Hiina religioon: loeng

Hiina religioon: loeng



We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

>

Seega on video lühiloeng Vana -Hiina religioonidest.


Hiina traditsiooniline religioon

Hiina religioon ei ole organiseeritud ühtne uskumuste ja tavade süsteem. Sellel pole juhtkonda, peakorterit, asutajat ega konfessioone. Selle asemel on "Hiina religioon" termin, mis kirjeldab Hiinas mõjukate erinevate religioossete ja filosoofiliste traditsioonide keerulist koostoimet.

Hiina religioon koosneb neljast peamisest traditsioonist: hiina rahvausund, konfutsianism, taoism ja budism. Enamiku hiinlaste religioosne väljavaade koosneb mõnest nende nelja traditsiooni uskumuste ja tavade kombinatsioonist. Harva juhtub, et ainult ühte harjutatakse teiste välistamiseks. See jaotis keskendub hiina rahva- või põlisrahvaste religioonile, kuid viidatakse ka teistele traditsioonidele.


Sisu

Hani dünastia (206 eKr – 220 m.a.j) Redigeeri

Erinevad legendid räägivad budismi olemasolust Hiina pinnal väga ammustel aegadel. Kuigi teadlaste üksmeel on selles, et budism jõudis Hiinasse esmakordselt meie sajandil eKr Hani dünastia ajal Indiast pärit misjonäride kaudu, [2] pole täpselt teada, millal budism Hiinasse sisenes.

Põlvkonnad teadlasi on vaielnud selle üle, kas budistlikud misjonärid jõudsid kõigepealt Hiinasse Hiinasse Siiditee mere- või maismaateede kaudu. Liang Qichao ja Paul Pelliot soositud mereteede hüpotees tegi ettepaneku, et budismi praktiseeriti algselt Lõuna -Hiinas, Jangtse ja Huai jõe piirkonnas. Teisest küljest pidi see esimese sajandi jooksul olema sisenenud loodest Gansu koridori kaudu Kollase jõe vesikonda ja Põhja -Hiina tasandikule. Stseen muutub selgemaks alates teise sajandi keskpaigast, kui esimesed teadaolevad misjonärid alustasid oma tõlketegevust pealinnas Luoyangis. The Hilisemate Hani raamat kirjutab, et aastal 65 m.a.j., tundis Chu (tänapäeva Jiangsu) prints Liu Ying "rõõmu Huang-Lao daoismi tavadest" ning tema õukonnas olid nii budistlikud mungad kui ka ilmikud, kes juhatasid budistlikke tseremooniaid. [3] Tang Yongtongi poolt soositud maismaatee hüpotees tegi ettepaneku, et budism leviks Kesk -Aasia - eriti Kušaani impeeriumi - kaudu, mis oli vanades Hiina allikates sageli tuntud kui Da Yuezhi ("Suur Yuezhi"), pärast asutajahõimu. Selle hüpoteesi kohaselt hakati budismi esmakordselt praktiseerima Hiinas läänepiirkondades ja Hani pealinnas Luoyangis (praegune Henan), kus Hani keiser Ming rajas Valge Hobuse templi 68. aastal.

2004. aastal vaatas Pekingi ülikooli ajalooprofessor Rong Xinjiang uuesti läbi maismaa- ja merehüpoteesid läbi hiljutiste avastuste ja uuringute, sealhulgas Gandhārani budistlike tekstide multidistsiplinaarse ülevaate, ning jõudis järeldusele:

Arvamusel, et budismi edastati Hiinasse mereteel, puuduvad suhteliselt veenvad ja toetavad materjalid ning mõned argumendid ei ole piisavalt ranged. Tuginedes olemasolevatele ajaloolistele tekstidele ja alates 1980ndatest avastatud arheoloogilistele ikonograafilistele materjalidele, eriti hiljuti Afganistanist leitud esimese sajandi budistlikele käsikirjadele, usub kommentaator, et kõige usutavam teooria on see, et budism jõudis Hiinasse Loode-India Suurest Yuezhist ja võttis maismaatee Han Hiinasse jõudmiseks. Pärast Hiinasse sisenemist segunes budism varajase daoismi ja Hiina traditsioonilise esoteerilise kunstiga ning selle ikonograafia pälvis pimeda kummardamise. [4]

Prantsuse sinoloog Henri Maspero sõnul on "väga uudishimulik fakt", et kogu Hani dünastia ajal olid daoism ja budism "pidevalt segaduses ja esinesid ühe religioonina". [5] Sajand pärast seda, kui prints Liu Yingi õukond toetas nii daoiste kui ka budiste, tegi 166. aastal Hani keiser Huan ohvreid Buddhale ja ohverdas Huang-Lao jumalatele Kollasele keisrile ja Laozile. [6] Hiina esimene budismi apologeet, 2. sajandi lõpu võhik Mouzi ütles, et just taoismi kaudu viidi ta budismi-mida ta nimetab dàdào (Näiteks "Suur Dao").

Ka mina, kui ma polnud veel Suurest teest (budismist) aru saanud, olin õppinud taoistlikke tavasid. Sadu ja tuhandeid retsepte leidub pikaealisuse tagamiseks teraviljadest hoidumise tõttu. Ma harjutasin neid, kuid edutult nägin neid kasutusele võtmas, kuid tulemusteta. Sellepärast ma neist loobusin. [6]

Varajane Hiina budism oli segunenud ja segunenud daoismiga ning just taoistlikes ringkondades leidis see oma esimesed adeptid. Jäljed ilmnevad Han -perioodi budistlike pühakirjade hiina tõlgetes, mis vaevalt eristasid budistlikku nirvaanat ja daoistlikku surematust. Wuwei, taoistlik sekkumiseta kontseptsioon, oli sanskriti keele tõlkimisel tavaline termin nirvaana, mis on transkribeeritud kui nièpán (涅槃) kaasaegses Hiina kasutuses. [7]

Traditsioonilised kontod Muuda

Mitmed populaarsed jutustused Hiina ajaloolises kirjanduses on toonud kaasa teatud legendide populaarsuse budismi Hiinasse toomise kohta. Kõige populaarsema järgi soodustas Hani keiser Ming (28–75 m.a.j) budistlike õpetuste Hiinasse toomist. (3. sajandi algusest kuni 5. sajandi alguseni) Mouzi Lihuolun esmalt salvestab see legend:

Vanasti nägi keiser Ming unes jumalat, kelle kehas oli päikese sära ja kes lendas tema palee ees ning ta rõõmustas selle üle tohutult. Järgmisel päeval küsis ta oma ametnikelt: "Mis jumal see on?" õpetlane Fu Yi ütles: "Teie katsealune on kuulnud, et Indias on keegi, kes on saavutanud Dao ja keda kutsutakse Buddhaks, ta lendab õhus, tema kehal oli päikese sära, see jumal peab olema." [8]

Seejärel saatis keiser saadiku Tianzhu (Lõuna -India), et uurida Buddha õpetuste kohta. [9] Väidetavalt saadeti budistlikud pühakirjad Hiinasse tagasi valgete hobuste seljas, mille järgi sai nime Valge hobuse tempel. Koos nendega naasid ka kaks India munga, nimega Dharmaratna ja Kaśyapa Mātaṅga.

8. sajandi Hiina fresko Gansus Dunhuangi lähedal Mogao koobastes kujutab Hani keisrit Wu (u. 141–87 e.m.a), kes kummardab kuldse mehe kujusid ”kuldmehi, kes tõid 121 eKr suure hani kindrali oma kampaaniates nomaadide vastu. ". Siiski ei kumbki Shiji ega ka Hani raamat keiser Wu ajaloos mainitakse kuldset budistlikku kuju (vrd keiser Ming).

Esimesed tõlked Redigeeri

Esimene dokumenteeritud tõlge budistlikest pühakirjadest erinevatest India keeltest hiina keelde toimub aastal 148 m.a.j., kui saabus Partia vürst, kellest sai munk An Shigao (Ch. 安世高). Ta töötas Luoyangis budistlike templite rajamise nimel ja organiseeris budistlike pühakirjade tõlkimise hiina keelde, andes tunnistust Kesk -Aasia budistliku prozelitismi laine algusest, mis pidi kestma mitu sajandit. Shigao tõlkis budistlikke tekste põhidoktriinide, meditatsiooni ja abhidharma kohta. An Shigao kõrval töötanud partia võhik Xuan (Ch. 安 玄) tõlkis bodhisattva rajal ka varajase Mahāyāna budistliku teksti.

Mahāyāna budismi levitas Hiinas esmakordselt laialdaselt kušani munk Lokakṣema (ptk. 支 婁 迦 讖, aktiivne u. 164–186 m.a.j), kes pärines iidsest budistlikust Gandhāra kuningriigist. Lokakṣema tõlkis olulised Mahāyāna sūtrad, näiteks Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra, samuti haruldasi varajasi Mahāyāna sūtrasid sellistel teemadel nagu samādhi ja buddha Akṣobhya meditatsiooni. Need Lokakṣema tõlked annavad jätkuvalt ülevaate Mahāyāna budismi algusajast. See tekstide korpus sisaldab sageli rõhuasetusi askeetlikele tavadele ja metsaelamisele ning neeldumist meditatiivse keskendumise seisundites: [10]

Paul Harrison on töötanud mõnede tekstide kallal, mis on vaieldamatult kõige varasemad versioonid Mahāyāna sūtrast, need, mis on indo-sküütide tõlkija Lokakṣema poolt tõlgitud teise sajandi viimasel poolel hiina keelde. Harrison osutab Lokakṣema sūtra korpuse entusiasmile ekstra askeetlike tavade, metsas elamise ja eelkõige meditatiivse imendumise seisundite vastu (samādhi). Tundub, et meditatsioon ja meditatiivsed seisundid on varajases Mahāyāna -s olnud kesksel kohal, seda kindlasti oma vaimse tõhususe tõttu, aga ka seetõttu, et need on võimaldanud juurdepääsu uutele ilmutustele ja inspiratsioonile.

Varased budistlikud koolid Muuda

Hiina budismi algperioodil tunnistati olulisteks India varajase budismi koolkondadeks, mille tekste uuriti, Dharmaguptakas, Mahīśāsakas, Kāśyapīyas, Sarvāstivādins ja Mahāsāṃghikas. [12]

Dharmaguptakad tegid rohkem jõupingutusi kui ükski teine ​​sekt, et levitada budismi väljapoole Indiat, sellistesse piirkondadesse nagu Afganistan, Kesk -Aasia ja Hiina, ning neil oli selles suur edu. [13] Seetõttu võtsid enamik Hiinast budismi omaks võtnud riike ka Dharmaguptaka vinaya ja bhikṣuse ja bhikṣuṇīs ordineerimisliini. Vastavalt A.K. Warder, mõnes mõttes neis Ida -Aasia riikides võib Dharmaguptaka sekti pidada tänapäevani säilinud. [14] Lisaks kirjutab Warder, et Dharmaguptakale võib omistada Hiina budismi tõhusa rajamise varajasel perioodil: [15]

Dharmaguptakad olid esimesed budistid, kes asusid Kesk -Aasiasse. Tundub, et nad on korraldanud tohutu ringkäigu mööda kaubateid Aparānta loodeosast Iraani ja samal ajal Oḍḍiyanasse (Suvastu org, Gandhāra põhja pool, millest sai üks nende peamisi keskusi). Olles asunud Parthiast läände, järgisid nad siiditeed, Aasia ida-lääne telge, ida suunas üle Kesk-Aasia ja edasi Hiinasse, kus nad tõestasid tegelikult budismi teisel ja kolmandal sajandil pKr. on neid järginud kogu Aasias Hiinasse. [. ] Hiina budismi varasemal perioodil moodustasid Dharmaguptakad peamise ja mõjukama koolkonna ning isegi hiljem Vinaya jäi sealse distsipliini aluseks.

Kuus dünastiat (220–589) Redigeeri

Varased tõlkeviisid Muuda

Algselt seisis budism Hiinas silmitsi mitmete raskustega. Kloostri mõiste ja vastumeelsus sotsiaalsete asjade vastu tundus olevat vastuolus Hiina ühiskonnas kehtestatud ammu väljakujunenud normide ja standarditega. Mõned isegi kuulutasid, et budism oli riigi autoriteedile kahjulik, et budistlikud kloostrid ei aidanud Hiina majanduslikule õitsengule midagi kaasa, et budism oli barbaarne ja ei väärinud Hiina kultuuritraditsioone. [16] Siiski seostati budismi oma askeetlikus meditatiivses traditsioonis sageli taoismiga ja seetõttu kasutasid mõned varajased India tõlkijad mõistete sobitamise süsteemi, et kohandada kohalikke budistlikke ideid daoistlike ideede ja terminoloogia järgi. [17] [18]

Budism meeldis Hiina intellektuaalidele ja eliidile ning auväärse budismi arengut otsiti alternatiivina konfutsianismile ja taoismile, kuna budismi rõhutamine moraalile ja rituaalile meeldis konfutsianistidele ning soov sisemist tarkust kasvatada meeldis daoistidele. Gentry budism oli Hiina budismi alguse tutvustusmeedium, see sai keiserliku ja õukondliku poolehoiu. 5. sajandi alguseks kehtestati Lõuna -Hiinas budism. [19] Selle aja jooksul jätkasid India mungad siiditeel budismi õpetamist ja tõlketööd tegid peamiselt välismaised mungad, mitte hiinlased.

Kumārajīva saabumine (334–413 CE) Edit

Kui kuulus munk Kumārajīva tabati, kui Hiina vallutas budistliku kuningriigi Kucha, vallutati ta paljudeks aastateks. Kui ta vabanes 401. aastal pKr, võttis ta Hiina budismis kohe kõrge koha ja teda hinnati kui suurt meistrit läänest. Eriti hindas teda hilisema Qini osariigi keiser Yao Xing, kes andis talle auväärse tiitli ja kohtles teda kui jumalat. Kumārajīva tegi Hiina budismis revolutsiooni oma kõrgekvaliteediliste tõlgetega (aastast 402–413), mida kiidetakse siiani voolava sujuvuse, tähenduse selguse, peensuse ja kirjandusoskuse eest. Kumārajīva jõupingutuste tõttu sai budism Hiinas tunnustatud mitte ainult oma praktikameetodite, vaid ka kõrge filosoofia ja religiooni poolest. Kumārajīva saabumine seadis standardi ka budistlike tekstide hiina keele tõlgetele, kaotades tõhusalt varasemad kontseptsiooni sobitamise süsteemid.

Kumārajīva tõlked on sageli jäänud populaarsemaks kui teiste tõlkijate omad. Kõige tuntumate hulka kuuluvad tema tõlked Teemant Sutra, Amitabha Sutra, Lootosuutra, Vimalakīrti Nirdeśa Sūtra, Mūlamadhyamakakārikā, ja Aṣṭasāhasrikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra.

Valmis Sūtra Piṭaka Edit

Umbes Kumārajīva ajal tõlgiti hiina keelde ka neli peamist sanskriti āgamat. Iga õgama tõlkis sõltumatult erinev India munk. Need āgamad hõlmavad ainsat teist säilinud Sūtra Piṭaka, mis on üldiselt võrreldav Theravada budismi Pali Sutta Pitakaga. Sūtra Piṭaka õpetust peetakse tavaliselt üheks esimeseks budismiõpetuseks ja Hiina varajaste budistlike koolide põhitekstiks. Tähelepanuväärne on see, et enne kaasaegset perioodi kasutasid budistlikud kogukonnad neid āgamasid harva, kui üldse, nende hīnayāna atribuudi tõttu, kuna Hiina budism oli veenvalt juba mahajaana.

Varased Hiina budistlikud traditsioonid Muuda

Hiinas kättesaadavate budistlike tekstide laialdase leviku ja Hiinas budismi õpetama tulnud välismaa munkade suure hulga tõttu tekkisid sarnaselt uute puude tüvedega kasvanud oksad erinevate spetsiifiliste fookustraditsioonidega. Neist mõjukamate hulka kuulus Hui Yuani rajatud puhta maa budismi praktika, mis keskendus Amitābha Buddhale ja tema lääne puhtale Sukhāvatī maale. Teised varased traditsioonid olid Tiantai, Huayan ja Vinaya kool. [20] Sellised koolid põhinesid Lotus Sūtra, Avataṃsaka Sūtra, ja Dharmaguptaka Vinayavastavalt koos täiendavate sūtrate ja kommentaaridega. Tiantai asutaja Zhiyi kirjutas mitmeid teoseid, mis muutusid Hiinas olulisteks ja laialdaselt loetavateks meditatsioonikäsiraamatuteks, näiteks "Lühike samatha-vipasjana" ja "Suur samatha-vipasjaana".

Nunnade igapäevaelu Muuda

Nunna oluline aspekt oli taimetoitlane, kuna budistlikus religioonis rõhutati tugevalt, et mitte kahjustada ühtegi elusolendit nende tarbimiseks. Oli ka nunnaid, kes paastumise katsena regulaarselt ei söönud. Teine nunnade toitumispraktika oli nende tava tarbida lõhnavat õli või viirukit „ettevalmistusena tulepõletuseks”. [21]

Mõned nunnade igapäevased tegevused hõlmavad budistlike pühakirjade ja religioosse teksti lugemist, meeldejätmist ja ettelugemist. Teine oli meditatsioon, kuna seda peetakse “budistliku kloostrielu südameks”. On biograafid, kes selgitavad, kui nunnad mediteerivad, kui nad jõuavad seisundisse, kus nende keha muutub kõvaks, jäigaks ja kivilaadseks, kus neid sageli eksitatakse kui elutuid. [22]

Lõuna- ja Põhja -dünastia (420–589) ja Sui -dünastia (589–618 m.a.j) Muuda

Chán: osutab otse meelele Muuda

5. sajandil algasid Hiinas Chani (zen) õpetused, mida omistati traditsiooniliselt budistlikule mungale Bodhidharmale, legendaarsele tegelasele. [märkus 1] Kool kasutas suuresti põhimõtteid, mis on esitatud artiklis Laṅkāvatāra Sūtra, sūtra, mis kasutab Yogācāra ja Tathāgatagarbha õpetusi ning mis õpetab Ühte Sõidukit (Skt. Ekayāna) buddhaks. Algusaastatel nimetati Cháni õpetusi seetõttu "ühe sõiduki kooliks". [34] Chani kooli esimesi meistreid kutsuti Laṅkāvatāra meistriteks, sest nad valdasid praktikat vastavalt põhimõtetele. Laṅkāvatāra Sūtra.

Chani peamised õpetused olid hiljem sageli tuntud nn kohtuda lugudega ja koanid ning nendes kasutatavad õpetamismeetodid. Nan Huai-Chin tuvastab Laṅkāvatāra Sūtra ja Teemant Sūtra (Vajracchedikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra) Chani kooli põhitekstidena ja võtab põhimõtted lühidalt kokku:

Zeni õpetus oli eraldi ülekanne väljaspool pühakirja õpetusi, mis ei pidanud ühtegi kirjalikku teksti pühaks. Zen osutas otse inimmõistusele, et võimaldada inimestel näha oma tegelikku olemust ja saada buddhadeks. [35]

Tangi dünastia (618–907 m.a.j) Muuda

Xuanzangi teekond läände Edit

Varase Tangi dünastia ajal, aastatel 629–645, sõitis munk Xuanzang Indiasse ja külastas üle saja kuningriigi ning kirjutas oma leidudest ulatuslikud ja üksikasjalikud aruanded, mis on hiljem sel perioodil India uurimiseks oluliseks muutunud. Reiside ajal külastas ta pühasid paiku, õppis oma uskumusi ja õppis paljude kuulsate budistlike meistrite juures, eriti Nālanda ülikooli kuulsas budistliku õppe keskuses. Tagasi tulles tõi ta endaga kaasa umbes 657 sanskritikeelset teksti. Xuanzang naasis ka säilmete, kujude ja budistliku atribuutikaga, mis olid laaditud kahekümne kahele hobusele. [36] Keisri toel asutas ta Chang'ani (praegune Xi'an) suure tõlkebüroo, kuhu tõmbasid õpilasi ja kaastöötajaid üle kogu Ida-Aasia. Talle omistatakse umbes 1330 pühakirjade tõlkimine hiina keelde. Tema tugevaim isiklik huvi budismi vastu oli Yogācāra ehk "ainult teadvuse" valdkonnas.

Tema enda uurimise, tõlkimise ja nende traditsioonide tekstide kommenteerimise jõud algatas Faxiangi kooli arengu Ida -Aasias. Kuigi kool ise ei õitsenud kaua, jõudsid selle teooriad taju, teadvuse, karma, taassünni jms kohta teiste edukamate koolide õpetustesse. Xuanzangi lähim ja silmapaistvaim õpilane oli Kuiji, kes tunnistati Faxiangi kooli esimeseks patriarhiks. Xuanzangi loogikast, nagu seda kirjeldas Kuiji, mõistsid Hiina budismi uurijad sageli valesti, kuna neil puudus India loogikas vajalik taust. [37] Teine oluline jünger oli Korea munk Woncheuk.

Xuanzangi tõlked olid eriti olulised Yogācāra kooliga seotud india tekstide edastamiseks. Ta tõlkis Yogācāra keskseid tekste, näiteks Saṃdhinirmocana Sūtra ja Yogācārabhūmi Śāstra, samuti olulisi tekste nagu Mahāprajñāpāramitā Sūtra ja Bhaiṣajyaguruvaidūryaprabharāja Sūtra (Meditsiin Buddha Sūtra). Talle omistatakse selle kirjutamine või koostamine Cheng Weishi Lun (Vijñaptimātratāsiddhi Śāstra), mis on koostatud mitmest Vasubandhu kommentaarist Triṃśikā-vijñaptimātratā. Tema tõlge Süda Sūtra sai ja jääb standardiks kõigis Ida -Aasia budistlikes sektides. Nende tekstide levik laiendas Hiina budistlikku kaanonit märkimisväärselt mõne olulisema India budistliku teksti kvaliteetse tõlkega.

Koopad, kunst ja tehnoloogia Muuda

Budismi populariseerimine sel perioodil on ilmne paljudest pühakirjadega täidetud koobastest ja rajatistest, mis on sellest ajast säilinud. Mogao koopad Dunhuangi lähedal Gansu provintsis, Longmeni grotid Luoyangi lähedal Henanis ja Yungangi grottid Datongi lähedal Shanxis on tuntumad näited Põhja -Wei, Sui ja Tangi dünastiatest. Leshani hiiglaslik Buddha, mis on 8. sajandil Tangi dünastia ajal mäenõlvalt välja raiutud ja kolme jõe ühinemiskohale alla vaadatud, on endiselt maailma suurim kivist Buddha kuju.

Longmeni koopakompleksis juhtis Wu Zetian (u. 690-705)-Tangi dünastia (valitsev Zhou) ajal budismi märkimisväärne pooldaja-Vairmōcana Buddha mammutkivist skulptuure koos Bodhisattvaga. [38] [39] Esimese iseseisvalt istuva naiskeisrina täitsid need skulptuurid mitut eesmärki, sealhulgas projitseerisid budistlikke ideid, mis kinnitaksid tema võimu mandaati. [38]

Mungad ja jumalakartlikud võhikud levitasid budistlikke kontseptsioone jutustustekstide jutustamise ja jutlustamise kaudu. Need suulised ettekanded kirjutati alla kui bianwen (ümberkujundamislood), mis mõjutasid ilukirjanduse kirjutamist nende uute lugude jutustamise viiside abil, mis ühendavad proosat ja luulet. Selle stiili populaarsete legendide hulka kuulus Mulian Päästab oma ema, kus munk laskub pojapoolset vagadust avaldades põrgusse.

Budistlike tekstide paljundamist peeti teeniva karma toomiseks. Trükkimine individuaalselt nikerdatud puuplokkidest ja savist või metallist teisaldatavast tüübist osutus palju tõhusamaks kui käsitsi kopeerimine ja lõpuks varjutas selle. The Teemant Sūtra (Vajracchedikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra) aastast 868, budistlik pühakiri, mis avastati 1907. aastal Mogao koobastest, on esimene dateeritud plokitrüki näide. [40]

Esoteerilise budismi saabumine Muuda

Kaiyuani kolm suurt valgustatud meistrit Śubhakarasiṃha, Vajrabodhi ja Amoghavajra lõid keiser Xuanzongi ajal Hiinas esoteerilise budismi aastatel 716–720. Nad tulid Daxing Shansi (大興 善 寺, Suur paljuneva headuse tempel), mis oli Suure Valgustaja Mahavairocana templi eelkäija. Daxing Shansi loodi iidses pealinnas Chang'anis, tänapäeva Xi'anis, ja temast sai üks neljast suurest pühakirja tõlkimise keskusest, mida keiserlik õukond toetas. Nad olid tõlkinud palju budistlikke pühakirju, suutrat ja tantrat, sanskriti keelest hiina keelde. Nad olid samastanud ka Hiina valitsevad õpetused: daoismi ja konfutsianismi budismiga ning arendasid edasi Hiina esoteerilise budistliku traditsiooni praktikat.

Nad tõid hiinlastele salapärase, dünaamilise ja maagilise õpetuse, mis hõlmas mantravalemit ja üksikasjalikke rituaale, et kaitsta inimest või impeeriumi, mõjutada inimese saatust pärast surma ja eriti populaarne tuua vihma põua ajal. Seetõttu pole üllatav, et keiser Tang Xuanzong võttis kõik kolm meistrit hästi vastu ning nende õpetused võeti kiiresti Tangi õukonnas ja eliidi seas omaks. Pealinna templitesse paigaldati Mantrayana altarid ja keiser Tang Daizongi (u. 762–779) ajaks ületas selle mõju kõrgemate klasside seas daoismi oma. Eriti head olid aga suhted Amoghavajra ja Daizongi vahel. Elus soosis keiser Amoghavajrat tiitlite ja kingitustega ning kui meister suri aastal 774, austas ta oma mälestust stuupa ehk matusemonumendiga. Meister Huiguo, Amoghavajra jünger, andis mõned esoteerilised budistlikud õpetused Kūkai'le, ühele paljudest Jaapani munkadest, kes tulid Tang Hiinasse budismi õppima, sealhulgas kahe kuningriigi mandala, emakavaldkonna ja teemantide valdkonna. Meister Kukai läks tagasi Jaapanisse, et luua Jaapani esoteeriline budismi koolkond, hiljem tuntud kui Shingoni budism. Esoteerilised budistlikud liinid, mis edastati Jaapanisse munkade Kūkai ja Saicho egiidi all, sõnastasid hiljem neile edastatud õpetused Shingoni sekti ja Tendai sekti loomiseks.

Erinevalt Jaapanist ei peetud esoteerilist budismi Hiinas eraldi ja eraldiseisvaks budismi "kooliks", vaid pigem mõisteti sellega seotud tavade ja õpetuste kogumina, mida saab integreerida teiste Hiina budistlike traditsioonidega, nagu Chan. [41]

Tangi osariigi repressioonid 845 Muuda

Vastuseis budismile kogunes aja jooksul Tangi dünastia ajal, kogunedes keisri Tang Wuzongi ajal toimunud suure budismivastase tagakiusamise juurde.

Seal oli mitu komponenti, mis viisid budismi vastuseisu. Üks tegur on budismi võõras päritolu, erinevalt taoismist ja konfutsianismist. Han Yu kirjutas, "Buddha oli barbarite mees, kes ei rääkinud Hiina keelt ja kandis erineva moega riideid. Tema ütlused ei puudutanud meie iidsete kuningate käitumist ega ka riietumisviisi nende seadustega. Ta ei saanud aru kohustused, mis seovad suveräänseid ja alluvaid, ega isa ja poja kiindumused. "

Teised komponendid hõlmasid budistide taandumist ühiskonnast, kuna hiinlased uskusid, et Hiina inimesed peaksid olema kaasatud pereellu. Budistlike templite ja kloostrite rikkus, maksuvabastus ning nende võim pahandasid ka paljusid kriitikuid. [45]

Nagu varem mainitud, tekkis tagakiusamine keiser Wuzongi ajal Tangi dünastias. Öeldi, et Wuzong vihkab budistlike munkade silmi, kes tema arvates olid maksudest kõrvalehoidjad. Aastal 845 käskis ta hävitada 4600 budistlikku kloostrit ja 40 000 templit. Rohkem kui 400 000 budistlikust mungast ja nunnast said seejärel talupojad, kellele maksti kaks maksu (vilja ja riie). [46] Wuzong tsiteeris, et budism oli võõras religioon, mistõttu kiusas ta ka Hiinas kristlasi taga. David Graeber väidab, et budistlikel institutsioonidel oli kogunenud nii palju väärismetalle, mida valitsus rahapakkumise tagamiseks vajas. [47]

Viis dünastiat ja kümme kuningriigi perioodi (907–960/979) Redigeeri

Viie dünastia ja kümne kuningriigi periood (五代 十 国 五代 十 國 Wǔdài Shíguó ) oli poliitiliste murrangute ajastu Hiinas, Tangi dünastia langemise ja Songi dünastia asutamise vahel. Sel perioodil said viis dünastiat kiiresti üksteise järel põhjas ja loodi enam kui 12 iseseisvat riiki, peamiselt lõunas. Traditsiooniliselt on aga loetletud vaid kümme, sellest ka ajastu nimi "Kümme kuningriiki". Mõned ajaloolased, näiteks Bo Yang, loevad üksteist, sealhulgas Yan ja Qi, kuid mitte Põhja -Hani, pidades seda lihtsalt hilisema Hani jätkuks. Sellest ajastust sai alguse ka Liao dünastia.

Pärast Tangi dünastia langemist oli Hiina viie dünastia ja kümne kuningriigi perioodil ilma tõhusa keskse kontrollita. Hiina jagunes mitmeks autonoomseks piirkonnaks. Budismi toetamine piirdus mõne valdkonnaga. Hua-yeni ja T'ien-t'ai koolid kannatasid muutuvate olude all, kuna need olid sõltunud keiserlikust toetusest. T'angi ühiskonna kokkuvarisemine võttis ilma ka aristokraatlikest rikkuse ja mõjukuse klassidest, mis tähendas budismi edasist puudust. Shenxiu Põhja -Cháni kool ja Henshui Lõuna -Cháni kool ei elanud muutuvaid olusid üle. Sellegipoolest kujunes Chán Hiina budismi domineerivaks vooguks, kuid selle aja piirkondliku orientatsiooni tõttu arendasid erinevad koolid oma õpetustes erinevaid rõhuasetusi. Fayani kool, mis sai nime Fa-yen Wen-i (885–958) järgi, sai domineerivaks kooliks lõuna kuningriikides Nan-T'ang (Jiangxi, Chiang-hsi) ja Wuyue (Che-chiang). [48]

Laulude dünastia (960–1279) Redigeeri

Laulu dünastia jaguneb kaheks erinevaks perioodiks: Põhjalaul ja Lõunalaul. Põhjalaulu ajal (北宋, 960–1127) asus Laulu pealinn Bianjingi põhjaosas (praegu Kaifeng) ja dünastia kontrollis enamikku Hiina siseosadest. Lõunalaul (南宋, 1127–1279) viitab perioodile pärast seda, kui Song kaotas kontrolli Põhja -Hiina üle Jini dünastiale. Selle aja jooksul taandus Song kohus Jangtse jõest lõunasse ja rajas oma pealinna Lin'ani (nüüd Hangzhou). Kuigi Song -dünastia oli kaotanud kontrolli Hiina tsivilisatsiooni traditsioonilise sünnikoha üle Kollase jõe ääres, ei olnud Song -majandus varemetes, sest Lõuna -Lauluimpeeriumis oli 60 protsenti Hiina elanikkonnast ja suurem osa kõige produktiivsemast põllumajandusmaast. [49]

Song -dünastia ajal kasutas valitsus Chánit (禪) oma kontrolli tugevdamiseks riigi üle ja Chánist sai Hiina budismi suurim sekti. Valmistati ideaalne pilt Tangi ajastu Chánist, mis teenis selle äsja omandatud staatuse pärandit. [50]

Song-dünastia alguses sai Chán-Pure Landi sünkretismist domineeriv liikumine. [51] Budistlik ideoloogia hakkas sulanduma konfutsianismi ja daoismiga, osaliselt tänu olemasolevate Hiina filosoofiliste terminite kasutamisele budistlike pühakirjade tõlkimisel. Erinevad Song-dünastia konfutsianistlikud teadlased, sealhulgas Zhu Xi (wg: Chu Hsi), püüdsid konfutsianismi uuesti määratleda kui uuskonfutsianismi.

Song -dünastia ajal, aastal 1021, on registreeritud, et kloostrites elas aktiivselt 458 855 budistlikku munka ja nunna. [46] Munkade koguarv oli 397 615, samas kui nunnade koguarvuks märgiti 61 240. [46]

Mongoli jüaani reegel (1279–1368) Muuda

Mongoli jüaani domineerimise ajal muutsid Mongoli keisrid esoteerilise budismi oma impeeriumi ametlikuks religiooniks, mille osaks oli ka Hiina, ning Tiibeti laamad said õukonnas patronaaži. [52] Levinud arusaam oli, et see laamade eestkostmine põhjustas tantra korrumpeerunud vormide leviku. [52] Kui Mongoli Yuani dünastia kukutati ja Mingi dünastia loodi, heideti Tiibeti laamad õukonnast välja ja see budismi vorm mõisteti hukka kui õigeusu tee. [52]

Mingi dünastia (1368–1644) Redigeeri

Mingi dünastia ajal sulandusid varasemast suuremal määral kokku erinevad Hiina budistlikud traditsioonid, nagu Chan, Tiantai, Puhas maa ja Hiina esoteeriline budism. Weinsteini sõnul oli Mingi dünastia poolt Chan'i kool nii kindlalt välja kujunenud, et kõik mungad olid seotud kas Linji või Caodongi kooliga. [53]

Väljapaistvad mungad Muuda

Mingi dünastia ajal oli Hanshan Deqing üks Hiina budismi suuri reformaatoreid. [54] Nagu paljud tema kaasaegsed, pooldas ta Cháni ja Puhta maa meetodite kahekordset praktikat ning pooldas nianfo ("Mindfulness of the Buddha") tehnika meele puhastamiseks eneseteostuse saavutamiseks. [54] Ta juhendas ka praktikuid mantrate kasutamisel ja pühakirjade lugemisel. Ta oli tuntud ka õppejõu ja kommentaatorina ning imetles ettekirjutuste ranget järgimist. [54]

Jiang Wu sõnul julgustati sel perioodil Chan-meistrite, näiteks Hanshan Deqingi jaoks koolitust eneseharimise kaudu ja põlgati klišeelikke või vormilisi juhiseid. [55] Väljapaistvaid munkasid, kes harjutasid meditatsiooni ja askeetlust ilma nõuetekohase Dharma edastamiseta, tunnustati selle eest, et nad omandasid „tarkuse ilma õpetajata”. [55]

Väljapaistvad nunnad Muuda

Mingi dünastia ajal said eri vanuses naised siseneda kloostriellu alates viiest kuni kuueaastasest kuni seitsmekümneaastaseni. [56] Mingi naine astus nunnaks saamise usuellu mitmel põhjusel. Mõned naised olid haigestunud ja uskusid, et usuellu astudes suutsid nad oma kannatusi leevendada. [57] Oli ka teisi naisi, kes olid abikaasa surma tõttu leseks jäänud või kihlatuid, nii et nad otsustasid liituda kloostriga. [58] Paljud leseks jäänud naised olid rahaliselt mõjutatud, kuna nad pidid sageli oma ämma ülal pidama, ja vanemad, seetõttu polnud kloostrisse astumine halb valik. By devoting themselves to religion, they received less social criticism from society because during the Ming time women were expected to remain faithful to their husband. An example of this is Xia Shuji. Xia's husband Hou Xun, (1591-1645), had led a resistance in Jiading which arrested the Qing troops who later on beheaded him. [59] Xia Shuji who secluded herself from the outside life to devote herself to religion and took on the religious name of Shengyin. [60]

During the time of late Ming, a period of social upheaval, the monastery or convent provided shelter for these women who no longer had protection from a male in their family: husband, son or father due to death, financial constraint and other situations. [56] However, in most circumstances, a woman who wanted to join a nunnery was because they wanted to escape a marriage or they felt isolated as her husband has died- she also had to overcome many difficulties that arose socially from this decision. For most of these women, a convent was seen as a haven to escape their family or an unwanted marriage. Such difficulties were due to the social expectation of the women as it was considered unfilial to leave their duty as a wife, daughter, mother or daughter in law. [61] There were also some cases where some individuals were sold by their family to earn money in a convent by reciting sutras, and performing Buddhist services because they weren't able to financially support them. [62] Jixing entered into a religious life as a young girl due to the fact that her family had no money to raise her. [63]

Lastly, there were some who became part of the Buddhist convent because of a spiritual calling where they found comfort to the religious life, an example would be Zhang Ruyu. [64] Zhang took the religious name, Miaohui, and just before she entered the religious life she wrote the poem below:

Through her poetry, Miaohui (Zhang Ruyu) she conveys the emotions of fully understanding and concluding the difference in the life outside without devotion to religion and the life in a monastery, known as the Buddhist terms between “form and emptiness.” [66] Women like Miaohui, Zhang, had found happiness and fulfillment in the convent that they could not seek in the outside world. Despite the many reasons for entering the religious life, most women had to obtain permission from a male in their life (father, husband, or son). [67] Most of the nuns who have entered the religious life seclude themselves from the outside life away from their family and relatives.

Worshipped Edit

Most nuns participated in religious practices with devotions to many different bodhisattva and Buddha. Some examples of bodhisattvas are Guan Yin, Amitabha Buddha, Maitreya, and Pindola.

One of the most prominent bodhisattvas in Chinese Buddhism is Guanyin, known as Goddess of Compassion, Mercy and Love is also a protector and savior for those who worship and needs Guanyin's aid. [68]

Qing dynasty (1644–1911) Edit

The Qing court endorsed the Gelukpa School of Tibetan Buddhism. [69] Early in the Taiping rebellion, the Taiping rebels targeted Buddhism. In the Battle of Nanjing (1853), the Taiping army butchered thousands of monks in Nanjing [ tsiteerimine vajalik ]. But from the middle of the Taiping rebellion, Taiping leaders took a more moderate approach, demanding that monks should have licences. [ tsiteerimine vajalik ]

Around 1900, Buddhists from other Asian countries showed a growing interest in Chinese Buddhism. Anagarika Dharmapala visited Shanghai in 1893, [70] intending "to make a tour of China, to arouse the Chinese Buddhists to send missionaries to India to restore Buddhism there, and then to start a propaganda throughout the whole world", but eventually limiting his stay to Shanghai. [70] Japanese Buddhist missionaries were active in China in the beginning of the 20th century. [70]

Republic of China (established 1912) Edit

The modernisation of China led to the end of the Chinese Empire, and the installation of the Republic of China, which lasted on the mainland until the Communist Revolution and the installation of the People's Republic of China in 1949 which also led to the ROC government's exodus to Taiwan.

Under influence of the western culture, attempts were being made to revitalize Chinese Buddhism. [71] Most notable were the Humanistic Buddhism of Taixu, and the revival of Chinese Chán by Hsu Yun. [71] Hsu Yun is generally regarded as one of the most influential Buddhist teachers of the 19th and 20th centuries. Other influential teachers in the early 20th century included Pure land Buddhist Yin Guang ( 印光 ) [72] and artist Hong Yi. Layman Zhao Puchu worked much on the revival.

Until 1949, monasteries were built in the Southeast Asian countries, for example by monks of Guanghua Monastery, to spread Chinese Buddhism. Presently, Guanghua Monastery has seven branches in the Malay Peninsula and Indonesia. [73] Several Chinese Buddhist teachers left mainland China during the Communist Revolution, and settled in Hong Kong and Taiwan.

Master Hsing Yun (1927–present) is the founder of Fo Guang Shan monastery and lay organization the Buddha's Light International Association. Born in Jiangsu Province in mainland China, he entered the Sangha at the age of 12, and came to Taiwan in 1949. He founded Fo Guang Shan monastery in 1967, and the Buddha's Light International Association in 1992. These are among the largest monastic and lay Buddhist organizations in Taiwan from the late 20th to early 21st centuries. He advocates Humanistic Buddhism, which the broad modern Chinese Buddhist progressive attitude towards the religion.

Master Sheng Yen (1930–2009) was the founder of the Dharma Drum Mountain, a Buddhist organization based in Taiwan. During his time in Taiwan, Sheng Yen was well known as one of the progressive Buddhist teachers who sought to teach Buddhism in a modern and Western-influenced world.

Master Wei Chueh was born in 1928 in Sichuan, mainland China, and ordained in Taiwan. In 1982, he founded Lin Quan Temple in Taipei County and became known for his teaching on Ch'an practices by offering many lectures and seven-day Ch'an retreats.

People's Republic of China (established 1949) Edit

Chinese Buddhist Association Edit

Unlike Catholicism and other branches of Christianity, there was no organization in China that embraced all monastics in China, nor even all monastics within the same sect. Traditionally each monastery was autonomous, with authority resting on each respective abbot. In 1953, the Chinese Buddhist Association was established at a meeting with 121 delegates in Beijing. The meeting also elected a chairman, 4 honorary chairmen, 7 vice-chairmen, a secretary general, 3 deputy secretaries-general, 18 members of a standing committee, and 93 directors. The 4 elected honorary chairmen were the Dalai Lama, the Panchen Lama, the Grand Lama of Inner Mongolia, and Venerable Master Hsu Yun. [74]

Reform and opening up – Second Buddhist Revival Edit

Since the reform and opening up period in the 1970s, a new revival of Chinese Buddhism has been taking place. [75] [76] [77] [78] Ancient Buddhist temples are being restored and new Buddhist temples are being built.

Chinese Buddhist temples, administrated by local governments, have become increasingly commercialized by sales of tickets, incense, or other religious items soliciting donations and even the listing of temples on the stock market and local governments obtain large incomes. In October 2012, the State Administration for Religious Affairs announced a crackdown on religious profiteering. [79] Many sites have done enough repairs and have already cancelled ticket fares and are receiving voluntary donation instead. [80] [81]

The 108-metre-high Guan Yin of the South Sea of Sanya statue was enshrined on April 24, 2005 with the participation of 108 eminent monks from various Buddhist groups from Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan, and tens of thousands of pilgrims. The delegation also included monks from the Theravada and Tibetan Buddhist traditions. [82] [83] China is one of the countries with the most of the world's highest statues, many of which are Buddhist statues.

In April 2006 China organized the World Buddhist Forum, an event now held every two years, and in March 2007 the government banned mining on Buddhist sacred mountains. [84] In May of the same year, in Changzhou, the world's tallest pagoda was built and opened. [85] [86] [87] In March 2008 the Taiwan-based organizations Tzu Chi Foundation and Fo Guang Shan were approved to open a branch in mainland China. [88] [89]

Currently, there are about 1.3 billion Chinese living in the People's Republic. Surveys have found that around 18.2% to 20% of this population adheres to Buddhism. [90] Furthermore, PEW found that another 21% of the Chinese population followed Chinese folk religions that incorporated elements of Buddhism. [91]

Chinese Buddhism in Southeast Asia Edit

Chinese Buddhism is mainly practiced by ethnic Han-Chinese in Southeast Asia.

Chinese Buddhism in the West Edit

The first Chinese master to teach Westerners in North America was Hsuan Hua, who taught Chán and other traditions of Chinese Buddhism in San Francisco during the early 1960s. He went on to found the City Of Ten Thousand Buddhas, a monastery and retreat center located on a 237-acre (959,000 m 2 ) property near Ukiah, California. Chuang Yen Monastery and Hsi Lai Temple are also large centers.

Sheng Yen also founded dharma centers in the USA.

With the rapid increase of immigrants from mainland China to Western countries in the 1980s, the landscape of the Chinese Buddhism in local societies has also changed over time. Based on fieldwork research conducted in France, some scholars categorize three patterns in the collective Buddhism practice among Chinese Buddhists in France: An ethnolinguistic immigrant group, a transnational organizational system, and information technology. These distinctions are made according to the linkages of globalization.

In the first pattern, religious globalization is a product of immigrants’ transplantation of local cultural traditions. For example, people of similar immigration experiences establish a Buddha hall (佛堂) within the framework of their associations for collective religious activities.

The second pattern features the transnational expansion of a large institutionalized organization centered on a charismatic leader, such as Fo Guang Shan (佛光山), Tzu Chi (慈濟) and Amitabha Buddhist Society (淨宗學會).

In the third pattern, religious globalization features the use of information technology such as websites, blogs, Emails and social media to ensure direct interaction between members in different places and between members and their leader. The Buddhist organization led by Jun Hong Lu is a typical example of this kind of group. [92]

Esoteric Buddhism Edit

In China and countries with large Chinese populations such as Taiwan, Malaysia, and Singapore, Esoteric Buddhism is most commonly referred to as the Chinese term Mìzōng ( 密宗 ), or "Esoteric School." Traditions of Chinese Esoteric Buddhism are most commonly referred to as Tángmì ( 唐密 ), "Tang Dynasty Esoterica," or Hànchuán Mìzōng ( 漢傳密宗 ), "Han Transmission Esoteric School" (Hànmì 漢密 for short), or Dōngmì ( 東密 ), "Eastern Esoterica," separating itself from Tibetan and Newar traditions. These schools more or less share the same doctrines as Shingon, and in some cases, Chinese monks have traveled to Japan to train and to be given esoteric transmission at Mount Kōya and Mount Hiei.

Unrecognised sects Edit

There are many sects and organisations proclaiming a Buddhist identity and pursuit (fo või fu: "awakening", "enlightenment") that are not recognised as legitimate Buddhism by the Chinese Buddhist Association and the government of the People's Republic of China. This group includes:

    Buddhism [Awakening Teaching] ( 观音佛教 Guānyīn Fójiào) or Guanyin Church ( 观音会 Guānyīn Huì) [93] ( 真佛宗 Zhēnfó Zōng)
  • Buddhism [Awakening Teaching] of the Lord of Heaven of Infinite Thriving of the Mountain of Longevity ( 寿山万隆天主佛教 Shòushān Wànlóng Tiānzhǔ Fójiào)
  • Wulian Jingang Dadao ("Great Way of the Innumerable Attendants of Awakening")

Basic concepts Edit

Chinese Buddhism incorporates elements of Buddhism, Confucianism and Taoism.

  • paying homage to Triple Gems
  • veneration of Buddhas and Bodhisattvas
  • through offerings of incense, flowers, food, etc.
  • offerings to Devas who reside in the heavenly realm
  • paying respect to one's own ancestors during Qingming and Zhong Yuan Festival
  • conducting or participate religious services to pray for one's own ancestors and the souls of deceased to attain peace and liberation ( 超渡 )
  • creating positive affinities with other people, through gifts of Dharma books and acts of charity or social service ( 結緣 ) : monastics are required to be vegetarian, devout laity are also often vegetarian on certain sacred days or festivals.
  • compassion towards all living beings through activities such as "life release"
  • existence of gods, ghosts and hell realm
  • reincarnation ( 超生 ), or more technically, rebirth, according to one's karma
  • karmic retribution ( 報應 ), ethically cause and effect

Incense burning Edit

Burning incense, translated to “shaoxiang” in Chinese, is a traditional and ubiquitous religious practice for almost all prayers, and other forms of worship. During the Zhou dynasty, Chinese believed that smoke resulting from burning of sandalwood would act as a bridge between the human world and the spirits. [94]

The philosophy behind incense burning is to sacrifice oneself for the benefit of others, the true spirit of Buddhism. The specific knowledge of incense as a healing tool was assimilated into the religious practices of the time from Traditional Chinese Medicine.

It can be seen that incense burning as it is known today is a merger between Chinese folk religious, Taoist, Confucian, ancestral worship and Chinese Buddhist practice and traditions.

Laypeople in Chinese Buddhism Edit

In Chinese Buddhism, lay practitioners have traditionally played an important role, and lay practice of Buddhism has had similar tendencies to those of monastic Buddhism in China. [95] Many historical biographies of lay Buddhists are available, which give a clear picture of their practices and role in Chinese Buddhism. In addition to these numerous biographies, there are accounts from Jesuit missionaries such as Matteo Ricci which provide extensive and revealing accounts to the degree Buddhism penetrated elite and popular culture in China. [95]

Traditional practices such as meditation, mantra recitation, mindfulness of Amitābha Buddha, asceticism, and vegetarianism were all integrated into the belief systems of ordinary people. [95] It is known from accounts in the Ming Dynasty that lay practitioners often engaged in practices from both the Pure Land and Chán traditions, as well as the study of the Buddhist sūtras. The Süda Sūtra ja Teemant Sūtra were the most popular, followed by the Lotus Sūtra ja Avataṃsaka Sūtra. [95]

Laypeople are also commonly devoted to the practice of mantras, and mantras such as the Mahā Karuṇā Dhāraṇī and the Cundī Dhāraṇī are very popular. [95] Robert Gimello has also observed that in Chinese Buddhist communities, the esoteric practices of Cundī enjoyed popularity among both the populace and the elite. [96]

Mahāyāna figures such as Avalokiteśvara Bodhisattva, Kṣitigarbha Bodhisattva, Amitābha Buddha, and the Medicine Buddha, are all widely known and revered. Beliefs in karma and rebirth are held at all levels of Chinese society, and pilgrimages to well-known monasteries and the four holy mountains of China are undertaken by monastics and lay practitioners alike. [95]

Festivalid Muuda

These are the holy days that Chinese Buddhists celebrate by visiting temples to make offerings of prayers, incense, fruits, flowers and donations. On such days they observe the moral precepts very strictly as well as a full day's vegetarian diet, a practice originally from China.

The dates given are based on the Chinese calendar system so that 8.4 means the Eighth day of the fourth month in Chinese calendar ja nii edasi. [97]


Welcome

James Miller is the inaugural Professor of Humanities, Co-Director of the Humanities Research Center, and Associate Dean for Interdisciplinary Strategy at Duke Kunshan University. He is also Editor-in-chief of Worldviews: Global Religions, Cultures, and Ecology.

Duke Kunshan University is a new joint venture university created by Duke University (USA) and Wuhan University (China) with an innovative, interdisciplinary liberal arts and science curriculum. Its first undergraduates will graduate in 2022.

Professor Miller’s academic career began with the study of Chinese language and culture at Durham University in the UK. He has become a leading interpreter of Daoist religion, through his study of the medieval Chinese religious movement known as The Way of Highest Clarity. Over the past eighteen years, he has published six books on Chinese religions, including most recently China’s Green Religion (May 2017). Professor Miller’s has given lectures around the world in English, Chinese and Spanish, and his work has been translated into Italian, Chinese and Farsi.

Professor Miller is widely known as a key scholar of religion and ecology in China. China is now the world’s largest emitter of greenhouse gases and will eclipse the US as the world’s leading economy within a decade. China is experiencing massive economic change and unprecedent environmental devastation. Professor Miller’s research illuminates how China’s religious and cultural traditions, especially Daoism, continue to influence Chinese social imagination about nature and environment and can help develop a Chinese ethic of ecological sustainability.

In addition to scholarly publishing, Professor Miller regularly speaks at academic conferences, and gives public lectures and media interviews on a wide variety of topics related to religion and culture in China. Media outlets have included the Washington Post, CTV Newsworld, CTV Canada AM, and the Christian Science Monitor. He has given guest lectures all over the world, in multiple languages, from China’s Fudan University, to the Australian National University and even the United States Naval War College. He has also consulted on legal matters related to Chinese religions in North American society, including preparing expert witness testimony for civil court proceedings.

As well as conducting research and teaching, Professor Miller is respected as a senior academic administrator with professional competencies related to curriculum design, program development, recruitment, and vision for higher education. He has consulted for senior administration in issues related to international education and imagining new strategies for higher education.

Prior to joining Duke Kunshan University he served as director of Queen’s interdisciplinary graduate program in Cultural Studies, co-chair of the Religion and Ecology group at the American Academy of Religion, and director of Queen’s School of Religion.


Kunstid

Chinese art is greatly influenced by the country's rich spiritual and mystical history. Many sculptures and paintings depict spiritual figures of Buddhism, according to the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Many musical instruments are integral to Chinese culture, including the flute-like xun and the guqin, which is in the zither family.

Eastern-style martial arts were also developed in China, and it is the birthplace of kung fu. This fighting technique is based on animal movements and was created in the mid-1600s, according to Black Belt Magazine.

Ancient Chinese were avid writers and philosophers — especially during the Ming and Qing dynasties — and that is reflected in the country's rich liturgical history.

Recently, archaeologists discovered detailed paintings in a 1,400-year-old tomb in China. "The murals of this tomb had diversified motifs and rich connotations, many of which cannot be found in other tombs of the same period," a team of archaeologists wrote in an article recently published in a 2017 issue of the journal Chinese Archaeology. [Ancient Tomb with 'Blue Monster' Mural Discovered in China]


Aspect 5: Goal — Harmony or Truth

Hiina have a strong system of respect. Much of this comes from the Confucian system of hierarchy. Harmony is considered more important than pointing out faults, so, when a fault must be mentioned, great care is taken to avoid giving offense.

Westerners have a strong sense of what is right and wrong, and want to know what the "truth" of a situation is. While in the East respect is taken for granted, in the West respect is earned, and criticism is typically direct and unveiled.

I n China, b e more generous with respect and tactful with criticism.


5. Impact of the School of Names

One stark difference between the two main texts of Daoism is the relation to the School of Names. The Laozi, though clearly having a theory of the pragmatics of naming, betrays neither exposure to the doctrines nor the analytical terminology developed by the dialectical Mohists for dealing with theory of language. The Zhuangzi clearly does reveal that exposure. To understand this phase in the development of Daoism, we note briefly what the outstanding linguistic issues were and how they were formulated, then we will look at the implications of Daoist responses&mdashparticularly those found in the Zhuangzi.

The focus on ming words:names grows from recognizing the interpretive problem concerning acting on some guide. The disputes about dao are intimately tied to issues about words&mdashin particular, what is to count as a correct use and what action or objects count as following the guidance.

The early Mohists advocated using a utilitarian standard to determine both the correct application of words to actions and the choice of word order in social guiding discourse. &ldquoWhich dao should we follow&rdquo became &ldquowhich words shall we use to socialize people and how should we interpret the words of social guiding discourse in guiding our behavior?&rdquo In effect, the early Mohist answer to both questions is settled by making allegedly &ldquonatural&rdquo distinctions between benefit and harm. Thus language content and conventions of interpretation should be governed by the utility principle.

Later Mohists formulated a more &ldquorealistic&rdquo theory of what counts as the normatively correct way to use names. We should mark the distinctions that underlie names in ways that trace patterns of objective similarity and difference in things. This realism governs the correct ways both to use terms and to interpret them. We rely on utility to determine how we structure terms into strings in guidance&mdashin discourse dao . So, for example, a thief is a man&mdashis governed by the rules of similarity. Still, we allow guidance that includes both the guiding strings &ldquodon&rsquot kill men&rdquo and &ldquoyou may kill thieves.&rdquo

This realism led the later Mohists to linguistic conclusions that challenged any anti-language attitude&mdashincluding those expressed by early Daoists. First, the later Mohists argued that in any disagreement about how to distinguish realities with names, there was a right answer. It may, however, be hard to know or prove. So, for example, if we are disputing about whether to use &ldquoox&rdquo or &ldquonon-ox&rdquo of some obscure object, one of the answers will be correct. This undermines both the nihilistic and the anti-language options to understanding Laozi. Second, Mohists argued that any attempt to formulate the anti-language position was self condemning. &ldquoAll language is bad&rdquo must be a &ldquobad&rdquo thing to say.

Other figures classified in the School of Names responded to the Mohist realists. Gongsun Long (mentioned sporadically in the Zhuangzi) took himself to be defending Confucian accounts of rectifying names and Hui Shi constructs what looks like a relativist challenge to Later Mohist accounts. We will look only at Hui Shi&rsquos account here because he plays such a significant role in the text of the Zhuangzi .

Hui Shi implicitly addressed the claim that the correct use of words depends on objective patterns of similarity and difference. What we know of his writings (which the Zhuangzi history suggests were prodigious) is mainly a sequence of theses cited at the end of the Zhuangzi ajalugu. These focused on propositions about comparative &ldquonames&rdquo&mdashe.g., large and small. Clearly some things properly termed &lsquolarge&rsquo are objectively smaller than other things properly called &lsquosmall&rsquo. A small elephant is considerably larger than a huge ant! So correct naming must not be based on objective distinctions in the world, but on our projections from a point of view or purpose in using them. Similarly, &lsquotall&rsquo, &lsquoshort&rsquo, and time words (e.g., &lsquobefore&rsquo and &lsquoafter&rsquo, &lsquotoday&rsquo and &lsquotomorrow&rsquo) are implausibly attributed to objective distinctions

From this, according to the list of propositions in the Zhuangzi history, Hui Shi apparently concluded that we can cluster things in arbitrary ways. This insight is not taken to be about sets and members, but about divisions into parts and wholes. So we can speak of a great &ldquoone&rdquo that is a kind of everything concept&mdashnothing lies outside it and of a small &ldquoone&rdquo which cannot be further distinguished or divided. Objectively there are no distinctions&mdashthe cosmos is one, and we should direct the same guiding attitudes toward the whole&mdash&ldquolove all things equally.&rdquo


China's Grand Strategy in the Western Hemisphere

The importance of Latin America and the Caribbean to China is multifold, but two issues predominate: Taiwan and access to raw materials, especially energy.

Taiwan

The PRC will not feel its rise to power is complete without returning Taiwan to the Mainland's political control. Taiwan and China have been separated since the 1949 civil war, and it is Beijing's view that Taiwan is a "renegade province" that must be "reunified" with the PRC.

To the tremendous frustration of the PRC, the Chinese view of Taiwan's sovereignty is increasingly in the minority of public opinion on Taiwan. As a result, China is employing every instrument of its national power to effect unification with Taiwan, including an unwillingness to renounce the use of force to resolve Taiwan's future.

One of China's tactics is an effort to politically isolate Taiwan internationally by enticing countries that currently diplomatically recognize Taiwan to shift allegiances to the PRC. The majority of the countries that recognize Taiwan are in Latin America, Africa, and the Pacific Islands.

At present, six nations in Central America--Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Honduras and Guatemala--retain full diplomatic relations with Taiwan. Beginning with Chile in 1970, all but one South American state--Paraguay--have moved to recognize Beijing. In the Caribbean, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines have relations with Taiwan. Dominica switched allegiances to the PRC last year.

For Taiwan, the states of Central America and the Caribbean, and Paraguay, represent a relatively solid regional commitment to its status as a state separate from China. These states represent nearly half of Taiwan's diplomatic recognition around the world, now totaling 25 nations.

Taiwan pays dearly to retain this diplomatic recognition, and if these states were to switch recognition from Taipei to Beijing, the damage to Taiwan's political confidence and its claims of legitimacy as a state would be seriously undermined in Taipei's estimation.

Ressursid

China's other interest, not surprisingly, is access to natural resources, especially energy. China is scouring the planet for resources to feed its economy's insatiable appetite for raw materials. Since China's government is not popularly elected, its claim to legitimacy has been its ability to improve the standard of living of the 1.3 billion Chinese people.

Stoking the economic furnaces also allows China to continue its unprecedented military buildup, supported primarily by Russian arms sales, and to provide overseas aid--often without conditions--to countries of interest in an effort to spread its influence.

China is broadly diversifying its energy sources. It is trying to reduce its reliance on coal, which has made China the world's second largest polluter. In its effort to ensure consistent energy supplies, China is expected to divert its overseas investments outside the Middle East to Russia Southeast Asia (e.g., Indonesia, Burma) Central Asia (e.g., Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan) Africa (e.g., Angola, Sudan) and Latin America (e.g., Colombia, Venezuela).

Petroleum leads the list of resources South American states have to offer China. Venezuela is the world's fifth largest producer of petroleum that produces 2.5 million barrels per day, providing the United States with 13-15 percent of its oil imports. China has invested over $1 billion in petroleum projects in Venezuela and is positioning itself to invest nearly $350 million to extract oil from eastern Venezuelan oil fields, as well as an additional $60 million in natural gas wells. China is also seeking to purchase petroleum from Ecuador, Argentina, Colombia, and Mexico.

Latin America is an important source of a variety of minerals and food items as well. Aluminum, copper, iron, and soybeans constitute a large part of China's imports from Latin America. For commercial purposes, China also obviously has a strong interest in the Panama Canal and access to good port facilities in the Caribbean.

During his visits to Brazil and Argentina in November 2004, Chinese President Hu Jintao announced plans to invest $100 billion in Latin America over the next decade, primarily for infrastructure and energy projects. These investments made by the Chinese government will undoubtedly bring political influence as well.


The Revolution Spins out of Control

By February of 1967, China had descended into chaos. The purges had reached the level of army generals who dared to speak out against the excesses of the Cultural Revolution, and Red Guards were turning against one another and fighting in the streets. Mao's wife, Jiang Qing, encouraged the Red Guards to raid arms from the People's Liberation Army (PLA), and even to replace the army entirely if necessary.

By December of 1968, even Mao realized that the Cultural Revolution was spinning out of control. China's economy, already weakened by the Great Leap Forward, was faltering badly. Industrial production fell by 12% in just two years. In reaction, Mao issued a call for the "Down to the Countryside Movement," in which young cadres from the city were sent to live on farms and learn from the peasants. Although he spun this idea as a tool for leveling society, in fact, Mao sought to disperse the Red Guards across the country, so that they could not cause so much trouble anymore.


The religion of ancient Egypt was polytheistic and centered around the divinity of the ruler and the eternity of the soul. The Chinese were polytheistic with the addition of ancestor worship. Over time, these beliefs were sometimes blended with Taoism, Buddhism or Confucianism.

In Egypt, people were buried with thought to preservation, as they believed that the dead would be able to use their bodies in the afterlife. Chinese burial style depended on the province as well as the main religion of the person. People would be buried in the ground, in water, put in a hanging coffin or cremated.


Vaata videot: Hiina meditsiin - Leho Allekand