General Cornwallis crossed over the Hudson River, disembarking about six miles north of Fort Lee at Lower Closter Landing. Upon learning of the invasion, the American troops at Fort Lee made a hasty evacuation, leaving behind such important items as tents, entrenching tools, heavy artillery, and a large amount of food. This began a twelve-day retreat across New Jersey, arriving on December 2 in Trenton, where they spent five days moving all the troops and supplies across the Delaware River into Pennsylvania. (See the Bergen County 1776 Retreat Route Signs entry lower on this page.)

This was a desperate time for General Washington and his army, what Thomas Paine would describe as "These are the times that try men's souls." [3] Washington himself wrote in a letter to his brother John after the fall of Fort Washington, "I am wearied almost to death with the retrograde motion of things." [4]

More bad news followed. The army's second ranked General, Charles Lee, for whom Fort Lee was named, was captured by the British in Basking Ridge on the night of December 12 - 13. [5]

However, within weeks Washington and his army would turn the tide. On Christmas night, Washington's forces crossed the Delaware River back into New Jersey and win a small but important victory the next morning at Trenton, followed a week later by another victory at Princeton. Having revived their chances and morale, Washington's army headed to Morristown where they spent the winter.

From this point on, New Jersey would play a major role in the Revolutionary War, and Washington would spend more time in this state than any other. Important events in New Jersey over the next six years include encampments in Morristown and Middlebrook the Battles of Monmouth, Connecticut Farms, and Springfield as well as many other major and minor events. In 1783, the Treaty of Paris was signed, officially ending the war. When the news of the signing reached America, Congress was meeting in Nassau Hall in Princeton, and General Washington was headquartered in Kingston. Given New Jersey's significant role in the Revolutionary War, it was fitting that both General Washington and Congress were in New Jersey at the time they received this momentous news. [6]

The Visitor Center contains two floors of exhibits which explain and interpret the historic events which occurred at Fort Lee in 1776.There is also a small gift/book shop.

One of the most helpful exhibits is a large three-dimensional map of the New York/Fort Lee area titled "The New York Campaign." The exhibit combines narration with lights on the map which represent the movement of troops across the terrain of the area. When visiting Fort Lee, I highly recommend using this exhibit to understand the geography and troop movements of events in New York and Fort Lee in 1776.

In addition to the information and exhibits available at the Visitor Center, there are signs placed throughout the park grounds to describe the history of this site. There are also soldier hut recreations, and cannons. The view from the park of the Hudson River, New York City, and the George Washington Bridge are outstanding.


Monument Park was created by the Daughters of the American Revolution in 1908. At the park's dedication ceremony, the keynote speaker was General John "Black Jack" Pershing, who would go on to lead the American Expeditionary Forces in World War I . [7]

The centerpiece of Monument Park is the majestic Rebelmen statue shown above. In addition to this statue, there are historic plaques located throughout the park. Two plaques describe the use of surrounding Fort Lee roads by the troops in 1776. Others are dedicated to individual Revolutionary War Generals who played a role in the events in Fort Lee.


Bergen County 1776 Retreat Route Signs
Running from Fort Lee Historic Park
to Acquackanonk Bridge in Wallington

Washington's Army 1776 Retreat Route signs are posted throughout Bergen County along the retreat route taken by the army after abandoning Fort Lee on November 20, 1776. These signs can be followed through Bergen County from Main Street in Fort Lee to Acquackanonk Bridge in Wallington.

Washington's Army reached the Acquackanonk Bridge in Wallington on November 21. They continued their retreat across New Jersey, through Newark, New Brunswick, and Princeton, finally reaching Trenton on December 2. The next five days were spent moving all of the troops and supplies in small boats over the Delaware River into Pennsylvania. They made their famous Crossing of the Delaware back into New Jersey several weeks later on Christmas night.


Allika märkmed:

1. ^ A variety of sources were consulted in preparing this entry, including:

&bull David McCullough, 1776 (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005)

&bull David Hackett Fischer, Washingtoni ristmik (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004)

&bull Markers, signs, brochures and exhibits at Fort Lee Historic Park

&bull George Washington Edited by Jared Sparks, George Washingtoni kirjutised, 4. köide (Boston: Russel, Odiorne and
Metcalf and Hilliard, Gray, and Co., 1834) Available to be read at Google Books here

2. ^ Note that using modern roads, the distance is only eight miles from the Fort Lee encampment to Zabriskie's house site in Hackensack. However, in 1776 the journey was longer because it was necessary to use the New Bridge to cross the Hackensack River.

3. ^ "These are the times that try men's souls" is the opening sentence of Thomas Paine's Kriis.

4. ^ George Washington to John Augustine Washington, sent from "Hackinsac" [Hackensack] on November 19, 1776 , reprinted in:
George Washington Toimetas Jared Sparks, George Washingtoni kirjutised, 4. köide (Boston: Russel, Odiorne and Metcalf and Hilliard, Gray, and Co., 1834) pages 182 - 185 Available to be read at Google Books here

5. ^ General Charles Lee was captured at Widow White's Tavern in Basking Ridge by a group of British dragoons (cavalry) under the command of twenty-two-year-old officer Banastre Tarleton.
▸ For more information, see the Basking Ridge page of this website.

6. ^ For more information and accompanying source notes about the events mentioned in these two paragraphs, see the pages linked to within the text.

7. ^ Official Website of the Borough of Fort Lee ja General John 'Black Jack' Pershing plaque in the park.

Lõplik juhend New Jersey revolutsioonilise sõja ajaloolistele paikadele!
Fort Lee New Jersey Revolutionary War Sites & pull Fort Lee New Jersey Historic Sites
Fort Lee Historic Park & pull Monument Park & pull Washington's Army Retreat Route 1776

Veebisaidi uurinud, kirjutanud, pildistanud ja kujundanud Al Frazza
See veebisait, selle tekst ja fotod on © 2009 - 2021 AL Frazza. Kõik õigused kaitstud.


8. Battles of Trenton and Princeton (Winter of 1776-1777)

General George Washington crossed the icy Delaware River on the night of Christmas and into the morning of December 26th in 1776, leading his Continental Army against the British forces stationed at Trenton, having with him around 1,400 men. General Washington captured more than 900 men and occupied Trenton four days later. On January 3, he led a daring night match to capture Princeton after luring the British forces south. These two victories were pivotal in boosting the morale of the American troops and reassuring their cause in independence.


Demont, William

DEMONT, WILLIAM. American traitor. Pennsylvania. Born in England, Demont settled in Pennsylvania before the Revolution. Commissioned ensign in the Fifth Pennsylvania Battalion on 6 January 1776, he became regimental adjunct to Colonel Robert Magaw, commander of Fort Washington, on 29 September. He deserted on the night of 2-3 November 1776 to the camp of Earl Percy at McGown's Pass in Manhattan, taking with him complete information on Fort Washington's defenses. Shortly after the fall of fort to the British, Magaw and other American officers learned of Demont's treason Washington, however, kept the incident quiet for fear of its impact on morale. Dement traveled with General William Howe's army until 1780, when he went to England to press his claims for some sort of reward. Though he had done the British great service in turning over the plans to Fort Washington, as late as 1792 Dement was still attempting to gain recompense for his losses during the Revolution. The government awarded him sixty pounds.

läbi vaadanud Michael Bellesiles

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