Thomas Carlyle

Thomas Carlyle



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Thomas Carlyle, kivimüüja James Carlyle'i (1757–1832) ja pankrotistunud Dumfriesshire'i taluniku tütar Margaret Aitken (1771–1853) vanim poeg, sündis Šotimaal Ecclefechanis 4. detsembril 1795. Tema ema sünnitas Toomase järel kaheksa last: Alexander (1797–1876), Janet (1799–1801), John Aitken Carlyle (1801–1879), Margaret (1803–1830), James (1805–1890), Mary (1808–1888) ), Jane (1810–1888) ja teine ​​Janet (1813–1897).

Carlyle kasvatati rangeks kalvinistiks ja sai hariduse külakoolis. Tema biograafi Fred Kaplani sõnul: "Poisina õppis ta oma emalt lugemist, isalt aritmeetikat; ta käis Ecclefechanis erakoolis ja seejärel kuueaastaselt lähedal asuvas Hoddami kihelkonnakoolis. Temast sai kohe koolmeistri uhkus, noor inimene, kellele heakskiitvad täiskasvanud ja kadedad koolikaaslased asetavad teistsuguse koormuse. Tema vanemate jaoks oli sellel kvaliteedil oma õiguspärane koht pärimusringis. Kui nende poeg peaks olema õppiv mees, oleks ta Issanda teenija; nende ühiskonnas oli alternatiiviks kas hullus või usust taganemine. " Hiljem kirjutas Carlyle: "Inimese religioon ei koosne paljudest asjadest, milles ta kahtleb ja mida ta püüab uskuda, vaid vähesest, milles ta on kindel ja kelle jaoks pole vaja uskuda."

Aastal 1806 astus ta neljateistkümneaastaselt ülikooli sisseastumiseks kooli Annan Academy, mis oli spetsialiseerunud suurte klasside koolitamisele madala hinnaga. Sel ajal oli tema parim aine matemaatika, kuid ta paistis silma ka võõrkeeltes. Ta sai prantsuse ja ladina keele koolituse, kuid järgnevatel aastatel õpetas ta ise hispaania, itaalia ja saksa keelt. Samuti tundis Carlyle kirjanduse vastu suurt huvi ja luges Daniel Defoe, Henry Fieldingu, Tobias Smollett'i, Laurence Sterne'i ja William Congreve'i loomingut. Ta ütles Henry Fielding Dickensile, et ta on "naiivne noor, kellel on šokk punaseid juukseid, ja selgitas, kuidas teda varem kiusasid teised poisid".

Carlyle oli suurepärane õpilane ja võitis oma koha Edinburghi ülikoolis. Novembris 1809 kõndis ta 80 miili kaugusel Edinburghi. Tal kulus kolm päeva ja hiljem kommenteeris ta, et teise päeva alguseks oli ta Ecclefechanist kaugemale sõitnud, kui tema isa kunagi oma elus oli teinud. Carlyle oli ülikooli esimesel kursusel väga õnnetu. Tema religioosne kasvatus tegi võimatuks, et "ta osaleks" teiste õpilaste "liiga sageli märatsevates ja vabatahtlikes" lõbustustes.

Carlyle'i isa eeldas, et ta läheb pärast ülikooliõpingute lõppu jumalikakooli. Kuid ta lükkas selle idee tagasi ja sai 1814. aastal Annani akadeemias matemaatikaõpetajaks hinnaga 70 naela aastas. Aastal 1816 omandas ta õpetajakoha Kirkcaldys, kus õpetas ladina, prantsuse, aritmeetikat, raamatupidamist, geomeetriat, navigatsiooni ja geograafiat. Novembris 1818 depressiooni all kannatav Carlyle astus tagasi ja naasis Edinburghi.

1821. aasta mai lõpus kohtus ta hiljuti lesestunud Grace Welshiga (1782–1842) ja tema üheksateistkümneaastase tütre Jane Baillie Welshiga. Carlyle avaldas Jane'ile kohe muljet ja kirjeldas teda kui "pikka veevõtukuju, elegantset vankrit ja õhku". Autori Fred Kaplani sõnul Thomas Carlyle: elulugu (1983): "Carlyle rääkis sel õhtul omaenda lugemisest, kirjutamisest ja kirjanduslikest ambitsioonidest. Jane kuulas tähelepanelikult, olles oma õppimisest muljet avaldanud ning lõbutsenud Annandale'i aktsendi ja riigi kohmakuse pärast ... Hirm abielu ees, sest muu hulgas ta kartis seksi, Jane Welsh ei suutnud ette kujutada, et sellisest mehest võiks saada tema abikaasa. " Kuid ta oli valmis tema kirjutatud artikleid lugema ja jõudis järeldusele, et ta on "geenius".

Ehkki talle ei meeldinud õpetamine, nõustus Carlyle juhendama Isabella ja Charles Bulleri kahte poega üsna helde 200 naela suuruse summa eest aastas, mis on umbes kaks korda rohkem kui tema isa oli kunagi kivimüüjana teeninud. 1823. aasta kevadel telliti Carlyle'ilt lühike eluloo visand Friedrich Schillerist Londoni ajakiri. Ta oli ka Johann Wolfgang von Goethe ekspert ja 1824. aastal valmis Wilhelm Meisteri tõlge Õpipoisiõpe. Samal aastal kolis ta Londonisse, kus ta oli seotud Charles Lambi, Samuel Taylor Coleridge'i ja Henry Crabb Robinsoniga.

Jane Welsh nõustus pärast pikka eeltööd Thomas Carlyle'iga abielluma. Pulmad toimusid 17. oktoobril 1826. Fred Kaplan on väitnud: "On selge, et puritaanlikud pärssimised ja romantilised idealiseerimised olid kahe jalaga laiuses voodis kahe seksuaalse süütuga. Nõrgad tõendid viitavad sellele, et kuigi nad suutsid kiindumust sosinate ja kallistustega väljendada nende seksuaalsuhted ei pakkunud kummalegi füüsilist rahuldust, hoolimata nende pingutustest abielu esimese poole tosina aasta jooksul. " Carlyle'i biograaf James Anthony Froude on väitnud, et abielu oli lõppenud.

Paar asus elama Craigenputtocki. Ta ütles oma sõbrale Thomas Story Speddingile: "See on üks hõivatuimaid, üksildasemaid, kaugel rõõmsameelsematest meestest. Aeg -ajalt tunnen, et on hädavajalik sattuda kogu üksindusse; paluda kogu maailma, kirglikult, kui nad seda muidu ei anna, olla nii lahke, et jätab mind täiesti rahule. Tuleb lahti harutada ja tuua mõnesse sõnastusse kurjakuulutav kaos, mis koguneb sellesse kõva möirgava Paabeli südamesse ja pähe; kahetsema oma palju patte, et olla õnnetu, alandatud ja nende eest meeleparandust teha - lootuses vabaneda, uuest tegevusest ja paremast kuulekusest! "

Näis, et Carlyle hindas oma naist väga. Hiljem kirjutas ta: "Ta võiks teha kõike hästi, mille ta otsustas endale anda ... Tal oli selge selge ja terav võime näha asju läbi ja vihkas kõike, mis oli arvatav või pretensioonikas. Tal oli hea mõistus ta armastas õppida ja ta viljeles kõiki oma võimeid oma võimete piires. Ta oli alati vaimukas… ühesõnaga ta oli lummav ja kõik armusid temasse. "

Thomas Carlyle'i maine kirjanduse ja filosoofia eksperdina andis talle tellimusi Edinburghi ülevaade ja Välisülevaade. Samuti alustas ta tööd oma esimese raamatu Sartor Resartus kallal. Siiski oli tal suuri raskusi leida kedagi, kes oleks valmis selle filosoofilise teose avaldama. Lõpuks see seriaalistati aastal Fraseri ajakiri (1833-34).

Thomas ja Jane Carlyle kolisid Londonisse. Tal tekkis John Stuart Milliga lähedane sõprus ja ta avaldas mitmeid artikleid Westminsteri ülevaade. Mill oli väga lähedal Harriet Taylorile, kes oli abielus Henry Tayloriga. Aastal 1833 pidas Harriet läbirääkimisi abikaasaga kohtuliku lahutuse üle. Seejärel veetis ta kuus nädalat Milliga Pariisis. Tagasi tulles kolis Harriet Walton-on-Thamesi majja, kus John Stuart Mill teda nädalavahetustel külastas. Kuigi Harriet Taylor ja Mill väitsid, et neil pole seksuaalsuhet, tekitas nende käitumine nende sõprades skandaali. Selle tagajärjel jäi paar sotsiaalselt isoleerituks. Carlyle seisis aga Milli kõrval.

Mill soovitas Carlyle'il kirjutada raamatu Prantsuse revolutsioonist. Ta nõustus ja alustas raamatuga septembris 1834. Pärast esimese köite valmimist saatis ta selle Millile kommentaarideks. Ööl vastu 6. märtsi 1835 saabus Mill Carlyle'i majja teatega, et käsikiri on kogemata Harriet Taylori kodus põletatud. Järgmisel päeval otsustas ta ühe köite uuesti ümber kirjutada. Kolmeköiteline raamat sai valmis alles 12. jaanuaril 1837. Ralph Waldo Emerson korraldas selle avaldamise Ameerikas.

John Stuart Mill osales aktiivselt parlamendireformi kampaanias ja oli üks esimesi, kes pakkus välja, et naistel peaksid olema samad poliitilised õigused kui meestel. Ta tutvustas Carlyle'ile teisi poliitilisi radikaale, nagu Frederick Denison Maurice, Harriet Martineau, James Leigh Hunt, Robert Southey ja William Wordsworth.

Mill kutsus Carlyle'i üles kirjutama pamfletti parlamendireformist. Märtsis 1838 kirjutas ta: "Õnnetuseks või õnneks on see arusaam töölisklassidest kirjutamisest vahepeal minust kadunud; ja ma olen selle praeguseks täielikult kaotanud. Olen sattunud Thuycididesi, Johannes Mülleri, ristisõdade ja terve kursus minu loengutega seotud esemeid; piisav, et mind ohtralt hõivata kuni selle saatusliku aja saabumiseni. Me pühendame oma tööklasside teemalise diskursuse veel kord võimaluste peatükile. Ma ei tea, et minu arutluskäigul oleks spetsiaalselt pani mind nõudma küsimust, millele te vihjasite: aga kui see oleks nii olnud! Tegelikult oleks see minu jaoks õige rõõmsameelne asi, kas ma näeksin, et seal toimub üldine paranemine; ja ma arvan, et peaksin sel juhul oma radikalismi käed igavesti ja päev. " Carlyle'i häiris asjaolu, et sellised töölisklassi juhid nagu Francis Place ei nõustunud tema lähenemisega sellele teemale. Carlyle kirjutas: "Francis Place on minu vastu, mees, kellel on õigus olla ära kuulatud."

Carlyle oli füüsilise jõu chartismi vastu. Aastal 1839 kirjutas ta oma sõbrale Thomas Story Speddingile: "See, mida te chartismi kohta ütlete, on tõde: teadmatusest ja näljast sündinud kättemaks! Meil ​​on sellest ka siin piisavalt; selle materjal on olemas, ma usun kõigi südamesse meie töötav elanikkond ja oleks hea meelega valmis lootustandvasse vormi; kuid chartism hakkab tunduma lubamatu. Mida sellega teha? Jah, küsimus on selles. Euroopal on olnud raskusi mõningase vastuse andmisega, kuuldavalt alates 1789. aastast. ! Puukang ja tääk teevad kõik endast oleneva; kuna need täielikult ebaõnnestuvad, võime loota, et proovitakse hoopis teist sorti eksortsismi ... pesemata vastu on Jumala seadusega vastuolus ja seda peagi muuta, Inimese seadus, kellel on põhjust aru saada, muudab seda varsti ja seda mitte mingil pehmel viisil ... Kartismi palavik ja muud palavikukrambid, kuid see, mida see tähendab, ei möödu enne kõik tõde ja õigus peitub selle südames; see ei saa enne mööda minna, pikk kohting, ma kardan. "

Carlyle kohtus Charles Dickensiga esimest korda 1840. aastal. Carlyle kirjeldas Dickensit kui "peent väikest inimest ... kõige äärmuslikuma liikuvusega nägu, kellega ta räägib - kulmud, silmad, suu ja kõik - rääkides väga ainulaadselt ... vaikne, teravmeelse välimusega väike kaaslane, kes näib arvavat päris hästi, mis ta on ja millised teised on. " Kaks meest said lähedasteks sõpradeks. Dickens ütles ühele oma poegadest, et Carlyle oli mees, "kes oli teda kõige rohkem mõjutanud" ja tema õde, et "pole kedagi, kelle vastu ta kõrgemat aukartust ja imetlust tunneb".

Carlyle avaldas Chartismi 1841. aastal. Ta väitis, et otsene vastus vaesusele ja ülerahvastatusele on hariduse parandamine ja väljarände laienemine. See positsioon vihastas paljusid tema radikaalseid sõpru. Sellesse perioodi kuulusid ka teised Carlyle'i raamatud Kangelastest, kangelaste kummardamisest ja kangelasest ajaloos (1841) ja Minevik ja olevik (1843).

Carlyle ei kiitnud tööstusrevolutsiooni väga heaks. Midagi, mida ta nimetas "mehaanikaajaks". Aastal 1842 kirjeldas ta oma esimest teekonda auruveduril: "Ma olin enne rongi algust kohutavalt hirmul; närvilises seisundis, kus ma olin, tundus mulle kindel, et ma pean minestama, alates sellest, et kohutav asi peatada ei saanud. "

Kirjanduskriitik Richard Hengist Horne oli üks esimesi inimesi, kes võitis Carlyle'i kirjutamise. Ta vaidles sisse Ajastu uus vaim (1844): "Härra Carlyle ... on oma sajandi pimedalt seinalt oma akna välja löönud ... Võime ka öelda, et see on aken itta; ja et mõned mehed kurdavad teatud hämaruse üle tuule käes, mis sellesse siseneb; kui nad peaksid pigem õnnitlema teda koos uue päikesega, mida ta sealt läbi näeb, lootuse suunda, mille ta on nende silmis avastanud. " James Fitzjames Stephen oli Carlyle'i teine ​​toetaja: "Kunstiteosteks pidades peaksime asetama härra Carlyle'i kirjutiste paremiku kaasaegse kirjanduse tippu ... Kui ta on elavate kirjanike seas kõige nördinum ja vähem rõõmsameelne, on ta ka üks vaimukamaid ja inimlikumaid. " Peter Ackroyd on väitnud, et "Carlyle on 1840ndate aastate Inglismaa tähtsaima kirjaniku hulgas väga oluline"

Andrew Sanders on väitnud: "Varasemad viktoriaanlased imetlesid Carlyle'is enim tema võimet neid häirida. Just tema tundus olevat tuvastanud nende rahutuse olemuse ja pannud sõrme ajastu võidusõidupulssile ... . Carlyle oli ja jääb ebameeldivaks ja häirivaks kirjanikuks: närviline, kipitav, eksperimentaalne, väljakutsuv. Tundub, et ta on kordamööda veenvalt keerukas ja provokatiivselt otsekohene. Ta oli kõrvalseisja varases viktoriaanlikus kultuuris kahel viisil: tal oli sündis samal aastal John Keatsiga ja lähenes Londonisse kolides 40. eluaastale; ta oli ka päritolult vaene šotlane, kes oli saanud hariduse Edinburghi ülikoolis, mis siiani peeti Šoti valgustusajast. "

Carlyle oli alati mures oma tervise pärast, kuid Jane oli pidevalt halvasti. Ta kirjutas sõbrale, et tal on "halb närvisüsteem, mis hoiab mind suuremate või vähemate füüsiliste kannatuste seisundis". Thomas Carlyle kirjutas Catherine Dickensile 24. isegi laupäeval oma kodus einestades, see on üks meeldivamaid õhtusööke, mida inimlik leidlikkus meile pakkuda võiks! "

Carlyle'ist sai Itaalia revolutsionääri Giuseppe Mazzini sõber ja neil olid pikad arutelud parlamendireformi üle. Jane Carlyle ja Mazzini arendasid üha tihedamat intiimsuhet. 1846. aastal kaalus Jane oma abikaasast lahkumist platooniliste suhete tõttu teise parun Ashburtoni Bingham Baringi naise leedi Harriet Baringiga, kuid Mazzini soovitas tal tungivalt seda mitte teha.

Pärast 1848. aasta revolutsioone arendas Carlyle reaktsioonilisi vaateid. Aastal 1850 kirjutas ta kaheteistkümne brošüüri, mis avaldati järgmise aasta jooksul igakuiste osade kaupa. Sisse Viimse aja voldikud ta ründas demokraatiat kui absurdset sotsiaalset ideaali ja kommenteeris, et on absurdne, et "tõde võib avastada hääli kokku lüües". Kuid samal ajal kritiseeris Carlyle pärilikku aristokraatlikku juhtimist kui "surmavat". Carlyle soovitas, et inimesi peaksid valitsema "kõige võimekamad". Kuigi Karl Marx ja Friedrich Engels nõustusid Carlyle'iga aristokraatliku juhtimise osas, lükkasid nad tema ideed demokraatia kohta täielikult tagasi.

1854. aastal pühendas Charles Dickens oma raamatu, Rasked ajad Carlyle'ile. Ta aitas Dickensit ka oma raamatuga, Kahe linna lugu (1859). Dickensi (1990) autor Peter Ackroyd on märkinud: "Ta (Dickens) oli alati imetlenud Carlyle'i Prantsuse revolutsiooni ajalugu ja palunud tal soovitada sobivaid raamatuid, millest ta saaks seda perioodi uurida; vastuseks saatis Carlyle talle kärutäis köiteid Londoni raamatukogust. Ilmselt luges Dickens või vähemalt vaatas need kõik läbi; tema eesmärk oli kompositsiooniperioodil ainult selle perioodi raamatuid lugeda. "

21. aprillil 1866 läks Jane Carlyle Hyde Parkis oma pärastlõunasele vankrisõidule. Thomas Carlyle'i biograaf Fred Kaplan väidab, et "pärast mitmeid pargi ringkäike palus juht, kes oli mures, et proua Carlyle ei reageerinud tema täiendavate juhiste nõudmisele, palunud naisel vankrisse vaadata." Tunnistaja sõnul oli ta "vankri ühes nurgas tahapoole kallutatud, vaibad laienesid üle põlvede; silmad olid kinni ja ülahuul kergelt, veidi lahti".

Henry Fielding Dickens külastas teda sel perioodil: "Minu privileeg oli pärast isa surma külastada teda kaks või kolm korda tema kodus Cheyne Row's. Ma läksin sinna esimest korda aukartuse ja mõningase hirmutundega. See oli loomulik, kui väga noor mees külastab Carlyle'i haruldaste kingituste ja tohutu mainega vanameest ning keda võib kohati väga kurjaks teha. Kuid ma leidsin, et selline tunne oli üsna nõudmatu ja ta pani mind kohe täiesti rahulikult. Ta oli andekas kõrge huumorimeelega ja kui ta naeris, tegi ta seda südamest, visates pea tagasi ja laskes end lahti. "

Carlyle'i varased artiklid inspireerisid sotsiaalseid reforme, nagu John Ruskin, Charles Dickens, John Burns, Tom Mann ja William Morris. Hilisemas elus pöördus ta aga igasuguse poliitilise reformi vastu ja vaidles vastu 1867. aasta reformiseadusele. Samuti avaldas ta imetlust tugevate juhtide vastu. Seda illustreerib tema kuus köidet Friedrich Suure ajalugu (1858-1865) ja Norra varajased kuningad (1875). Oma elu viimastel aastatel piirdus Carlyle'i kirjutamine kirjadega Ajad.

Thomas Carlyle suri oma kodus 5 Cheyne Row, Chelsea, 5. veebruaril 1881.

Õnnetuseks või õnneks on see arusaam töölisklassidest kirjutamisest vahepeal minu sees hääbunud; ja ma olen selle praeguseks täielikult kaotanud. Me pühendame oma töökõnede teemalise diskursuse veel kord juhuste peatükile.

Ma ei tea, et minu vaidlusring oleks mind spetsiaalselt viinud nõudma küsimust, millele te viitate: aga kui oleks -! Tegelikult oli see minu jaoks õige rõõmsameelne asi, kui ma nägin, et seal toimub üldine paranemine; ja ma arvan, et sellisel juhul peaksin ma igaveseks ja päevaks pesema radikalismi käsi .... Francis Place on minu vastu, mees, kellel on õigus olla ära kuulatud.

See, mida te Chartismi kohta ütlete, on tõde: teadmatusest ja näljast sündinud kättemaks! Meil on seda ka siin piisavalt; selle materjal on olemas Ma usun kogu meie töötava elanikkonna südamesse ja kehatan end hea meelega mis tahes paljutõotaval kujul; kuid Chartism hakkab tunduma lubamatu. Euroopal on olnud raskusi mõne vastuse andmisega, väga kuuldavalt alates aastast 1789! Kaar ja tääk teevad, mis suudavad; kui need üldse ebaõnnestuvad, võime loota, et proovitakse hoopis teist sorti eksortsismi. Paraku on see nagu tumm ülekoormatud Behemoth, sisemisest viletsusest ja raevust rebenenud; aga tumm, võimeline ainult möirgama ja tembeldama: las arstid ütlevad, mis teda vaevab, las arstid ja autojuhid ja kõik mehed värisevad, kui nad ei oska öelda, sest olend ise on olemuselt loll, te ei pea paluma tal rääkida. Kui auväärsed, vaimulikud ja igasugused pestud sõnakalt kõnelevad mehed ei saa teada, et nende positsioon pesemata suhtes on Jumala seadusega vastuolus, ja muutke seda peagi, muudab Inimseadus, kellel on põhjust aru saada, muudab seda varsti ja seda mitte mingil pehmel viisil. Ma palvetan, et taevas nad õpiksid; aga väljamõeldud, et kõigepealt on vaja palju triipe. Siiski on see õige koolmeistri käes; see, kes, olenemata tema palgast, võib tõepoolest õpetada. Kogemus tegelikust faktist, kas õpetaja lollid või muidu kaotab need ära. Ülejäänud osas võib öelda, et Inglismaast ei saa see, mis on Iirimaa, ja et Inglismaa on isegi sõnastamata protesteerima asunud, sellest kaugel. Chartismi palavikuvalud mööduvad ja muud palavikukrambid; kuid see, mida see tähendab, ei möödu enne, kui kõik tõde ja õigus on südames peidus; see ei saa enne mööda minna, pikk kohting, ma kardan ...

Varased viktoriaanlased imetlesid Carlyle'is enim tema võimet neid häirida. Ta oli kõrvaline, et mainida varases viktoriaanlikus kultuuris kahel viisil: ta oli sündinud samal aastal John Keatsiga ja lähenes Londonisse kolides 40. eluaastale; ta oli ka päritolult vaene šotlane, kes oli saanud hariduse Edinburghi ülikoolis, mis siiani peesitas Šoti valgustusaja järellainetuses. Sellegipoolest langes tema ja tema naise asutamine Londonis 1834. aastal kokku reformieelnõule järgnenud aastatel Briti poliitilises ja ühiskondlikus elus laialdaselt tajutud kriisiga, mida ta analüüsis mitmete silmatorkavate tekstide seerias. See oli tema, kes lõi mõiste "Inglismaa seisund" ja see oli see, kes surus inglasi leppima nende seisundi kaasaegse linnastunud ja tööstuslikult arenenud uudsusega. Oma essees 1829. aasta aja märgid oli Carlyle iseloomustanud vanust aastal elas ta "mehaanikaajana", "masinate ajastuna" selle sõna igas välises ja sisemises tähenduses. Kümme aastat hiljem, 1839. aastal, püüdis pikk brošüür pealkirjaga „Chartism” käsitleda mitte ainult töölisklassi poliitilisele mõjule pürgimise probleemi, vaid ka laiemat ühiskondlikku haigust, mis vaevab poliitilist keha. Tema retoorika leiaks palju kajasid oma kaasaegsete loomingus ja mitte kusagil rohkem kui Dickensi romaanides ja ajakirjanduses ...

Carlyle rõhutab järjekindlalt individuaalsete jõupingutuste ja individuaalse vastutuse tähtsust kui vahendit sotsiaalsetele probleemidele reageerimiseks. Tema juhendatud Dickens, kellele kuulus enamik Carlyle'i varasemaid teoseid ja kes neid innukalt luges, määratleks ise oma tunde töö tähtsuse ja tõsise mehe kutse kohta ebasoodsates oludes. Ka tema omistab suurt tähtsust tõsisele vastusele ajastule, kus nad elasid. Tundub, et Carlyle on kinnitanud ka oma olemasolevaid eelarvamusi utilitaristide, parlamendiliikmete, „mitte midagi tegeva aristokraatia” ja „mammonismi” läbiva vaimu suhtes. Chartismis jõuab argument kõrvalepoole Benthamite paralüütilist radikaalsust-sotsiaalfilosoofilist süsteemi, mis „mõõdab statistilist mõõtepulka, kõlab koos filosoofilise poliitilis-majandusliku olukorraga ja vajub sügavale hämarasse meresse”. kehitades õlgu usus, et "midagi ei saa teha". 1843. aasta minevikus ja olevikus tsiteerib Carlyle Cromwelli kuulsaid sõnu "Te ei ole parlament. Jumala nimel, minge!" ja hakkab seejärel oma aja tuimast reformitud parlamenti neetma, kui vähegi rohkem kui kogu rahva hädasid esindama.

Minevik ja olevik vastandavad reformiva keskaegse abti energia ja kindluse 1840. aastate ebakindla ebakindlusega. Kuigi see vaatab minevikku tagasi kaastundega; see ei viita mingil juhul sellele, et kadunud mineviku nostalgia peaks andma teavet kaasaegsete dilemmade kaasaegsete lahenduste otsimisele. Carlyle väidab, et ajaloo uurimine on monitooring. See annab pigem hoiatusi kui näiteid. Seda põhimõtet visandas kõige jõulisemalt tema meisterlik prantsuse revolutsioon 1837. aastal - raamat, mida Dickens väitis kunagi tormakalt lugenud viissada korda. See ajalugu, mis kirjeldab dramaatiliselt ja leidlikult sündmusi, mis tähistasid Prantsuse monarhia ja selle järgnenud vabariigi veriseid allakäike, on võtmetöö, mis peitub Dickensi selle perioodi kohta käiva monumendi „Lugu kahest linnast” taga.

Üheksateistkümnenda sajandi esimese poole kirjanduskultuuri mõttes võib Carlyle'i teostest ehk kõige valgustavam olla 1840. aastal peetud loengusari "Kangelastest, kangelasest jumalateenistusest ja kangelaslikkusest ajaloos". 19. mail peetud viiendas loengus võttis Carlyle teemaks "Kangelane kui tähtede mees". Keskne teema, millega ta tegeles, oli kaasaegse kirjaniku esilekerkimine, kelle aadress oli suunatud laiemale avalikkusele, mitte rühmitusele ja kes teenis elatist oma raamatutest, mitte ei toetunud. Selline kirjanduskangelane oli uuenduslik.

Härra Võime ka öelda, et see on aken itta; ja et mõned mehed kurdavad teatud tuhmuse pärast tuules, mis selle sisse puhub; kui nad peaksid pigem õnnitlema end koos temaga uue päikese poolest, mida ta selle kaudu nägi, mille lootussuuna ta nende silmis avastas.

Kurvas tões veel kord, kuidas on kogu meie eksistents nendel tänapäevadel üles ehitatud Cantile, täpsusele, valele, diletantismile; selle ühe tõsise tõepärasusega: mammonism! Kaevake üles, kuhu soovite, kuigi parlamendi saalis või mujal, kui eksimatult te seda teete, labida sügavusel maapinnast selle universaalse valetaja-kivipõhja alla! Palju muud on dekoratiivne; tõsi tünnipead, kantslid, hustings, parlamendi pingid; kuid see on igavesti tõsi ja tõsi: "Raha toob raha väärtust; pange raha oma rahakotti." Siin, kui mitte kusagil mujal, on inimhinge endiselt põhjalikult tõsine; siiras prohveti siirusega: ja "inglaste põrgu", nagu Sauerteig ütles, "on lõpmatu hirm mitte pääseda, eriti raha mitte teenida." Tulemustega!

Ta on uus, ma ütlen; ta on maailmas veel sajandit vastu pidanud. Kunagi, kuni umbes sada aastat tagasi, polnud nähtud ühtegi Suure Hinge kuju, kes elaks sellisel anomaalsel viisil lahus; püüdes avaldada inspiratsiooni, mis temas trükitud raamatute kaudu oli, ning leida koht ja elatis selle järgi, mida maailm talle selle tegemise eest anda sooviks. Palju oli turul ostetud ja müüdud; kuid kangelashinge inspireeritud tarkus pole kunagi enne seda sellisel alasti viisil ... Vähesed kangelaskujud võivad olla ootamatumad!

Me oleme siin selline vaeste haigete olendite paar, me peame endale keelama rõõmu einestada kuskil praegu; ja võin öelda väga suure vastumeelsusega, isegi laupäeval teie kodus einestades, see on üks meeldivamaid õhtusööke, mida inimlik leidlikkus võiks meile pakkuda!

Minu privileeg oli pärast isa surma külastada teda kaks või kolm korda tema kodus Cheyne Row's. Ta oli andekas kõrge huumorimeelega ja kui ta naeris, tegi ta seda südamest, visates pea tagasi ja laskes end lahti.


Carlyle, Thomas.

Kirjastanud Chapman ja Hall, London, 1865

Kasutatud - kõvad kaaned
Seisukord: hea

Täisnahk. Seisukord: Hea. Esimene väljaanne. Täisnahast köide, tumerohelise ja punakaspruuni naha pealkirjade siltide, marmorist taustapiltide ja lehe servadega. Kuld on veidi tuhmunud, hõõrutud ümber selgroo, hinged on heas korras, ei pragune. Lehekülgede toonimine, enamasti väike märgistamine, esiosa toonimine ja esiotsa esiserva plekk (kuid muidu siiski kena esikülg), üks kaart pruunistunud, teine ​​3 hele. Sisaldab esikülge ja 4 lahtikäivat kaarti, sisaldab kontuuridega värvitud Preisimaa kaarti, Põhja-Euroopa kaarti, mis hõlmab Sileesia sõdade, Burkersdorfi ja ümbritsevate alade piirkonda, ja veel üht Liegnitzi ja Torgau lahingut (koos 2 rida lahingut käsitsi). Lõpppaberil Charles F Lloydi relvastatud raamatuplaat. Sisaldab 1760-1786, sisaldab Sileesia sõdu, Liegnitzi, Torgau, Burkersdorfi lahinguid, uudiseid Peterburist, Vene-Türgi sõda. Lk VIII, 781. 6. köite esimene trükk, selle komplekti/sarja viimane köide, esimene neist ilmus 1859. Suurus: 8vo - üle 7 " - 9 " pikk.


Chelsea salvei

Carlyle sündis 1795. aastal šoti kalvinistide poolt ja sai hariduse Edinburghi ülikoolis. Tema vanemad lootsid, et temast saab vaimulik, kuid temast sai hoopis õpetaja. Tema tõeline kutsumus oli kirjutamine.

Carlyle'il õnnestus see talentide, võrgustike loomise ja graniidist eneseusu kaudu. Varane projekt oli Johann Wolfgang von Goethe ja rsquose romaani tõlge Wilhelm Meister. Ta saatis Goethele koopia ja neist kahest said kirjasaatjad.

Kirjanduslik ambitsioon viis Carlyle Šotimaalt Londonisse. Aastal 1834 asus ta koos oma naise Janega elama Chelseasse, kus nende ringi kuulus J.S. Mill, Charles Dickens ja John Ruskin.


Biograafia

Thomas Carlyle'i vanemad olid mõlemad šotlased ja neil oli kokku üheksa last. Toomase isa oli see, kellel oli kodus viimane sõna. Ta oli väga range, kuid samal ajal alati õiglane. Perekond oli lisaks pühendunud kristlusele ja Tomas Carlyle isa lootis, et Thomasest saab tulevikus preester.

Thomas Carlyle sai esimest korda koduõppe, enne kui ta läks Šotimaal Ecclefechanis kohalikku kooli. Hiljem läks ta Annani keskkooli Annani akadeemiasse. Tomas Carlyle tuvastas noores eas, et teda huvitab matemaatika. Seda ka pärast seda, kui vanemad tutvustasid talle matemaatikat, sest nad teadsid selle oskuse omandamise võimalikke eeliseid. Tema tulemused matemaatikas Annani akadeemias olid tema huvi tõttu märkimisväärsed.

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Pärast Thomas Carlyle ülikooliks valmistumist õppis ta 1809. aastal Edinburgi ülikoolis, kus õppis üldkursust. Üldkursuse valimine oli tol ajal tavaline asi. Nagu oodatud, saavutas Thomas Carlyle ülikoolis matemaatikas erakordseid tulemusi. Ta lõpetas 1813. aastal ja jätkas haridusteed, õppides teoloogiat, et rahuldada oma preestriks saava isa soovi. Programmi ajal otsustas Thomas Carlyle siiski uuringut mitte lõpule viia, sest ta muutis meelt. Tomas ei tahtnud enam preestriks saada, sest teda huvitas rohkem kirjanikuks saamine ning ta tundis, et peaks järgima oma huve ja väljendama oma mõtteid.

Ta lahkus Edinburgi ülikoolist, kuid alustas seejärel professionaalset karjääri matemaatikaõppejõuna Annani akadeemias 1814. aastal. Tomas Carlyle pidas seda ametit kaks aastat ja töötas seejärel uuesti matemaatikaõpetajana, kuid teises Kirkcaldy koolis. Thomas Carlyle tegi aga kindlaks, et vaatamata oma huvile matemaatika vastu ei saa ta sellel teel püsides oma oskusi parandada. Seetõttu arvas Thomas Carlyle, et kõige parem on oma töö lõpetada ja õppida mõni teine ​​kursus. Kuigi Thomas tahtis matemaatikas silma paista, otsustas ta õppida õigusteadust. Kahjuks ei lõpetanud ta programmi, sest Thomas Carlyle tuvastas hiljem, et tal on saksa kirjanduse vastu suurem huvi. Sellest tulenevalt hakkas Carlyle saksa keelt õppima ja kirjutas oma õpingute kohta hulgaliselt artikleid, mille avaldasid ka tuntud kirjastajad, näiteks London Magazine.

Selle aja jooksul tundis Thomas Carlyle palju kiindumust jõukast ja lugupeetud perest pärit tüdruku Jane Baillie Welshi vastu. Vastupidi, Thomasel ei olnud veel kindlat sissetulekut ja tema professionaalne karjäär oli endiselt pisut konarlik. See näitas, et tal pole suurt võimalust tüdrukuga abielluda, sest ta armastas teda väga. Thomas Carlyle suutis pikas perspektiivis siiski Janega abielluda. Paar abiellus 1826.

Kaks aastat hiljem kolisid Thomas Carlyle ja tema naine Jane Craigenputtocki. Nad elasid seal 1928–1934, enne kui paar otsustas. Londonisse kolimiseks. Vahepeal reisis Thomas Carlyle juba ringi ja ehitas professionaalse võrgustiku, mis võiks tulevikus kasu tuua. Samal ajal kirjutas ta pidevalt Saksa ajaloost ja üldisest elust. Tema esseesid avaldasid endiselt erinevad kirjastajad, näiteks Foreign Review ja väljaanded olid suure nõudlusega. Näiteks tema artikleid Voltaire'i, Richteri ja Sartor Resartuse kohta levitatakse mitmeid kordi. Ta kandideeris ka erinevatele juhatuse kohtadele, kuid need taotlused jäid kahjuks edutuks. Thomas oli motiveeritud oma karjääri täiendama ja kolis seetõttu Londonisse. He expected there are more opportunities elsewhere.

Thomas Carlyle received various job positions offers. For instance, he was offered a position as a Mathematical Professor and as an editor at Times. However, Thomas rejected all offers. He was still struggling with paying his bills but instead decided to continue writing about history. In this time, Thomas Carlyle started his three-volume work about the French revolution. He first gave the first part to his friend to review, but it was accidentally destroyed. However, by 1937, Thomas Carlyle rewrote the first part of the French revolution and immediately continued the work. Carlyle’s final deliverables were famed because of his extensive research and how he communicated this in his writings.

His contributions to the writings about the French revolution and other historical work won him international popularity. He also wrote about different subjects related to economic theory. Because of all his writings about economic, social, and political issues, Thomas Carlyle attracted public attention. He next pursued his career as a lecturer and started lecturing again, but this time about European literature. The following publications are some of the famous work of Thomas Carlyle. Still, these are not limited to these alone: ‘The Letters and Speeches of Oliver Cromwell,’ and the History of Friedrich 2nd of Prussia, Called Frederick the Great.’

The work of Thomas Carlyle has formed the basis of modern Germany. His writings additionally comprise essays that addressed social and political issues. Despite his fame, Thomas Carlyle became lonely in his life. In his relationship with his wife, Thomas experienced more negativity than positivity. They fought a lot, and unfortunately, Jane died in 1866. Her death had a significant impact on the health of Thomas Carlyle because he became more isolated than he was before. Thomas was buried behind Hoddom Parish Church, in Ecclefechan Churchyard.


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I don’t consider myself equal to the task of writing a review of Carlyle’s works simply because I consider him to be one of the greatest writers of his Age second perhaps only to Edmund Burke. I would be remiss if I did not acknowledge that plumbing these depths is a challenge. However I will scribble a few notes here for anyone wishing to brave these waters and start off by admitting that for the layman and others such as myself, finishing the book from cover to cover can be a daunting task. However, if you set your sails aright, despite the obstacles, it can prove a most rewarding venture. Strenuous.. maybe- Arduous.. a little.. But well worth the effort. To be sure, the reader will encounter a vast array of names and places that will sound foreign to his ear players and actors who have long since left the world stage. Despite time and history having buried many of these names beneath her proud waves these waters are still navigable

Alex de Tocqueville wrote that: “The American Revolution was caused by a mature and thoughtful taste for freedom. No disorderly passions drove it. On the contrary, it proceeded hand in hand with a love of order and legality”. Not so the French Revolution. It was sudden, violent and unforgiving. Tens of thousands of people lost their lives. And the way they were murdered (there is no other name for it) was particularly cruel, brutal and vicious. The bodies of victims were often mutilated and dismembered heads stuck on the end of pikes and paraded through towns and cities. Hundreds of priests were tied up and put on boats the boats then deliberately and purposely sunk all drowned- there were no survivors (Pg. 691). The Tannery in Meudon where the flaying, butchering and skinning of human corpses (both men and woman) took place (Pg. 712) for making breeches, pants, and clothing. Gruesome and horrifically evil, but true. Apparently, the Nazis weren’t first to find new uses for human skin. And (if you have the stomach for it) you can do an internet search on Princess de Lamballe. The actual details of her murder were so unspeakable that Carlyle refused to commit them to writing.
Like Arjuna who looked with unshielded eyes into the mouth of Krishna before the battle of Kurukshetra and saw worlds and universes unfold before him so too Carlyle looks into the maw of the French Revolution. Carlyle takes up the challenge by asking what exactly the French Revolution was all about? What did it all mean? What did it signify? How is it to be interpreted? Do we even have (he asks) the tools to dare attempt an interpretation? In the end, Carlyle neither accuses or excuses the French Revolution he attempts to write about an event and phenomena that even today historians are still debating.
When we look back over all the carnage and the tragic divulsions.. When the dead are all buried and time has bound and healed at least some of the injustices which took place.. When we add it all up and ask ourselves almost 200 years later what it all meant we are still no closer to a final answer than when Thomas Carlyle first took pen in hand, sat down, and began to write..the story of..The French Revolution.
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History is story of blood, and literature the story of pain. Thomas Carlyle, in this book, blends history and literature to tell a compelling tale.

To read this book you need fair degree of familiarity with the actors in the build up to, and during, the French revolution. I, therefore, read Citizens: A Chronicle of the French Revolution (Simon Schama) before embarking on Carlyle's masterpiece.

Bob-Blair.org has an amazing annotated copy of THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. Working through its first chapters, I find that the first chapter requires a fairly good knowledge of Louis XV's reign, which Wikipedia or Bob Blair's site can give you.

The next chapters are absolutely lucid, and state clearly and repeatedly that the great causes of the French Revolution are the decline of the nobility, the exploitation of the poor, and a general atmosphere of skepticism. Loss of belief, Carlyle says, leads to an outbreak of the diabolical in human beings.

Dickens got almost all his feeling for the French Revolution from Carlyle's history. In their time the revolution was no farther away than World War Two is from us, which means they had a good general feel for it. Even at our present distance, it's not that tough to read Carlyle -- and his main points, rather than being hidden as some reviewers have said, are virtually screamed at the reader over and over again.

Those who call his writing stilted don't know what "stilted" means. It means pompous and over-formal. Carlyle coined words and wrote the kind of wild poetry that influenced Melville in his MOBY DICK. That's not stilted. Calling it stilted is like calling a rock star soft.

It is a poetic style, for sure. The Modern Library introducer compares it with Milton's. He also calls the book a kind of epic. If you don't like epic poetry, don't read Carlyle. He won't miss you I won't miss you and you'll be so much happier wherever you end up.


History of the Great Man Theory

The great man theory of leadership became popular during the 19th century. The mythology behind some of the world's most famous leaders, such as Abraham Lincoln, Julius Caesar, Mahatma Gandhi, and Alexander the Great, helped contribute to the notion that great leaders are born and not made.

In many examples, it seems as if the right man for the job seems to emerge almost magically to take control of a situation and lead a group of people into safety or success. Historian Thomas Carlyle also had a major influence on this theory of leadership. He stated, "The history of the world is but the biography of great men." According to Carlyle, effective leaders are those gifted with divine inspiration and the right characteristics.  

Some of the earliest research on leadership looked at people who were already successful leaders. These individuals often included aristocratic rulers who achieved their position through birthright. Because people of a lesser social status had fewer opportunities to practice and achieve leadership roles, it contributed to the idea that leadership is an inherent ability.  

Even today, people often describe prominent leaders as having the right qualities or personality for the position. This implies that inherent characteristics are what make these people effective leaders.  


On Heroes, Hero-Worship, and the Heroic in History

In his 1840 lectures on heroes, Thomas Carlyle, Victorian essayist and social critic, championed the importance of the individual in history. Published the following year and eventually translated into fifteen languages, this imaginative work of history, comparative religion, and literature is the most influential statement of a man who came to be thought of as a secular prophet and the "undoubted head of English letters" (Emerson). His vivid portraits of Muhammad, Dante, Luther, Napoleon—just a few of the individuals Carlyle celebrated for changing the course of world history—made On Heroes a challenge to the anonymous social forces threatening to control life during the Industrial Revolution.

In eight volumes, The Strouse Edition will provide the texts of Carlyle's major works edited for the first time to contemporary scholarly standards. For the general reader, its detailed introductions and annotations will offer insight into the author's thought and a reconstruction of the diverse and often arcane Carlylean sources.


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About Thomas Carlyle

Thomas Carlyle was most famous in the Victorian era, when he was known for his dense, thoughtful books on history and philosophy. The son of a strict Calvinist, Carlyle became a divinity student at Edinburgh University but eventually left school and turned to writing instead. He developed a stomach ailment -- possibly gastric ulcers -- which stayed with him all his life and helped give him a reputation as a cranky and somewhat disagreeable personality. His prose style, famously quirky and sometimes savage, helped cement that reputation. His made a splash in 1833 with the publication of the semi-autobiographical Sartor Resartus ("The Tailor Re-Tailored"). Other major works included his three-part history The French Revolution (1837), the six-volume History of Frederick the Great (1858-65), and his 1847 collection of Oliver Cromwell's letters and speeches. He also devised a series of public lectures culminating in his book Heroes and Hero-Worship, which still is regarded as a key text on the subject. (His fascination with heroes and strong leaders has given him an reputation as anti-democratic.) In 1827 he married Jane Baille Welsh -- herself brilliant and difficult -- and their 40-year marriage is remembered as a tempestuous affair.

Carlyle was the victim of a famous misfortune after writing the first volume of The French Revolution. He entrusted the manuscript to his friend John Stuart Mill for review shortly afterwards, Mill's maid mistook the manuscript for trash paper and burned it. Carlyle was forced to rewrite the entire volume from scratch.

n April 1845, Thomas and Jane Carlyle entertained three guests whose opinions dramatically clashed with their own--so much so that, as Jane Carlyle noted in her diary, "a little blood was shed involuntarily" (qtd. in Duffy 3). The guests were Charles Gavan Duffy, John O'Hagan, and John Pigot, all members of the political movement known as Young Ireland. Their immediate disagreement with their host was understandable, given Carlyle's depiction of the Irish in Chartism, where, his visitors complained, he had characterized them all as "all liars and thieves." (1) But Carlyle and his guests also disagreed on the fundamental political issue: the goal of Young Ireland was the repeal of the 1800 Act of Union between Britain and Ireland, a goal Carlyle opposed. In an essay published in the Examiner in 1848, Carlyle argued against repeal, comparing the efforts of Ireland against British colonialism with those of "a violent-tempered starved rat, extenuated into frenzy, [to] bar the way of a rhinoceros" ("Repeal" 43). Such inflamatory language helps to explain how the political discussion at the Carlyles' escalated to the point of bloodshed: O'Hagan's nose burst while the visitors "were all three at the loudest in their defence of Ireland against the foul aspersions Carlyle had cast on it" (qtd. in Duffy 3).

Less easily explained, however, is the enduring relationship that developed out of this contentious first meeting. Carlyle exchanged letters with the Young Irelanders and visited and traveled with them during his two trips to Ireland. He not only received and read their weekly newspaper, the Nation (founded in 1842), but published an article in it. The friendship cultivated by Carlyle and the Irish nationalists is all the more remarkable because they had reason for disagreement not only in Young Ireland's cause, but also in the means by which it was pursued. Writers in the Nation repeatedly encouraged their readers to overlook religious, political, and ethnic differences in order to create a united Ireland: a neutralized national identity was to over-ride all other allegiances. Carlyle's writing on Ireland, however, emphasized the country's religious and--especially--its Celtic racial character as key both to its troubles and to its destiny.

Carlyle's infamous positions on race are frequently cited in contemporary discussions of Victorian racial ideology, in part because they are some of the most influential and offensively expressed positions on the issue available. (2) Without excusing his racism, however, it should be noted that Carlyle emphasized race in his writing on famine Ireland partly to resist progressive narratives depicting that country's plight as a developmental stage to be suffered through rather than repaired. Carlyle's resistance to such a teleology is clear in one of his most overtly racist essays, "Occasional Discourse on the Negro Question" (1849), published just months after he toured Ireland with Duffy.

Examining Young Ireland's involvement with Carlyle makes it clear that the movement, despite its emphasis on neutralized national identity, shared Carlyle's skepticism about theories of progress that positioned Ireland backward in time relative to a norm of national development defined by Britain. For Young Ireland, Irish nationalists must not be so accommodating as to replicate British national identity. And in the movement's writing, as in Carlyle's, this resistance to neutralized nationalism is often organized around the issue of race. If it may seem odd that Carlyle's tour of Ireland produced an essay declaring his support for black slavery in the West Indies, it may seem more peculiar still that Young Ireland writers were preoccupied with black oppression, given that repeal was usually figured as a conflict between two white racial groups--a battle between Saxons and Celts. This preoccupation is no less pivotal because it is never directly addressed--the Nation's editors deliberately avoided discussing the racism of whites against blacks in their paper, despite discussion of slavery at a figurative level, and despite later accounts citing white-on-black racism as one of the reasons behind a key rupture in the Nation's leadership.

Why did the racial distinction between black and white have this much significance to the writing on repeal by both Carlyle and the Young Ireland writers? The question is important because it provides necessary context not only for Carlyle's positions on race, but also for the struggle of Young Ireland to avoid both Carlylean racism and racially neutral nationalism. But the dilemma of Young Ireland's leadership, which scorned Carlyle's racism even as it acknowledged some aspects of his critique of nationalist subjectivity, also suggests ways that contemporary scholars might acknowledge the failings of Carlyle's social critique while still profiting from it.

Unlikely Collaborators: Carlyle and Young Ireland

When the Young Irelanders visited Carlyle in 1845, they were journeying to meet a writer they had long admired. His influence over their movement was so significant that the early Nation contributors dubbed their regular social gatherings "tea and Thomas" (Davis 31-32). After their personal acquaintance commenced, Carlyle met with Young Ireland members during both of his journeys to Ireland--a brief one in 1846, and a more lengthy tour in 1849--and corresponded with several of them. Although he remained an opponent of the repeal movement, he also remained a faithful friend to the Young Irelanders even when they suffered the consequences of their repeal agitation. Twice he wrote to George Villiers (Lord Clarendon), lord lieutenant of Ireland, to plead for magnanimous treatment of a Young Ireland prisoner: once for Duffy and once for John Mitchel. (3) In each case, Carlyle described the prisoner as a gifted and well-intentioned Irishman who had been led astray by repealer Daniel O'Connell but who, as he wrote, comparing Duffy to Mitchel, "might grow into something useful yet, and do good to himself and perhaps to his poor Country, too" (27 Oct. 1848, 146).

Carlyle developed a particularly longstanding relationship with Duffy, who chronicled their interactions in his 1892 Conversations with Carlyle. They exchanged not only personal regards but also professional work. Duffy--astonishingly--served as a proofreader for Carlyle's hero-worshipping work on Oliver Cromwell, ensuring the accuracy of its Irish place names (Conversations 13). For his part, Carlyle read the copies of the Nation that Duffy sent and marked for him (7), admiring Duffy's editorials as wheat amidst the general Irish chaff (17). In 1849 he even submitted an essay to Duffy, instructing him to "do as you like" with it, "only don't . speak of my mortal name in connection with it" (Conversations 146). Duffy printed the piece anonymously in the Nation, whereafter its author was immediately recognized (Conversations 146). The essay, "Trees of Liberty," appeared in December 1849--the same month that saw the publication of "Occasional Discourse on the Negro Question"--and suggested that patriotic Irishmen would be better off planting trees for their country than dying for it.

Duffy was Carlyle's host in 1846 and his traveling companion in 1849 (Conversations 22-23, 47-125). The peculiarity of their relationship--as well as of Carlyle's relationship with Young Ireland more generally--may present itself most emphatically in the 1849 journey's odd pairing. Here was Carlyle--the repeal opponent, disparager of the Irish, and internationally famous historian--twice invited to visit the lord lieutenant of Ireland, and twice choosing instead to spend his time with repeal-advocate Duffy. And here was Duffy--newly released from nine months in prison after a narrow escape from his treason-felony charge (R. Davis 165)--greeted with celebration as a nationalist hero all over Ireland, yet choosing as his traveling companion a public disparager of the Irish nationalist cause. (4)

One explanation for this strange partnership might be found in Carlyle's ongoing emphasis on the position and plight of Ireland. Ireland and the Irish not only appear as a threat to British stability in Chartism (1839) and Past and Present (1843), but are more centrally the subject of a series of essays Carlyle published in the Examiner and the Spectator between March 1848 and April 1849. (5) Carlyle had begun research for a book on Ireland and was widely expected to write one. (6) Ireland, he noted, "really is my problem the breaking-point of the huge suppuration which all British and all European Society now is" (Reminiscences iii). By visiting Ireland in person in 1849, he hoped to "have the Problem lying visible before [his] eyes . for there, in that starving distressed Country, there it is that the 'universal Imposture' has fallen prostrate into due ruin, and is demanding of all men, 'What will you do with me?'" ("To Jean Carlyle Aitken" 71). His month-long tour, beginning in Dublin, ending in Londonderry, and circling clockwise around the island in between, exposed him to scenes of extreme poverty and starvation but also gave him cause for hope. He toured ruins and an experimental farm, and his letters juxtapose descriptions of Irish beggars and Irish hospitality.


Thomas Carlyle

Carlylen vanhemmat olivat jyrkkiä kalvinisteja ja toivoivat pojastaan saarnamiestä. Carlyle menetti kristillisen uskonsa opiskellessaan Edinburghin yliopistossa, mutta kalvinistiset arvot säilyivät hänessä läpi elämän. Carlylen uskonnollisuuden ja uskon hiipumisen välillä tasapainottelevat työt tekivät niistä vetoavia monille, jotka yrittivät ymmärtää ajalle ominaisia perinteistä yhteiskuntajärjestystä uhkaavia tieteellisiä ja poliittisia muutoksia.

Opiskeltuaan Edinburghin yliopistossa Carlyle ryhtyi opettamaan matematiikkaa ensin Annanissa ja sitten Kirkcaldyssa, jossa hän ystävystyi kirkonmies Edward Irvingin kanssa. Vuodet 1819–1821 Carlyle vietti jälleen Edinburghin yliopistossa, jossa hän koki uskonnollisen muutoksen, josta hän sai myöhemmin aineistoa kirjaansa Sartor Resartus. Hän ryhtyi syventymään saksalaiseen kirjallisuuteen ja hänen ajatteluunsa vaikuttikin vahvasti saksalainen transsendentalismi, etenkin Johann Gottlieb Fichten töissä. Hänestä kehittyi saksalaisen kirjallisuuden asiantuntija ja hän kirjoittikin sarjan esseitä Fraseri ajakiri -lehdelle ja käänsi saksalaisia kirjailijoita, erityisesti Goethea.

Carlyle oli aikansa johtavia yhteiskuntakriitikkoja. Hän tunsi epäluottamusta demokratiaa ja juutalaisia kohtaan. Siten hänen on katsottu ennakoineen sata vuotta myöhemmin nousseita antisemitistia ja fasistisia aatteita. [2]


Thomas Carlyle

Thomas Carlyle is best known as an writer but in fact was also a mathematician. His father, James Carlyle, was a stonemason and his mother, Margaret Aitken, the daughter of a bankrupt Dumfriesshire farmer, was James' second wife. James had married Jannet but she died after the death of their son John in 1791 . James and Margaret married in 1794 and Thomas was the eldest of their nine children. Although James and Margaret were intelligent people they were not well educated and Margaret, for example, could read only with difficulty and could not write at the time of her marriage. They were very religious people and they brought up their family to strict Calvinist principles teaching them frugality and discipline. Thomas first learnt basic arithmetic from his father.

Thomas attended the village school at Ecclefechan until he was six years old and then Hoddam parish school until he was ten years old. He was also taught Latin privately by a local minister so he was well prepared for his secondary schooling. However Annan Academy was six miles away and Thomas's mother did not want him to attend the school. His father, however, insisted and on 24 May 1806 he accompanied his ten year old son on the six mile walk to the Academy where Thomas became a boarder during the school week returning home for the weekends. He excelled academically at Annan Academy, showing particular aptitude for mathematics, but his school days proved difficult and unhappy. His mother told him that he must never use physical force even to defend himself and this, rather naturally given the conditions in the school, meant that he was badly bullied. Eventually he went against his mother and fought back, which certainly made his life more bearable. His teachers provided efficient but uninspiring education which was aimed at making pupils ready to enter university by the age of fourteen. In addition to mathematics, his best subject, he had also enjoyed studying modern languages at school. Almost certainly he had learnt more from studying books on his own than he had from the somewhat second rate teachers.

Carlyle entered the Edinburgh University in November 1809 where his parents expected him to train to enter the ministry. The university was eighty miles from Ecclefechan and Carlyle said goodbye to his parents on the edge of his home town then walked the eighty miles during the following three days. Arriving at Edinburgh University he matriculated and began the four year course leading to an M.A. with the prospect of a further three years after that to train for the Church. As all students did, he studied a general course not specialising in any particular topic although he showed particular promise in mathematics. In his first year he was somewhat withdrawn as he had been at school but by his second year he had become more confident, and was making friends with his fellow students. He was described by a fellow student while in his second year as:-

He was, however, inspired by the mathematics teaching of Leslie but one would have to say that his opinions of most of his other lecturers was poor to say the least.

In November 1813 he completed his M.A. course but, like many students at this time, chose not to graduate. He enrolled in Divinity Hall of the Church of Scotland in Edinburgh for his divinity training, but as his parents could not afford to have him study full time for three years, he chose the option of one year of full time study followed by six years part-time study during which he had to return to Edinburgh and preach a trial sermon once a year for each of the six years. Carlyle completed the one year of full time study but did not enjoy it. During this year he maintained his mathematics interest by publishing articles in newspapers and greatly enjoyed entering into controversial intellectual discussions. He left Edinburgh in June 1814 and returned to Annandale. With a strong recommendation from Leslie, he was appointed as a mathematics teacher at Annan Academy [ 3 ] :-

Unhappy with teaching, Carlyle resigned from his post in Kirkcaldy in 1818 , and returned to Edinburgh University. Leslie, seeing that despite being a very competent mathematician, he would never excel at research, advised him to use his mathematical skills by studying engineering and then suggested that he should go to the United States. Carlyle chose not to follow Leslie's advice but, despite making a little money as a mathematics tutor, he was in severe financial difficulties. He made an attempt to study law taking some classes in 1819 but soon discovered that this was not to his liking. He spent three unhappy years in Edinburgh, eventually deciding that he would change direction again. He began a serious study of German and he turned to history and literature for which he is famed. In mathematics Carlyle is famed for his English translation of Legendre's Eléments de géométrie which David Brewster commissioned him to undertake for £ 50 in 1821 . This translation, which first appeared in 1824 , ran to 33 editions.

Carlyle held a number of posts as a tutor after leaving Edinburgh University, having no fixed base. In 1821 he met Jane Baillie Welsh whose father John Welsh had been a respected Haddington doctor but had just died of typhoid. Jane was nineteen years old at the time and her mother Grace Welsh was finding things very difficult. Carlyle was soon sending Jane letters showing his affection, but she found it hard to imagine that she might ever marry. However she wrote to Carlyle, going against her mother's wishes in doing so [ 3 ] :-

Despite little encouragement, Carlyle persisted in his attempts to win Jane over. She worried, however, that she did not love him and she also worried that if they married she would have a much lower standard of living. Carlyle lived for a year at a small isolated farm called Hoddam Hill near the town of his birth. Then, after Jane's mother rented a home on the outskirts of Edinburgh for the couple to live in once they were married, the marriage took place on 17 October 1826 .

Several important events happened in the years between Carlyle meeting his future wife and their marriage. One was that, despite his very religious upbringing, he turned away Christianity and became an atheist. He began to write and his first work The Life of Schiller was published in the London Magazine (1823 - 24) , then soon after his translation of Goethe's Wilhelm Meister appears in the same publication in 1824 . He had also made a short trip to London in 1824 where he met a number of the leading literary figures at dinners and arranged visits. It was perhaps ironical that the type of mathematics position which would certainly have interested him a few years earlier now came up. He was told that if he applied for the position of Professor of Mathematics at the Royal Military College at Sandhurst in Surrey he was certain of being appointed. However, he felt that his literary career was taking off and that it would be damaged by his holding such a post he chose not to apply.

In the spring of 1827 Carlyle and his wife began to consider living at Craigenputtoch, a small farm about 20 miles from Dumfries which Jane had inherited from her father. Carlyle still fancied a university post, however, and in May 1827 he wrote an application letter ( see [ 12 ] ) :-

Perhaps not surprisingly this rather strange letter of application did not lead anywhere. It is interesting, however, that even at this stage, Carlyle was still interested in teaching mathematics. Carlyle also applied unsuccessfully for the chair of moral philosophy at St Andrews University, and he even applied for the chair of astronomy at Edinburgh University in 1834 .

Carlyle and his wife spent six years living at Craigenputtock, from 1828 until 1834 , after which he went to set up home in London. His first major work was the philosophical play Sartor Resartus. He had completed it in 1831 but despite spending several months in London attempting to find a published he failed. He did however publish Omadused aastal Edinburghi ülevaade in 1831 . After he moved to London in 1834 he wrote the three volume historical work The French Revolution which brought him both popular and academic fame after its publication in 1837 . However writing the work proved very dramatic. After completing the manuscript of the first volume he gave it to his friend John Stuart Mill to read. Somehow the manuscript was mistaken for waste paper and used to kindle of fire. Carlyle had to rewrite the whole volume from memory. He also had Sartor Resartus published in 1838 . As well as his historical works Carlyle wrote Chartism (1840) which opposes conventional economic theory.

These works had achieved fame for Carlyle who now received invitations to lecture which solved his financial problems. He gave a series of lectures beginning in May 1837 on the German influence on Britain, and another series in the following year on European literature. Further lectures series were given in 1839 and 1840 . His later historical works include The Letters and Speeches of Oliver Cromwell (1845) , and the six volume work The History of Friedrich II of Prussia, Called Frederick the Great (1858 - 1865) .

Carlyle became rector of Edinburgh University in 1865 after Gladstone retired from the office. He had been elected by the students in a contest with Disraeli. His installation address On the Choice of Books (1866) was published and its tone of high moral exhortation made it very successful. In fact Carlyle was still at the University following his address when news reached him that his wife had died in London on 21 April.