Kas on tõendeid selle kohta, et Aabraham ja Hammurabi mõjutasid üksteist?

Kas on tõendeid selle kohta, et Aabraham ja Hammurabi mõjutasid üksteist?



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Vastused InGenesis soovitab:

Hiljutiste uuringute tulemus on aga see, et antiikmaailma kronoloogiat uuendatakse. Hammurabi näib nüüd olevat Aabrahami asemel Moosese lähedane kaasaegne. Egiptuse kronoloogilistes uuringutes on patriarhid dateeritud varem kui kunagi varem.

EarlthlyCovenant väidab:

tõendite kogum, mis viitab sellele, et Mesopotaamia ülemvalitseja, kellega Aabraham sõlmis lepingu, oli Babüloonia suur seaduseandja, kuningas Hammurabi (1790–1752 eKr).

Minu küsimus on: Kas on tõendeid selle kohta, et Aabraham ja Hammurabi mõjutasid üksteist?


Puuduvad meile teadaolevad tõendid ja pole põhjust loota nende leidmist. Isegi kui võtta Genesist sõna -sõnalt, on siiski võimalik väita, et Aabraham oli kirjaoskamatu. Saara haua tegemine tähendab kirjaoskust kaananlastelt, kellelt ta selle ostis, mitte kirjaoskust Aabrahami või mõne tema teenijalt.

Patriarhide eluviis jättis maal vähe jälgi ja jättis vähem maha, et neid hiljem üles kaevata. Ainsad asjad, mis Aabrahamist maha jäid, olid paekivist (?) Hauad pinnal, mis ilmselt ammu maha raiunud ja lahti kaevatud kaevud olemas. Kui kaevude suuline ajalugu oleks vale ja kaev, mida me nimetame Aabrahami kaevuks, poleks meil mingit võimalust seda teada saada.

Aabraham on küll jõukas, kuid tema veiste rikkus ei jätaks 4000 aasta pärast mingit muljet.

Seega pole eriti põhjust arvata, et Aabraham kunagi Hammurabiga suhtles ja isegi kui ta seda tegi (mis pole võimatu, sest ta alustas Urist), pole põhjust arvata, et meil oleks sellest rekord. Lõppude lõpuks on Piiblil oma eesmärk ja seda tuleks käsitsi kopeerimiseks hoida mõistlikus suuruses, nii et sellised asjad jäetaks välja ja tõenäosus, et mõni muu konkreetne kirje säilib, on tõesti väike. Babüloonia ajastul on kiilkirjatahvleid, kuid neid, kus Aabrahami ei mainita, on oodata isegi siis, kui eeldame, et ta oli seal korraga.

Kuid EarthlyCovenant'i väide on äärmuslikult veider ja solvab karjase või kitsekarja intelligentsust. See väidab tähendust mõnest märksõnast, millest on raske aru saada, kuid jätab tähelepanuta lepingu enda sõnad. Neile peaksime ütlema: "Erakorralised nõuded nõuavad erakorralisi tõendeid."


Ma ütlen kohe, et olen ise praktiseeriv kristlane, lootuses, et te ei jäta mind vaenlaseks, kui teatan järgmist: See on ebatõenäoline, kuna praegune ajalooline üksmeel on see, et Aabraham ei olnud ajalooline isik. Ta on rohkem nagu juudi rahvaste Romulus ja Remus.

Aabrahami lugu ei saa lõplikult seostada ühegi konkreetse ajaga ning on laialt levinud arvamus, et patriarhaalne ajastu koos väljarände ja kohtunike perioodiga on hiline kirjanduslik konstruktsioon, mis ei puuduta tegeliku ajaloo ühtegi perioodi

Aabrahami lugu, kuigi see on tõepoolest palju varem asetatud, näib olevat juba rauaajal kirja pandud. Enamik usaldusväärseid teadlasi (sellised inimesed, kellel on Vikipeedia lehed, mitte IMDB lehed) usuvad nüüd, et see juhtus millalgi pärast Babüloonia paguluse lõppu.

Nagu öeldud, tunduvad selle osad (eriti mõned nimed) olevat palju vanemad. Nii et osa loost, kuid mitte kõik, on tõepoolest väga vana. Kuid pole enam kaalutud ühtegi usaldusväärset viisi, kuidas seda dateerida sellise täpsusega, mis võimaldaks meil rääkida Aabrahami kaasaegsetest teistes kultuurides.

Veelgi enam, pole tõesti kasulik püüda arutleda müütiliste tegelaste suhtlemise üle ajalooliste isikutega. Loo oluline osa oli alati see, mida see rääkis juutidest kui rahvast ja kuidas nad endasse (ja oma suhtesse oma Jumalaga) suhtusid, mitte aga see, mida see ütleb iidse ajaloo enda kohta.


Kui vastate küsimuses lingitud veebisaidile InGenesis, siis kui teie lingitud artikkel on representatiivne, oleksin kustuta see minu järjehoidjatest kui ma oleks sina. *

Üks asi, mida ma selle uurimisel leidsin, on see, et arheoloogiakogukond on peaaegu nõus, et Aabrahami jaoks ajakava koostamiseks pole head võimalust oma distsipliini kasutada. Nii et kui see artikkel tahab midagi ümber lükata, kasutab see arheoloogi. Samasugust arheoloogi pole aga kusagil, kui ta soovib oma hüpoteesi varundada. Selle asemel tugineb see piibliuurijale, kellest ma ei suutnud leida teavet veebis, välja arvatud kristlike veebisaitide ja IMDB (!) Kaudu. Ma mõtlen teda võiks olla täiesti legitiimne uurija, kuid see tundub mulle väga visandlik.

* - Kui sa hoolid oma teabe usaldusväärsusest, see tähendab. Ma tean, et paljud mu kaasvõitlejad eelistavad tegutseda "ebateadusliku meetodi" abil: alustage teooriast, mida nad tahavad tõeks pidada, seejärel otsige teavet, mis seda toetab, ja visake see teave kõrvale. Sellised veebisaidid sobivad neile inimestele tõenäoliselt suurepäraselt, kui teil on "teooria" tõukamisega kõik korras.


Ühesõnaga ei.

Aabraham ja Hammurabi elasid erinevatel sajanditel, peaaegu poole aastatuhande kaugusel.

Ma usun, et Aabraham oli olemas. Jeesus ütles: "Enne kui Aabraham oli, olen mina" Johannese 8:58.

Esiteks väidab Jeesus selles avalduses oma igavest eksistentsi Jumala, Pojana; ja teiseks näitab see tema veendumust, et Aabraham oli tõeline inimene, mitte müüt.

Siis, et näidata saduseridele, et elu pärast surma õpetatakse Vanas Testamendis, rääkis Jeesus Aabrahamist, Iisakist ja Jaakobist, kes on veel elus (oma hinge osas) Matteuse 22: 23-32 ja paralleelsetes kirjakohtades Luuka 20: 27- 38 ja Markuse 12: 18–27. Ta tsiteerib 2. Moosese 3: 6, kus Jumal tahab Moosesele endast rääkida, öeldes: "Mina olen su isa Jumal, Aabrahami Jumal, Iisaki Jumal, Jaakobi Jumal". Need on vaid kaks näidet, mis näitavad, et Jeesus uskus tõelisse Aabrahami.

Et näha, kuidas piiblisündmused ja inimesed on seotud inimeste ja sündmustega väljaspool Piiblit, peab teil kõigepealt olema piibellik kronoloogia. See on suur alusvajadus.

Minu jaoks on Piibli kronoloogia suured õpetajad Edwin Thiele, Rodger C. Young, Carl Olof Jonsson ("The Gentile Times Reconsidered", 1986, Commentary Press Atlanta). Carli töö piirdub Babüloonia vangistuse ajastuga. Eugene Merrill ("Preestrite kuningriik", 1987, Baker Book House) tugineb Edwin Thiele loomingule.
Gleason Archeri „Ülevaade Vana Testamendi sissejuhatusest” on samuti suurepärane teos.

Kasuliku veebisaidi leiate aadressilt www.rcyoung.org/papers.html

Edwin Thiele näitab kuningriigi jagamise kuupäeva Saalomoni surma puhul aastal 931 eKr ("Heebrea kuningate salapärased numbrid", Chicago University Press, 1951). Sellest saab koostada kronoloogia, milles on Aabrahami sünniaeg 2167 eKr.

Vt 1. Kuningate 6: 1 ja 2. Moosese 12:40, et jõuda kuupäevani, mil Jaakob sisenes Egiptusesse 1877. aastal eKr, kui Jaakob oli 130 -aastane (1Mo 47: 9).

Nii sündis Jaakob 2007. aastal eKr. Iisak oli Jaakobi sündides 60 -aastane (1Ms 25:26). Ja Aabraham oli Iisaki sündides 100 -aastane (1Ms 21: 5). Nii sündis Aabraham 2167 eKr.

Nii oli Aabraham mitu sajandit enne Hammurapit.

Selle raamistikuga toimus Egiptusest lahkumine paasapühal 1446 eKr. Seni on sõltumatu tunnistaja olemas Hesekieli 40: 1, mida mõistetakse koosmõjus kirjakohaga 25: 9, nagu mainitud Seder Olamis ja nagu näitas Rodger Young. Seega on meil lahkumise kuupäevaks kaks sõltumatut tunnistajat:

Tunnistaja 1. Andmed 1 kuningate ja 2 kuningate kohta kuningate valitsemise kohta jagatud kuningriikides. Need andmed olid sajandeid nagu salajane kood. Lõpuks dešifreeris koodi Edwin Thiele raamatus Mystious Numbers of the Hebrew Kings, 1951.

Oluline on see, et see oli nagu salakood. See oli ettenägelik. Kui see poleks olnud nagu salakood, siis poleks saanud olla sõltumatu tunnistaja. Selles mõttes, et kuningate valitsemisaastate tähendus oli vähemalt 20 sajandit enne Edwin Thiele'i loomingut mõistmatu, võib andmeid lugeda järgmisest tunnistajast sõltumatuks:

Tunnistaja 2. Hesekiel 40: 1 ja kommentaar Seder Olamis.
Seder Olam on kronoloogia, mille koostas teisel sajandil juut, kes soovis anda võimalikult täpse pildi Vana Testamendi ajastu kronoloogiaalastest teadmistest. Üks asi, mida ta ütleb, on see, et juubel Hesekieli aastatel oli seitsmeteistkümnes. (Seder Olami ingliskeelne tõlge on võrgus.) Hesekieli 40: 1 ütleb, et kuu kümnes päev oli Rosh Hashanah, uusaastapäev. (Tegelikult kasutab see heebrea tekstis mõistet "Rosh Hashanah".) Tavaliselt toimus uusaastapäev kuu esimesel päeval. Rosh Hashanah juhtub alles kuu kümnendal päeval, lepituspäeval, juubeliaastal (3. Moosese 25: 9). ((Juubeliaasta oli Vana Testamendi ajastul eriline aasta iga 49 aasta tagant.)) See oli tervelt 14 aastat pärast Jeruusalemma linna hävitamist, mis juhtus aastal 587 eKr. Ja Seder Olam ütleb, et juubel Hesekieli päevil oli 17. 587 - 14 = 573. 17 juubelit korda 49 aastat on 833 aastat. 573 + 833 = 1406, tõotatud maale sisenemise kuupäev. 1406 - 40 aastat kõrbes rändamist on 1446 eKr, Exoduse kuupäev, mille oli juba jõudnud Edwin Thiele. Vaata Rodger Youngi artiklit tema veebisaidilt.

Paljud kaasaegsed teadlased ütlevad, et juubelisüsteem oli juudi religiooni hiline täiendus, mis lisandus umbes 500 eKr. Kuid Hesekiel 40: 1 ja selle tõlgendus ütleb, et juubelisüsteem sai alguse 1406. aastal eKr. Seder Olami kommentaar (et see oli 17. juubel), mis pidi olema tehtud mõnest muust allikast, mida enam ei eksisteeri, on tõend selle kohta, et 3. Moosese raamat kirjutati enne aastat 1406 eKr, sest see näitab, et juubelisüsteem oli juba 17 juubelit kasutanud Hesekieli päevil. Kaks sõltumatut tunnistajat kinnitavad teineteist.

Need sõltumatud tunnistajad räägivad meile lisaks kõigele muule, et kuningate andmed on säilinud, sajandite jooksul pole esinenud vigu edastamisel, vähemalt kuningate valitsemise pikkuse osas. See on iseenesest päris imeline.

Kuigi need kaks meetodit annavad kronoloogia alles 1446. aastal eKr, peaks kahe arvutusmeetodi kokkulangemine lahkumise kuupäevaks suurendama meie usaldust kogu piibli ülestähenduse suhtes. See peaks suurendama meie usaldust Aabrahami ajastu kronoloogia täpsuse suhtes.

Huvitav, kui paljud piibliuurijad on viimase 20 sajandi jooksul võidelnud 1. ja 2. kuningate kuningate valitsemisaja keerukusega. Ja kui paljud on küsinud: "Issand, miks sa lasid sellel nii keeruliseks minna?" Noh, ma arvan, et me teame nüüd - see tähendab, et väljarände kuupäevaks võib olla kaks sõltumatut tunnistajat, kes pakuvad sellest ajast peale piibli ajaloo kronoloogilist selgroogu/raamistikku. Loodan, et saate aru, mida väidetakse, ja minu arvates on see üsna uimastatav: sest see on üsna imeline ja üsna uimastatav.


Hammurabi 's kood: Mida see meile Vana -Babülooniast räägib?

Hammurabi valitses iidset Babülooniat ja suurt osa Mesopotaamia basseinist. Talle omistatud seaduste koodeks on üks varasemaid ja põhjalikumaid selliseid seaduste kodifitseerimise jõupingutusi.

Kuningas Hammurabi valitses Eufrati ja Tigrise jõe ääres asuvat Babülooniat aastatel 1792–1750 e.m.a. Kuningana jälgis ta oma kuningriigi suurt laienemist linnriigist impeeriumiks. Kuid täna on ta kõige kuulsam kohtuotsuste seeriast, mis on kirjutatud suurele kivistleele ja dubleeritud Hammurabi koodeksiks. Teadlased vaidlevad endiselt selle täpse tähtsuse üle seaduste kogumina, kuid koodeksi tähtsus Babüloonia ühiskonna peegeldajana on vaieldamatu. Selles õppetükis õpivad õpilased Babüloonia elust Hammurabi koodeksi kaudu. Selle õppetunni eesmärk on laiendada Mesopotaamia maailma ajaloo õppekavu ja anda õpilastele põhjalikum ülevaade elust Babüloonias Hammurabi ajal.

Juhtivad küsimused

Mida me saame teada Vana -Babüloonia ühiskonnast Hammurabi koodeksist?

Kuidas on Hammurabi koodeks mõjutanud järgnevaid seadustikke?

Kuivõrd mõjutab Hammurabi koodeks endiselt seda, kuidas me seadusi loome ja jõustame?

Õppe eesmärgid

Uurige Hammurabi motiive oma "koodi" loomiseks ja levitamiseks.

Hinnake, kuidas Hammurabi koodeks peegeldab tolleaegset Babüloonia ühiskonda.

Hinnake, mil määral jäi Hammurabi koodeks pärast tema surma asjakohaseks.

Ajalugu ja ühiskonnaõpetus

Tunniplaani autor:

Tunniplaani üksikasjad

18. sajandil e.m.a sai Hammurabist (kirjutatud ka Hammurapi) Babüloonia esimese dünastia kuuendaks valitsejaks. Hammurabi sõjaliste operatsioonide edu laiendas Babülooniat piki Tigrist ja Eufratit ning lõunasse, mida praegu nimetatakse Pärsia laheks. Tema loodud impeeriumi nimetatakse Babüloniks, samas kui tsivilisatsiooni nimetatakse sageli Vana -Babülooniaks.

Hammurabi koodeks, mis on kirjutatud suurele kivist steelele-püstisele plaadile-avastati prantsuse ekspeditsioonil aastal 1901. Selle juht, isa Vincent Scheil tõlkis koodi järgmisel aastal. Tol ajal oli see vanim teadaolev seaduste kogum. Sellest ajast alates on aga varem avastatud sarnaseid "koode". Kuigi Hammurabi kood ei ole ainulaadne, on see siiski seni pikim avastatud kood ja üks ainsatest, mis on teadaolevalt stellile kantud. Teavet ja steeli kujutist leiate Louvre'i muuseumist, mis on saadaval EDSITEment'i poolt läbi vaadatud ressursi The Oriental Institute: The University of Chicago kaudu. Kui olete Louvre'i veebisaidil, klõpsake vasakul asuval lingil "valitud teoste" jaoks, seejärel klõpsake "Valitud teoste" all idamaiste muististe klõpsake Mesopotaamiat ja Anatooliat ja lõpuks näete steeli pilti, kerides allapoole pisipildid. See on tähistatud kui "Hammurabi seadusseadustik". Teil on juurdepääs otse Stele'i teabele, mis pärineb ka Louvre'ist.

Hammurabi koodeksi täistekst on saadaval EDSITEment'i poolt üle vaadatud veebiavarustes Avalon Project.

Koodeksi tüüpilise valimi kohta lugege: proloog (esimene ja viimane lõik) näeb ette ettekirjutused 3, 4, 60, 108, 196 ja 228 ning järelsõna (lõiked 1–3 ja 5). Proloogis väidab Hammurabi, et tema autoriteet tuleb otse jumalatelt. Samuti märgib ta, et koodeksi eesmärk on „jõustada maal õigluse reegel…, et tugevad ei kahjustaks nõrku”. Kolmas ettekirjutus osutab kohtusüsteemi olemasolule, kus vanemad töötavad kohtunikena. Neljas ettekirjutus näitab, et määrati rahatrahv ja/või vilja, ning see eeldab midagi sarnast meie tsiviilhagidega, milles kaebuse esitaja sai kokkuleppe. Number kuuskümmend näitab, et eksisteerib midagi sarnast osaviljelussüsteemiga, kus üks inimene viie aasta pärast maa eest vastutasuks maad kasvatab. Selline süsteem kipuks maid ümber jagama suurtelt omanikelt väikeomanikele. Number sada kaheksa näitab, et Vana -Babüloonias võiksid naised omada vähemalt teatud tüüpi ettevõtteid. Number sada üheksakümmend kuus on ettekirjutustest võib-olla kõige kuulsam. Seda leidub ka heebrea Piiblis (2. Moosese 21: 18–19, 22–25, 3. Moosese 24: 17–21) ja evangeeliumides (Mt 5:38). Lõpuks näitab number kakssada kakskümmend kaheksa ettekirjutuste spetsiifilisust ja viitab sellele, et osavate kaupmeeste töö eest oli kehtestatud tasude ajakava, antud juhul kindel tasu kaks seeklit igaühe kohta sar võrrelda kaasaegsete ehitajatega, kes maksavad ruutmeetri eest nii palju.

Järelsõnas öeldakse, et kivi, millele kood on kirjutatud, on püstitatud Babüloonia templisse E-Sagil. See annab lugejale teada, et nende ettekirjutuste kaudu saab teada, mis on õige. Kolmandas lõigus lubab Hammurabi truudust jumalale Mardukile-see on kõrgeim Babüloonia panteonis, võrreldav Kreeka panteoni Zeusiga. Viies lõik soovitab tulevastel kuningatel neid ettekirjutusi järgida.

NCSS.D2.His.1.6-8. Analüüsige seoseid sündmuste ja arengute vahel laiemas ajaloolises kontekstis.

NCSS.D2.His.2.6-8. Klassifitseerige ajalooliste sündmuste ja arengute seeriaid muutuste ja/või järjepidevuse näidetena.

NCSS.D2.His.3.6-8. Kasutage üksikisikute ja rühmade kohta koostatud küsimusi, et analüüsida, miks neid ja nende kujundatud arengut peetakse ajalooliselt oluliseks.

NCSS.D2.His.4.6-8. Analüüsige mitmeid tegureid, mis mõjutasid inimeste väljavaateid erinevatel ajaloolistel ajastutel.

NCSS.D2.His.5.6-8. Selgitage, kuidas ja miks on inimeste vaatenurgad aja jooksul muutunud.

NCSS.D2.His.14.6-8. Selgitage minevikus toimunud sündmuste ja arengute mitmeid põhjuseid ja tagajärgi.

NCSS.D2.His.15.6-8. Hinnake mineviku sündmuste ja sündmuste erinevate põhjuste suhtelist mõju.

NCSS.D2.His.16.6-8. Korraldage kohaldatavad tõendid sidusaks argumendiks mineviku kohta.

  • Hammurabi ja Hammurabi koodeksi kohta lisateabe saamiseks saavad õpetajad lugeda loengut: Hammurabi koodeks ja jaotist Mesopotaamia tsivilisatsioon, link EDSITEment -ressursi Internet Public Library -st. Mõeldud keskkooli- ja kolledžiõpilastele, võib see sobida ka mõnele keskkooliõpilasele.
  • Leiate teavet selle kohta, kus Babüloonia piirid tänapäevase poliitilise kaardi järgi langevad, võrreldes võrdlusega Mesopotaamiaga aastal 1750 eKr. Mõlemad on saadaval Briti muuseumi Mesopotaamia saidilt lingi kaudu The Oriental Institute: The University of Chicago.
  • Vaadake üle kõik veebisaidid ja materjalid, mida õpilased vaatavad. Laadige alla fotod kõikidest esemetest, mida õpilased võrguühenduseta vaatavad. Selle õppetunni jaoks laadige alla ja valmistage vajalikest materjalidest allalaaditavatest PDF -failidest. Lugege tunniplaan läbi ja külastage veebisaite, mida kavatsete oma õpilastel kasutada. Lisage need oma arvutisse vastavalt vajadusele. Veenduge, et õpilased saaksid vaadata trükisena või ekraanil Hammurabi Stele suurt pilti, mis on saadaval EDSITEment-i poolt üle vaadatud veebiressursi The Oriental Institute: The University of Chicago kaudu.
  • EDSITEment tund Kiilkirja tekkimine ja areng Mesopotaamias annab sellele õppetundile täienduse.

M3rcy võidab

Heebrea traditsioonis on 1. Moosese raamatu pealkiri sama, mis esimene sõna (breshit), tavaliselt väga umbkaudselt tõlgitud sõnaga "alguses". " 1 See on loogiline nimi raamatule, mis avaneb maailma üleloomuliku loomise ja inimkonna varajase ajalooga.

Aga milline on genees Genesisest? Teisisõnu, millal kirjutati Genesis? Kust ja kellelt see alguse sai? Enamik konservatiivseid teadlasi nõustub, et Mooses kirjutas 1. Moosese raamatu millalgi 15. sajandil e.m.a. Üks allikas ütleb, et 1445 eKr. 2 Teine allikas ütleb 1440–1400 eKr. 3 Saate ideest aru.

Siiski on teadlasi, kes väidavad, et Genesis kirjutati tegelikult Babüloonia vangistuse ajal 6. sajandil e.m.a. Näiteks väidab veebiväljaanne New World Encyclopedia: „Lõpuks arvavad mõned teadlased, et Babüloonia traditsioon võis isegi mõjutada 1. Moosese 1. raamatu päritolulugu, mida mütoloogid usuvad olevat Enuma Elishis kujutatud Babüloonia kosmoloogia ümbertöötamine.” 4

Tagajärjed, nagu näete, on üsna tõsised. Need liberaalsed teadlased vihjavad tõepoolest, et Genesis ei sisalda muud kui kaaperdatud Babüloonia mütoloogiat, mille juudid on tuhandeid aastaid hiljem ümber töötanud, et see vastaks nende endi eesmärkidele. Kui see on tõsi, on piibellikule inspiratsioonile antud purustav löök (2. Tim. 3: 16-17). Mul on kõhutunne, et just seda liberaalsed teadlased püüavad saavutada.

Ma võiksin sellele väitele vastata, näidates, kuidas iidsed juudi traditsioonid ja Vana ja Uue Testamendi piibliteated omistavad Moosesele Genesise. Siin on palju öelda.

Selle asemel tahaksin kasutada ühte Genesise lugu, et aidata tõestada raamatu varajast kuupäeva. Loodetavasti toob see teave kuupäevadebatile selgust ja aitab tugevdada teie usku Vana Testamendi ajaloolise täpsuse ja usaldusväärsuse vastu.

1. Moosese 16. peatükis antakse meile pilk patriarhi Aabrahami elule. Selles konkreetses loos püüab tema naine Sarah ühitada Jumala lubadust pojast oma viljatu emaka ja vanadusega. Ta ütleb Aabrahamile salmis 2: „Vaata nüüd, ISSAND on mind hoidnud lapsi sünnitamast. Palun minge minu teenija juurde, võib -olla saan ma tema kaudu lapsi. ”Ja Aabram kuulas Saarai häält.” Milline veider soovitus! Milline naine täna soovitaks oma mehele midagi sellist? Ja siiski, lugedes saame teada, et Aabraham järgis Saara nõuandeid.

Siis, pärast mõningast oodatud konflikti Saara ja neiu Haagari, Aabrahami uue poja Ismaeli ema vahel, ütleb Aabraham Saarale: „Tõepoolest, sinu neiu on sinu käes, tee talle nii, nagu sulle meeldib.” Ja kui Sarai temaga karmilt suhtus , ta põgenes oma kohaloleku eest. ”

Jällegi, kummaline olukord!

Kuid tegelikult polnud see nende kultuuris imelik!

Hammurabi seadustik on 282 seadust, mis on kirjutatud püstisele kivisambale ja mille Prantsuse arheoloogid avastasid 1901. aastal, kui nad tänapäeva Iraanis iidset Susat kaevasid.

Hammurabi, Mesopotaamia kuningas, valitses väidetavalt aastatel 1792–1750 eKr. Need seadused oleksid määranud aja ja kultuuri, milles Aabraham elas. Ja nad valgustavad 1. Moosese 16. peatükki!

Näiteks kaaluge seadusi 145-146:

Kui mees võtab naise ja naine ei saa temalt lapsi ning ta kavatseb võtta teise naise: kui ta võtab selle teise naise ja toob ta majja, ei tohi see teine ​​naine oma naisega võrdsustada. 5

Kui mees võtab naise ja ta annab sellele mehele teenija ja teenib talle lapsi, siis võtab see neiu oma naisega võrdseks: kuna ta on talle lapsi sünnitanud, ei müü tema peremees teda raha eest, vaid võib teda orjana hoida, lugedes teda teenijate hulka. 5

Nii kummalised kui Aabrahami teod meile täna tunduvad, olid need tema kultuuris täiesti tavalised. See tähendab, et Aabraham ja Saara usaldasid vähemalt selles loos pigem maailma (sel ajal) tarkust kui Jumala lubadusi.

Kuid täpsemalt aitab see lugu "hilinenud kuupäeva" väidet ümber lükata. Kuidas said juudid 6. sajandil e.m.a. kas olete olnud teadlik Mesopotaamia seadustest, mis ulatuvad tuhandete aastate taha?

Moosese raamat, nagu kõik Piibli raamatud, on ajalooliselt täpne. See ei ole teistest kultuuridest laenatud müütide ja lugude kogumik, vaid inspireeritud ajalooline rekord!


Allikad

Andrews, Evan. "8 asja, mida te Hammurabi koodeksi kohta ei pruugi teada." AJALUGU. Kasutatud 23. juulil 2019. https://www.history.com/news/8-things-you-may-not-know-about-hammurabis-code.

Arnold, Bill T. Kes olid babüloonlased? Piiblikirjanduse Selts / Arheoloogia ja piibliuurimised nr 10 Variatsioon: arheoloogia ja piibliteadused nr 10. Atlanta: Piiblikirjanduse Selts, 2004.

Bakker, Heather. "Babüloonia Hammurabi." Aegne kõrgharidus, ei. 2063 (16): 44.

Charpin, Dominique. Babüloonia Hammurabi. London New York: I.B. Tauris & amp. New York: levitatakse USA -s ja Kanadas ainult Palgrave Macmillani poolt, 2012.

Autojuht G. R. ja Babüloonia kuningas. Babüloonia seadused / miilid, John C. Sir, 1870-1963. (John Charles),. Iidsed koodid ja Lähis -Ida variatsioonid: Lähis -Ida iidsed koodid ja seadused. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1952.

Glaubitz, H. “Kõvaks keedetud hammurabi”. New York Times (1923-praegune fail). 22. august 1937.

"Jälle Hammurabi." Väljavaated (1893–1924) 104, ei. 17 (1913): 885.

Babüloonia kuninga Hammurabi seadustik. 1750 avant J.-C 1792. Basalte, H. 2,25 m W. 0,65 m. Louvre. https://www.louvre.fr/en/oeuvre-notices/law-code-hammurabi-king-babylon.

Liptak, Adam. "Süüdistatakse" terrorismis "juriidiliste materjalide veebis avaldamise eest." The New York Times, 13. mai 2019, lk. USA https://www.nytimes.com/2019/05/13/us/politics/georgia-official-code-copyright.html.

"Avaloni projekt: Hammurabi kood." Kasutatud 23. juulil 2019. https://avalon.law.yale.edu/ancient/hamframe.asp.

Van de Mieroop, Marc. Babüloonia kuningas Hammurabi: elulugu. Blackwelli iidsete elude variatsioon: Blackwelli iidsed elud. Malden, MA: pubi Blackwell, 2005.

Vincent, George E. "Hammurabi seadused". American Journal of Sociology 9, ei. 6 (1. mai 1904): 737–754. https://doi.org/10.1086/211268.


2.4 VÕTMETINGIMUSED

  • Amarna periood
  • Assüüria impeerium
  • Aten
  • Katarakt
  • Linnriigid
  • Tsivilisatsioon
  • Leping
  • Kiilkiri
  • Kuivatamine
  • Jumalikud kuningriigid
  • Impeerium
  • Väljaränne
  • Hammurabi kood
  • Hieroglüüfid
  • Kerma
  • Kush
  • Levant
  • Meroe
  • Meroitic
  • Mesopotaamia
  • Kesk -Kuningriik
  • Monoteism
  • Nebukadnetsar II
  • Uus kuningriik
  • Niilus
  • Nuubia
  • Vana kuningriik
  • Ostraca
  • Narmeri palett
  • Polüteistlik
  • Prohvetid
  • Püramiidid
  • Akkadi sargoon
  • Sumeri kuningate nimekiri
  • Kümme käsku
  • Kuningate org
  • Lääne -Deffufa
  • Ziggurat

Kes on Aabraham Piiblis ja miks ta on tähtis?

Aabraham mängib kristlikus usus olulist rolli. Ta on Piibli üks tähtsamaid tegelasi peale Jeesuse. Just tema suguvõsa kaudu tuleb maailma Päästja (Matteuse 1 Lk 3). Keegi ei saa Vanast Testamendist aru ilma Aabrahami mõistmata, sest lunastuslugu algab paljuski sellest, et Jumal ja rsquos kutsuvad seda patriarhi. Aabraham oli esimene mees, kelle Jumal oli välja valinud lunastamiskavas. Aabrahami lugu sisaldab esmakordselt Jumala piiblis ja rsquose õigust, mis on inimesele määratud ainsaks päästevahendiks (1Ms 15: 6). Jumal valis Aabrahami paljude rahvaste isaks lihtsalt sellepärast, et see oli Tema tahe. Jumal teadis, et Aabraham võitleb tema ees seisva kutsega, kuid ta teadis ka, et tema võitlus toob kaasa suure kasvu ja usu.

Aabrahami ja rsquose nimi oli algselt & lsquoAbram & rsquo, mis tähendab, et & lsquothe isa on ülendatud & rsquo. Tema nimi muudeti & lsquoAbraham, & rsquo, mis tähendab & lsquofather of the crowd & rsquo, kui Jumal alustas temaga lepingut (1. Moosese 17). Jumal lubas Aabrahamile, et temast saab paljude inimeste isa. Kuid tema ja ta naine Sarah olid ilmselt laste saamise tavaeast üle saanud, seega oleks ilmselgelt Jumala ime, kui neil oleks lapsi. Sellest hoolimata usaldas Aabraham Jumalat ja uskus, et Jumal suudab täita seda, mida Ta oli lubanud.

Jumal lubas Aabrahamile lapsi (1Ms 15: 5 22:17). Aga kui see ei toimunud nii kiiresti, kui Aabraham arvas, et peaks, muutus ta Jumala suhtes kannatamatuks ja võttis asjad enda kontrolli alla. Tema naine Saara oli veel lastetu, nii et ta käskis Aabrahamil magada oma teenijaga, et nad saaksid liidust lapse. Sellest liidust sündis poeg, kelle nimi oli Ismael. See polnud aga Jumala ja rsquose plaan. Jumala ja rququose lubadus oli Aabrahami ja Saara ja rsquose liidu järglastele (1Ms 15: 3-4). Iisak oli selle poja nimi, kes tuli Aabrahami ja Saara liidust. Iisaku kaudu õnnistatakse rahvaid.

Kui Jumal ütles Aabrahamile ja Saarale, et nad saavad vanas eas lapse, naersid nad mõlemad. Nende naer Jumala ja rsquose plaani üle näitas nende uskumatust, et Ta suudab teha seda, mida Ta ütles. Piibel ütleb meile, & ldquoSiis ISSAND ütles Aabrahamile: & lsquoMiks Saara naeris ja ütles: & lsquoKas ma tõesti saan lapse, mitte et ma olen vana? & Rsquo Kas ISSANDA jaoks on midagi liiga rasket? Ma tulen teie juurde järgmisel aastal määratud ajal tagasi ja Sarah saab poja. & Rsquo Sarah kartis, nii et ta valetas ja ütles: & lsquo, ma ei naernud. & Rsquo Aga ta ütles: & lsquoJah, sa naersid. & Rsquo & rdquo (1. Moosese 18: 13-15). Me tahaksime arvata, et Aabraham uskus kohe ilma igasuguse kahtluseta Jumalat, kuid see pole nii. Ta leiab, et Jumala ja rsquose sõna on peaaegu võimatu uskuda. Lõppude lõpuks on Sarah lapseootuse vanusest tublisti möödas. Tema vastus Issandale ei näita aga täielikku uskmatust lepingulubaduse vastu. Ta langeb näkku, sümboliseerides allumist, usaldust ja kummardamist. Aabraham näitab meile, et tõeline usaldus Jumala vastu ei välista hetki, mil Tema uskumatuid lubadusi on meil raske näha.

Pärast seda, kui Jumal kutsus Aabrahami Haranist lahkuma, tegi ta seda kuulekalt. 1. Moosese 12. peatükis loeme, et Aabraham (tollase nimega Aabram) lahkus Haaranist, kuhu oli asunud tema isa Terah, ja asus tõotatud maad otsima. See konto annab Aabrahamile ja rsquosele praegu 75 -aastase vanuse, kuid 1. Moosese 11 ja Apostlite teod 3 viitavad sellele, et Aabraham oli Haranist lahkudes sellest palju vanem. Pühakiri ütleb meile ka, et ta oli 86 -aastane, kui tema esimene poeg Ismael sündis Hagari kaudu, 99 -aastane, kui ta ümber lõigati, ja 100 -aastane, kui tema poeg Iisak sündis Saara kaudu.

Aabraham ja Saara olid oma uue poja Iisakiga väga rahul, kuid Jumalal oli Aabrahamile proovikivi. Jumal ütles talle: "Võta oma poeg, oma ainus poeg Iisak, keda sa armastad, mine Moria maale ja ohverda ta seal põletusohvrina ühel mäestikul, millest ma sulle ütlen & rdquo (1. Moosese 22: 2). See oleks olnud igale vanemale tohutu šokk, kui teda kauaoodatud laps õnnistaks, ainult et Jumal oleks käskinud teil selle lapse ohverdada. Piibel ei ütle, et Aabraham kõhkles hetkeks. Tegelikult on mõned lõigud, mis näitavad Aabrahami ja rsquose tugevat usku, et Jumal ei võta oma poega üldse (1. Moosese 22: 5, 8). Aabraham uskus, et Jumal äratab Iisaki taas ellu, kui see ohver tegelikult aset leiab (Heebrealastele 11:19). Olgu Jumal ja rsquos, Aabraham & rsquos, Isaac & rsquos või meie pärast eeskujuks - Aabraham viis oma poja mäele, pani ta pikali ja oli valmis teda tapma, järgides Jumala ja rsquose käsku. Kuid Jumal sekkus, peatades Aabrahami poja tapmast ja ohverdades lähedalasuva harja vahele jääva jäära kujul. Kuigi Aabrahami ja rsquose usk oli proovile pandud, tõestas ta oma usku kuulekusega Jumalale.

Aabrahamil oli pikk ja raske teekond. Kogu selle teekonna jooksul tegi ta kõvasti tööd ning koges leina ja õnnistusi. Enamasti ei suutnud ta näha teed, kuid pidas oma südames antud lubadusest kindlalt kinni. Jumal täidaks seda lubadust ka rohkem kui tuhat aastat pärast Aabrahami ja rsquose surma kuni selle täitumiseni oma Poja Jeesuse Kristuse käes. Aabrahami kaudu teame, et Jumal peab alati oma lubadusi. Meil ei pruugi olla kõiki vastuseid, kuid Jumal kindlasti.


Vana -Mesopotaamia saavutused

Matemaatika- ja astronoomiamaailm võlgneb palju babüloonlastele-näiteks seksuaalse aja ja nurkade arvutamise süsteem, mis on endiselt praktiline, kuna Kreeka 12-kordse 12-tunnise kahekordse tunni jagunemine on mitmekordne. Tähtkuju ja selle märgid. Paljudel juhtudel on aga laenude päritolu ja teed varjatud, nagu ka iidse Mesopotaamia õigusteooria ellujäämise probleem.

Tsivilisatsiooni saavutust võib väljendada selle parimate punktide - moraalse, esteetilise, teadusliku ja mitte vähem kirjandusliku - aspektides. Õigusteooria õitses ja oli varakult keerukas, väljendudes mitmes õiguslike otsuste kogumikus, nn koodeksis, millest tuntuim on Hammurabi koodeks. Nendes koodides kordub valitseja mure nõrkade, leskede ja orbude pärast - isegi kui mõnikord olid need fraasid kahjuks ainult kirjanduslikud klišeed. The aesthetics of art are too much governed by subjective values to be assessed in absolute terms, yet certain peaks stand out above the rest, notably the art of Uruk IV, the seal engraving of the Akkad period, and the relief sculpture of Ashurbanipal. Nonetheless, there is nothing in Mesopotamia to match the sophistication of Egyptian art. Science the Mesopotamians had, of a kind, though not in the sense of Greek science. From its beginnings in Sumer before the middle of the 3rd millennium bce , Mesopotamian science was characterized by endless, meticulous enumeration and ordering into columns and series, with the ultimate ideal of including all things in the world but without the wish or ability to synthesize and reduce the material to a system. Not a single general scientific law has been found, and only rarely has the use of analogy been found. Nevertheless, it remains a highly commendable achievement that Pythagoras’ law (that the sum of the squares on the two shorter sides of a right-angled triangle equals the square on the longest side), even though it was never formulated, was being applied as early as the 18th century bce . Technical accomplishments were perfected in the building of the ziggurats (temple towers resembling pyramids), with their huge bulk, and in irrigation, both in practical execution and in theoretical calculations. At the beginning of the 3rd millennium bce , an artificial stone often regarded as a forerunner of concrete was in use at Uruk (160 miles south-southeast of modern Baghdad), but the secret of its manufacture apparently was lost in subsequent years.

Writing pervaded all aspects of life and gave rise to a highly developed bureaucracy—one of the most tenacious legacies of the ancient Middle East. Remarkable organizing ability was required to administer huge estates, in which, under the 3rd dynasty of Ur, for example, it was not unusual to prepare accounts for thousands of cattle or tens of thousands of bundles of reeds. Similar figures are attested at Ebla, three centuries earlier.

Above all, the literature of Mesopotamia is one of its finest cultural achievements. Though there are many modern anthologies and chrestomathies (compilations of useful learning), with translations and paraphrases of Mesopotamian literature, as well as attempts to write its history, it cannot truly be said that “cuneiform literature” has been resurrected to the extent that it deserves. There are partly material reasons for this: many clay tablets survive only in a fragmentary condition, and duplicates that would restore the texts have not yet been discovered, so that there are still large gaps. A further reason is the inadequate knowledge of the languages: insufficient acquaintance with the vocabulary and, in Sumerian, difficulties with the grammar. Consequently, another generation of Assyriologists will pass before the great myths, epics, lamentations, hymns, “law codes,” wisdom literature, and pedagogical treatises can be presented in such a way that modern readers can fully appreciate the high level of literary creativity of those times.


Vana -Mesopotaamia

Mesopotamia is an ancient, historical region that lies between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in modern-day Iraq and parts of Kuwait, Syria, Turkey and Iran. Part of the Fertile Crescent, Mesopotamia was home to the earliest known human civilizations. Scholars believe the Agricultural Revolution started here.

The earliest occupants of Mesopotamia lived in circular dwellings made of mud and brick along the upper reaches of the Tigris and Euphrates river valleys. They began to practice agriculture by domesticating sheep and pigs around 11,000 to 9,000 B.C. Domesticated plants, including flax, wheat, barley and lentils, first appeared around 9,500 B.C.

Some of the earliest evidence of farming comes from the archaeological site of Tell Abu Hureyra, a small village located along the Euphrates River in modern Syria. The village was inhabited from roughly 11,500 to 7,000 B.C. Inhabitants initially hunted gazelle and other game before beginning to harvest wild grains around 9,700 BCE. Several large stone tools for grinding grain have been found at the site.

One of the oldest known Mesopotamian cities, Nineveh (near Mosul in modern Iraq), may have been settled as early as 6,000 B.C. Sumer civilization arose in the lower Tigris-Euphrates valley around 5,000 B.C.

In addition to farming and cities, ancient Mesopotamian societies developed irrigation and aqueducts, temples, pottery, early systems of banking and credit, property ownership and the first codes of law.


Hammurabi

Meie toimetajad vaatavad teie esitatud teabe üle ja otsustavad, kas artiklit muuta.

Hammurabi, ka kirjutatud Hammurapi, (born, Babylon [now in Iraq]—died c. 1750 bce ), sixth and best-known ruler of the 1st (Amorite) dynasty of Babylon (reigning c. 1792–1750 bce ), noted for his surviving set of laws, once considered the oldest promulgation of laws in human history. Vt Hammurabi, Code of.

Why is Hammurabi important?

Hammurabi ruled Babylon from about 1792 to 1750 BCE. He is noted for his surviving set of laws, which were inscribed on a stela in Babylon’s temple of Marduk. Hammurabi’s Code was once considered the oldest promulgation of laws in human history, though older, shorter law collections have since been found.

What is Hammurabi’s Code?

Hammurabi’s Code is the most complete extant collection of Babylonian laws. It consists of Hammurabi’s legal decisions that were collected toward the end of his reign. These 282 case laws include economic provisions (prices, tariffs, trade, and commerce) as well as family law (marriage and divorce), criminal law (assault and theft), and civil law (slavery and debt).

What did Hammurabi accomplish?

Hammurabi conquered southern Babylonia, transformed a small city-state into a large territorial state, and shifted the balance of power in Mesopotamia from the south to the north, where it remained for more than 1,000 years. However, he failed to set up an effective bureaucracy, and his son lost much of the territory Hammurabi had conquered.

Like all the kings of his dynasty except his father and grandfather, Hammurabi bore a tribal Amorite name belonging to the Amnanum. Only scanty information exists about his immediate family: his father, Sin-muballit his sister, Iltani and his firstborn son and successor, Samsuiluna, are known by name.

When Hammurabi succeeded Sin-muballit about 1792 bce , he was still young, but, as was customary in Mesopotamian royal courts of the time, he had probably already been entrusted with some official duties in the administration of the realm. In that same year Rim-Sin of Larsa, who ruled over the entire south of Babylonia, conquered Isin, which served as a buffer between Babylon and Larsa. Rim-Sin later became Hammurabi’s chief rival.

The reconstruction of Hammurabi’s rule is based mainly on his date formulas (years were named for a significant act the king had performed in the previous year or at the beginning of the year thus named). These show him engaged in the traditional activities of an ancient Mesopotamian king: building and restoring temples, city walls, and public buildings, digging canals, dedicating cult objects to the deities in the cities and towns of his realm, and fighting wars. His official inscriptions commemorating his building activities corroborate this but add no significant historical information.

The size, location, and military strength of the realm left to Hammurabi made it one of the major powers in Babylonia. That Hammurabi was not strong enough to change the balance of power by his own will is well expressed in a diplomatic report: “There is no king who is powerful for himself: with Hammurabi, ‘the man of Babylon,’ go 10 or 15 kings, so with Rim-Sin, ‘the man of Larsa’ with Ibalpiel, ‘the man of Eshunna,’…go 20 kings.”

Hammurabi inherited one major direction for his political activity: to succeed in controlling the Euphrates waters—important in an area that depended exclusively on irrigation agriculture. Such a policy naturally led to conflicts with the kingdom of Larsa, which was situated in a disadvantageous downstream position. This policy, begun by Hammurabi’s great-grandfather but most forcefully and partially successfully pursued by his father, Hammurabi himself took up in 1787 bce , near the beginning of his reign, when he conquered the cities Uruk ( Erech) and Isin, held by Rim-Sin, and clashed again with Rim-Sin the year after. But, according to Hammurabi’s date formulas and contemporary diplomatic correspondence, these operations led no further because Hammurabi shifted the direction of his military operations in 1784 toward the northwest and the east. For almost 20 years thereafter no significant warlike activity is reported. These years were characterized by changing coalitions among the main kingdoms—Mari, Ashur, Eshnunna, Babylon, and Larsa. Hammurabi used this time of uneasy stalemate to fortify several cities on his northern borders (1776–1768 bce ).

The last 14 years of Hammurabi’s reign were overshadowed by continuous warfare. In 1764 Hammurabi dealt with a coalition of Ashur, Eshnunna, and Elam—the main powers east of the Tigris—whose position threatened to block his access to the metal-producing areas of Iran. It can be assumed, however, that Hammurabi took the initiative in moving against Rim-Sin of Larsa in 1763 bce . Few particulars are reported about this latter war, but it seems that Hammurabi successfully employed a stratagem that apparently had been used before by Sin-muballit against Rim-Sin: damming up the water of a main watercourse and then either releasing it suddenly to create a devastating flood or simply withholding it—the main resource of life—from the enemy’s people (that Hammurabi used this device to bring about Rim-Sin’s defeat can be assumed from the fact that in 1760 he rebuilt a canal—the western branch of the Euphrates—to facilitate the resettlement of the uprooted population that lived along its course before this war). The final siege of Larsa, Rim-Sin’s last stronghold, lasted for several months. It was the last step to Hammurabi’s victory.

In 1762 bce Hammurabi again engaged in hostilities with the eastern powers. It is unknown whether this was a protective move on his part or a reaction on theirs to the change in the balance of power. The motives that led Hammurabi in 1761 bce against his longtime ally, Zimrilim, king of Mari, 250 miles (400 km) upstream from Babylon on the Euphrates, remain enigmatic. Two explanations are likely: it was either again a fight over water rights or an attempt by Hammurabi to gain control over Mari’s excellent location at the crossroads of the ancient Middle East’s overland trade.

Two years later Hammurabi had to direct his armies eastward for a third time (1757–1755 bce ). The final destruction of Eshnunna during this campaign—again achieved by damming up the waters—most likely proved to be a pyrrhic victory, because it removed a buffer zone between Babylonia proper and the peoples of the east (among them probably the Kassites, who were to take over in Babylonia 160 years hence). During his last two years, Hammurabi thus had to concentrate on the construction of defense fortifications. By this time he was a sick man, and he died about 1750 bce , with the burden of government already being carried by his son, Samsuiluna.

Changes affecting nearly all spheres of life took place during Hammurabi’s reign. They were aimed at the consolidation of conditions resulting from the transformation of a small city-state into a large territorial state. His letters show that he personally engaged in the details of implementing these changes and in the daily routine of the administration of his realm. This personal style is characteristic for Hammurabi and also for other contemporary rulers. Hammurabi’s laws—not a law code in the modern sense—must also be considered as an expression of his concern to be a just ruler—an ideal pursued by Mesopotamian kings at all times.

That Hammurabi failed to set up an effective bureaucratic system may be attributed to his personal style in the governance of his realm and the fact that he was fully engaged in wars during the last part of his reign. The lack of effective administration might have been one reason for the fast deterioration after his death of what he had achieved in military terms.

When Hammurabi conquered southern Babylonia he did not follow the century-old tradition of having himself deified during his lifetime. There is reason to believe that this was his personal decision, probably based on a different view of the nature of kingship, setting a precedent for the concept of kingship until Hellenistic times.

Hammurabi’s eminence in Mesopotamian history has long been exaggerated. It was first based on the discovery of his laws but subsequent discoveries of older, though less voluminous, collections of laws have led to a less enthusiastic view. Moreover, the frequently noted resemblance between Hammurabi’s laws and the Mosaic laws is now seen in terms of common heritage rather than as proof for direct dependency.

Hammurabi is also credited with bringing Mesopotamia again under a single rule. Although there existed certain trends toward such unification—particularly expressed in the themes depicted on contemporary seals and in the apodoses of omens evoking a past when such kings as Sargon of Akkad and Shulgi ruled Mesopotamia from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean Sea—it is doubtful that unification was the only motive for Hammurabi’s conquests. The lasting achievement of Hammurabi’s rule was that the theatre of Mesopotamian history, which had been in the south from the beginning of the 3rd millennium bce , was shifted to the north, where it remained for more than 1,000 years.


Is there evidence to suggest that Abraham and Hammurabi influenced one another? - Ajalugu

By Gene D. Matlock, B.A., M.A.

This article was published through courtesy ofhttp://www.viewzone.com , where you can the find the original and lots of other incredible, mind- boggling articles on forbidden archeology and unsolved mysteries.

In his History of the Jews, the Jewish scholar and theologian Flavius Josephus (37 - 100 A.D.), wrote that the Greek philosopher Aristotle had said: ". These Jews are derived from the Indian philosophers they are named by the Indians Calani." (Book I:22.)

Clearchus of Soli wrote, "The Jews descend from the philosophers of India. The philosophers are called in India Calanians and in Syria Jews . The name of their capital is very difficult to pronounce. It is called 'Jerusalem.'"

"Megasthenes, who was sent to India by Seleucus Nicator, about three hundred years before Christ, and whose accounts from new inquiries are every day acquiring additional credit, says that the Jews 'were an Indian tribe or sect called Kalani. '" (Anacalypsis, by Godfrey Higgins, Vol. I p. 400.)

Martin Haug, Ph.D., wrote in The Sacred Language, Writings, and Religions of the Parsis , "The Magi are said to have called their religion Kesh- -Ibrahim.They traced their religious books to Abraham, who was believed to have brought them from heaven." (p. 16.)

There are certain striking similarities between the Hindu god Brahma and his consort Saraisvati, and the Jewish Abraham and Sarai , that are more than mere coincidences. Although in all of India there is only one temple dedicated to Brahma, this cult is the third largest Hindu sect.

In his book Mois s y los Extraterrestres , Mexican author Tom s Doreste states,

Voltaire was of the opinion that Abraham descended from some of the numerous Brahman priests who left India to spread their teachings throughout the world and in support of his thesis he presented the following elements: the similarity of names and the fact that the city of Ur, land of the patriarchs, was near the border of Persia, the road to India, where that Brahman had been born.

The name of Brahma was highly respected in India, and his influence spread throughout Persia as far as the lands bathed by the rivers Euphrates and Tigris. The Persians adopted Brahma and made him their own. Later they would say that the God arrived from Bactria, a mountainous region situated midway on the road to India. (pp. 46-47.)

Bactria (a region of ancient Afghanistan) was the locality of a prototypical Jewish nation called Juhuda or Jaguda, also called Ur-Jaguda. Ur meant "place or town." Therefore, the bible was correct in stating that Abraham came from "Ur of the Chaldeans." "Chaldean," more correctly Kaul-Deva (Holy Kauls), was not the name of a specific ethnicity but the title of an ancient Hindu Brahmanical priestly caste who lived in what are now Afghanistan, Pakistan, and the Indian state of Kashmir.

"The tribe of Ioud or the Brahmin Abraham, was expelled from or left the Maturea of the kingdom of Oude in India and, settling in Goshen, or the house of the Sun or Heliopolis in Egypt, gave it the name of the place which they had left in India, Maturea." (Anacalypsis Vol. I, p. 405.)

"He was of the religion or sect of Persia, and of Melchizedek."(Vol. I, p. 364.)

"The Persians also claim Ibrahim, i.e. Abraham, for their founder, as well as the Jews. Thus we see that according to all ancient history the Persians, the Jews, and the Arabians are descendants of Abraham.(p.85) . We are told that Terah, the father of Abraham, originally came from an Eastern country called Ur, of the Chaldees or Culdees, to dwell in a district called Mesopotamia. Some time after he had dwelt there, Abraham, or Abram, or Brahma, and his wife Sara or Sarai, or Sara-iswati, left their father's family and came into Canaan. The identity of Abraham and Sara with Brahma and Saraiswati was first pointed out by the Jesuit missionaries."(Vol. I p. 387.)

In Hindu mythology, Sarai-Svati is Brahm's sister. The bible gives two stories of Abraham. In this first version, Abraham told Pharaoh that he was lying when he introduced Sarai as his sister. In the second version, he also told the king of Gerar that Sarai was really his sister. However, when the king scolded him for lying, Abraham said that Sarai was in reality both his wife and his sister! ". and yet indeed she is my sister she is the daughter of my father, but not the daughter of my mother and she became my wife." (Genesis 20:12.)

But the anomalies don't end here. In India, a tributary of the river Saraisvati is Ghaggar. Another tributary of the same river is Hakra. According to Jewish traditions, Hagar was Sarai's maidservant the Moslems say she was an Egyptian princess. Notice the similarities of Ghaggar, Hakra and Hagar.

The bible also states that Ishmael, son of Hagar, and his descendants lived in India. ". Ishmael breathed his last and died, and was gathered to his kin. They dwelt from Havilah (India), by Shur, which is close to Egypt, all the way to Asshur." (Genesis 25:17-18.) It is an interesting fact that the names of Isaac and Ishmael are derive from Sanskrit: (Hebrew) Ishaak = (Sanskrit) Ishakhu = "Friend of Shiva." (Hebrew) Ishmael = (Sanskrit) Ish-Mahal = "Great Shiva."

A third mini-version of the Abraham story turns him into another "Noah." We know that a flood drove Abraham out of India. ". Thus saith the Lord God of Israel, your fathers dwelt on the other side of the flood in old time, Even Terah, the father of Abraham, and the father of Nachor and they served other gods. And I took your father Abraham from the other side of the flood, and led him throughout all the land of Canaan." (Joshua 24:2-3.)

Genesis 25 mentions some descendants of his concubine Ketura (Note: The Moslems claim that Ketura is another name of Hagar.): Jokshan Sheba Dedan Epher. Some descendants of Noah were Joktan, Sheba, Dedan, and Ophir. These varying versions have caused me to suspect that the writers of the bible were trying to unite several different branches of Judaism.

About 1900 BC, the cult of Brahm was carried to the Middle and Near East by several different Indian groups after a severe rainfall and earthquake tore Northern India apart, even changing the courses of the Indus and Saraisvati rivers. The classical geographer Strabo tells us just how nearly complete the abandonment of Northwestern India was. "Aristobolus says that when he was sent upon a certain mission in India, he saw a country of more than a thousand cities, together with villages, that had been deserted because the Indus had abandoned its proper bed." (Strabo's Geography, XV.I.19.)

"The drying up of the Sarasvati around 1900 BCE, which led to a major relocation of the population centered around in the Sindhu and the Sarasvati valleys, could have been the event that caused a migration westward from India. It is soon after this time that the Indic element begins to appear all over West Asia, Egypt, and Greece." ( Indic Ideas in the Graeco-Roman World , by Subhash Kak, taken from IndiaStar online literary magazine p.14)

Indian historian Kuttikhat Purushothama Chon believes that Abraham was driven out of India. He states that the Aryans, unable to defeat the Asuras (The mercantile caste that once ruled in the Indus Valley or Harappans) spent so many years fighting covertly against the Asuras, such as destroying their huge system of irrigation lakes, causing destructive flooding, that Abraham and his kindred just gave up and marched to West Asia. (See Remedy the Frauds in Hinduism.) Therefore, besides being driven out of Northern India by floods, the Aryans also forced Indian merchants, artisans, and educated classes to flee to West Asia.

Edward Pococke writes in India in Greece ,

". in no similar instance have events occurred fraught with consequences of such magnitude, as those flowing from the great religious war which, for a long series of years, raged throughout the length and breadth of India. That contest ended by the expulsion of vast bodies of men many of them skilled in the arts of early civilization, and still greater numbers, warriors by profession. Driven beyond the Himalayan mountains in the north, and to Ceylon, their last stronghold in the south, swept across the Valley of the Indus on the west, this persecuted people carried with them the germs of the European arts and sciences. The mighty human tide that passed the barrier of the Punjab, rolled on towards its destined channel in Europe and in Asia, to fulfill its beneficent office in the moral fertilization of the world.the distance of the migratory movement was so vast, the disguise of names so complete, and Grecian information so calculated to mislead, that nothing short of a total disregard of theoretic principles, and the resolution of independent research, gave the slightest chance of a successful elucidation."

(p. 28.)

If all these refugee ruling peoples were exclusively of Indian heritage,
why doesn't History mention them?

The exodus of refugees out of ancient India did not occur all at once but over a period of one or more thousand years. If all these refugee ruling peoples were exclusively of Indian heritage, why doesn't History mention them? Indeed they are mentioned as Kassites, Hittites, Syrians, Assyrians, Hurrians, Arameans, Hyksos, Mittanians, Amalekites, Aethiops (Atha-Yop), Phoenicians, Chaldeans, and many others. But we have been wrongly taught to regard them as ethnicities indigenous to Western Asia. Our history books also call them "Indo-Europeans," causing us to wonder where they were really from. "The people of India came to realize their social identity in terms of Varna and Jati (societal functions or caste) not in terms of races and tribes." (Foundations of Indian Culture p. 8.)

Here's an example of how the ancient Indians identified people: The leaders were called Khassis (Kassites), Kushi (Kushites), Cossacks (Russian military caste) Caesars (Roman ruling caste), Hattiya (Hittites), Cuthites (a dialectical form of Hittite), Hurrite (another dialectical form of Hittite), Cathay (Chinese leaders), Kasheetl/Kashikeh among the Aztecs, Kashikhel/Kisheh by the Mayans, and Keshuah/Kush by the Incas. The Assyrians (in English), Asirios (in Spanish), Asuras or Ashuras (India), Ashuriya, Asuriya (Sumer and Babylonia), Asir (Arabia), Ahura (Persia), Sur in Central Mexico, etc., were people who worshipped Surya (the Sun).

Naturally, in areas where this religion prevailed, they were known as "Assyrians," no matter what the real names of their respective kingdoms were.

Another problem that western scholars have in identifying the Indo-Europeans as Indians is that India was not then and never was a nation. Furthermore, it is not "India." It is Bharata , and even Bharata is not a nation. Bharata is a collection of nations, just as Europe is a collection of nations, presently held together by the real or perceived threat of Moslem expansionism. Indian scholars have told me that when and if this expansionism ever disappears, the "Bharata Union" will again splinter into many smaller nations.

"The Arabian historians contend that Brahma and Abraham, their ancestor, are the same person. The Persians generally called Abraham Ibrahim Zeradust. Cyrus considered the religion of the Jews the same as his own. The Hindoos must have come from Abraham, or the Israelites from Brahma. " (Anacalypsis Vol. I, p. 396.)

Was our Abraham Really the Hindu Deity Ram?

Ram and Abraham were possibly the same person or clan. For example, the syllable "Ab" or "Ap" means "father" in Kashmiri. The prototypical Jews could have called Ram "Ab-Ram" or "Father Ram." It's also conceivable that the word "Brahm" evolved from "Ab-Ram" and not vice-versa. The Kashmiri word for "Divine Mercy," Raham, likewise derives from Ram. Ab-Raham = "Father of Divine Mercy." Rakham = "Divine Mercy" in Hebrew Ram is also the Hebrew term for "highly placed leader or governor." Indian historian A. D. Pusalker, whose essay "Traditional History From the Earliest Times" appeared in The Vedic Age , said that Ram was alive in 1950 BC, which is about the time that Abraham, the Indo-Hebrews, and the Aryans made the greatest India-to-the-Middle East migration since the Great Flood.

"One of the shrines in the Kaaba was also dedicated to the Hindu Creator God, Brahma, which is why the illiterate prophet of Islam claimed it was dedicated to Abraham. The word "Abraham" is none other than a malpronunciation of the word Brahma. This can be clearly proven if one investigates the root meanings of both words. Abraham is said to be one of the oldest Semitic prophets. His name is supposed to be derived from the two Semitic words 'Ab' meaning 'Father' and 'Raam/Raham' meaning 'of the exalted.' In the book of Genesis, Abraham simply means 'Multitude.' The word Abraham is derived from the Sanskrit word Brahma. The root of Brahma is 'Brah' which means - 'to grow or multiply in number.' In addition Lord Brahma, the Creator God of Hinduism is said to be the Father of all Men and Exalted of all the Gods, for it is from him that all beings were generated. Thus again we come to the meaning 'Exalted Father.' This is a clear pointer that Abraham is none other than the heavenly father Brahma."

(Vedic Past of Pre-Islamic Arabia Part VI p.2.)

Several word-meanings can be extracted from "Abram," each of which points directly to his exalted position. Ab = "Father" Hir or H'r = "Head Top Exalted" Am = "People." Therefore, Abhiram or Abh'ram can mean "Father of the Exalted." Here's still another: Ab - - Ram = "Father of the Merciful." Ab, also meaning "Snake," could indicate that Ab-Ram (Exalted Snake) was a Naga king. All the meanings that can be extracted from the compound word "Abraham" reveal the divine destiny of his followers. Hiram of Tyre, Solomon's close friend, was "Exalted People" or Ahi-Ram (Exalted Snake).

In ancient India, the Aryan cult was called "Brahm-Aryan." The Aryans worshiped multiple gods. Abraham turned away from polytheism. By so doing, he could have become "A-Brahm" (No longer a Brahman.) The Aryans called the Asuras "Ah-Brahm." Therefore, we can logically assume that the fathers of the Indus civilization were probably prototypical Jews.

Jerusalem was a Hittite (Indian hereditary leadership caste) city at the time of Abraham's death. In Genesis 23:4, Abraham asked the Jerusalem Hittites to sell him a burial plot. The Hittites answered, ". thou art a prince among us: in the choice of our sepulchres bury thy dead none of us shall withhold from thee." (p. 6). If Abraham was revered as a prince by the Hittites, he, too, was a highly regarded member of India's hereditary ruling and warrior caste. The bible never did say that Abraham wasn't a Hittite. It just said, "I am a stranger and a sojourner with you." (Genesis 23:4.) As the Hittites said, they recognized Abraham as being even above them. Just as the Hittites were not a unique ethnicity, neither were the Amorites or Amarru. Marruta was the Indian caste name of commoners. The word "Amorite" (Marut) was the first caste name of the Indian Vaishyas: craftsmen, farmers, cattlemen, traders, etc.

G. D. Pande writes in Ancient Geography of Ayodhya , "Maruts represented the Visah. The Maruts are described as forming troops or masses. Rudra, the father of the Maruts, is the lord of cattle." (p. 177.) Malita J. Shendge states: ". the Maruts are the people." (The Civilized Demons p. 314.) We should not be surprised to find the Khatti (Hittites) and Maruts (Amorites) functioning as the fathers (protectors) and mothers (helpmates or assistants) of Jerusalem.

In India, the Hittites were also known as Cedis or Chedis (pronounced Hatti or Khetti). Indian historians classify them as one of the oldest castes of the Yadavas. "The Cedis formed one of the most ancient tribes among the Ksatriyas (the aristocratic class made up of Hittites and Kassites) in early Vedic times. As early as the period of the Rgveda the Cedi kings had acquired great reknown. they are one of the leading powers in northern India in the great epic." (Yadavas Through the Ages, p. 90.) Ram or Rama also belonged to the Yadava clan. If our Abraham, Brahm, and Ram are the one and the same person, Abraham went to Jerusalem to be with his own people!

Ram's congregations segregated themselves in their own communities, called Ayodhya, which in Sanskrit means "The Unconquerable." The Sanskrit word for "fighter" is Yuddha or Yudh. Abraham and his group belonged to the Ayodhya (Yehudiya, Judea) congregation who remained aloof from non-believers and Amalekites (Aryans?).

Melchizadek. the sage of Salem

If what I have said thus far isn't convincing enough, maybe the word "Melchizedek" will be. Melchizedek was a king of Jerusalem who possessed secret mystical and magical powers. He was also Abraham's teacher.

Melik-Sadaksina was a great Indian prince, magician, and spiritual giant - the son of a Kassite king. In Kashmiri and Sanskrit, Sadak = "a person with magical, supernatural powers." A certain Zadok (Sadak?) was also a supernaturally-endowed priest who annointed Solomon. Why does the Kassite (of royal caste) Melik-Sadaksina, a mythical Indian personage, suddenly appear in Jerusalem as the friend and mentor of Abraham? According to Akshoy Kumar Mazumdar in The Hindu History , Brahm was the spiritual leader of the Aryans. As an Aryan (Not of Yah), he naturally believed in idols. The bible says that he even manufactured them. Upon seeing how increasing idol worship and religious guesswork were contributing to the further downfall of his people, Brahm backed away from Aryanism and reembraced the ancient Indian (Yah) philosophy (Cult of the MaterialUniverse) even though it, too, was foundering in manmade evils. He decided that mankind could save himself only by dealing with what was real not the imagined.

Shocked at the barbarism and blind selfishness of the people, the wise men and educated people among the proto-Hebrews isolated themselves from the masses. Dr. Mazumdar wrote, "The moral fall was rapid. The seers and sages lived apart from the masses. They seldom married and were mostly given to religious contemplation. The masses, without proper light and leader, soon became vicious in the extreme. Rape, adultery, theft, etc., became quite common. Human nature ran wild. Brahma (Abraham) decided to reform and regenerate the people. He made the chief sages and seers to marry and mix with the people. Most refused to marry, but 30 agreed." Brahm married his half sister Saraisvati. These sages became known as prajapatis (progenitors).

"Northern Afghanistan was called Uttara Kuru and was a great center of learning. An Indian woman went there to study and received the title of Vak, i.e. Saraisvati (Lady Sarah). It is believed that Brahm, her teacher (and half brother), was so impressed by her beauty, education, and powerful intellect, that he married her." (The Hindu History p. 48, in passim.)

From the holy community in Southern Afghanistan, similar communities spread all over the world: the whole of India, Nepal, Thailand, China, Egypt, Syria, Italy, the Philippines, Turkey, Persia, Greece, Laos, Iraq, - even the Americas! The linguistic evidence of Brahm's presence in various parts of the world is more than evident: Persian: Braghman (Holy) Latin: Bragmani (Holy) Russian: Rachmany (Holy) Ukranian Rachmanya (Priest Holy) Hebrew: Ram (Supreme Leader) Norwegian From (Godly). A sacred word among the Hindus was and is the mystic syllable OM. It is associated eternally with the earth, sky, and heaven, the Triple Universe. It is also a name of Brahm. The Aztecs also worshiped and chanted the syllable OM as the dual principal of all creation: OMeticuhlti (Male Principle) and OMelcihuatl (Female Principle). The Mayan priestly caste was called Balam (pronounced B'lahm). Had an "R" sound existed in Mayan, it would have been Brahm. The Peruvian Incas worshiped the sun as Inti Raymi (Hindu Ram).

Names that undeniably derive from Rama literally pepper Native-American languages, especially the languages of those tribes extending from our American Southwest, to Mexico, and all the way to South America, beyond Peru. The Tarahumara Indians of Chihuahua are an ideal example. Their real name is Ra-Ram-Uri. As in Sumeria and Northern India, the Ra-Ram-Uri "Uri" = "People." Because the Spanish "R" is trilled, this "Uri" could also be Udi or Yuddhi, the Sanskrit name for "Warrior Conqueror." Many Mexican tribes mention that a foreign race of Yuri once invaded their part of the world. The Ra-Ram-Uri sun god is Ono-R ame. In Kashmiri, Ana = "Favorite Son" The Ra-Ram-Uri moon goddess, the consort of Ono-R ame, is Eve-Ruame. Kashmiri Hava = "Eve, or The Female Principle."

A Ra-Ram-Uri governor is called Si-Riame. In Sanskrit/Kashmiri, Su-Rama = "Great Rama." According to ancient Mexican legends, the Yoris belonged to a tribe called Surem (Su-Ram?) Before the conquest, Central Mexico and the American Southwest, as far as Eastern Colorado, were known as Sur . Sur = "Sun" in Kashmiri. The Tarahumara cure doctor or spiritual guide is an Owi-Ruame. In Sanskrit, Oph = "Hope." Their devil is called Repa-Bet-Eame. Kashmiri: Riphas (Appearance) + Buth (Malignant Spirit) + Yama (Angel of Death). Many other astonishing Kashmiri/Sanskrit correspondences appear in the Ra-Ram-Uri language. Their relation to ancient Phoenicia, Sumeria, and Northern India is beyond question.

The Phoenicians. global navigators.

Most people think of the Phoenicians as a tribe of sailor-traders that inhabited what is now Lebanon. However, the Pancika or Pani as the Hindus called them, or Puni, by the Romans (a name also derived from Rama), were, like gypsies, scattered all over the globe.

The Spaniards called the land of the Ra-Ram-Uri Chiahuahua, pronounced as Shivava by the natives themselves. In Sanskrit, Shivava = "Shiva's Temple." According to Hindu religious scholars, Ram and God Shiva were once the same deity. Shiva and Yah's (the same one we read about in the Bible) name are also prominent in Native-American religious practices and can be found inscribed as petroglyphs all over the American Southwest. (Refer to my book India Once Ruled the Americas! )

Ayodhya was also another name for Dar-es-Salam in African Tanzania and Jerusalem (Judea). It is true that the Jerusalemites were known as Yehudiya or Judeans (Warriors of Yah), a fact making the Jews' Indian origins incontrovertible.

There was no part of the ancient world, including China, that wasn't influenced by Ram's religious views. For example, Christians and Jews have been brainwashed to believe that Mohammed copied his teachings from Jewish sources. The truth is that in Mohammed's time, Ram or Abraham's theology was the foundation stone of all religious sects. All Mohammed did was to purge them of idol worship.

". the Temple of Mecca was founded by a colony of Brahmins from India.it was a sacred place before the time of Mohamed, and.they were permitted to make pilgrimages to it for several centuries after his time. Its great celebrity as a sacred place long before the time of the prophet cannot be doubted." (Anacalypsis, Vol. I, p. 421.)

". the city of Mecca is said by the Brahmins, on the authority of their old books, to have been built by a colony from India and its inhabitants from the earliest era have had a tradition that it was built by Ishmael, the son of Agar. This town, in the Indus language, would be called Ishmaelistan." (Ibid, p. 424.)

Before Mohammed's time, The Hinduism of the Arab peoples was called Tsaba. Tsaba or Saba is a Sanskrit word, meaning "Assembly of the Gods ". Tsaba was also called Isha-ayalam (Shiva's Temple). The term Moslem or Moshe-ayalam (Shiva's Temple) is just another name of Sabaism. The word has now shrunk to Islam. Mohammed himself, being a member of the Quaryaish family, was at first a Tsabaist. The Tsabaists did not regard Abraham as an actual god, but as an avatar or divinely ordained teacher called Avather Brahmo (Judge of the Underworld).

At the time of Jesus, the respective languages, religious symbolism, and traditions of the Arabs and Jews were nearly identical. If we could take a time machine to the past, most of us would not see any real differences between the Arabs and Jews. History tells us that the Arabs of Christ's time worshiped idols. So did the lower class and rural Jews. For this reason, the Middle Eastern squabble between the Jews and the Moslems and the hate between the Moslems and Hindus in India are ridiculous. The Moslems are fighting the Jews and Hindus, or vice-versa, over nothing. All three groups sprang from the same source.

The Kashmiri-Sanskrit equivalent of Hebron (Khev'run in Hebrew) screams out the Indian origins of Jerusalem's earliest inhabitants: Khab'ru (grave tomb). (See Grierson's Dictionary. p. 382.) Even in Hebrew, Kever = "Tomb."

Indian linguist and orientalist Maliti J. Shendge's The Languages of Harappans welds together, once and for all, West Asia and the Indus Valley civilization. Not only does she prove that Harappa was Akkadian and Sumerian, she also proves that the first "Abraham" was none other than Adam before Eve was created from one of his ribs.

". it may be said that the region from Tigris-Euphrates to the Indus and its east was inhabited by the Akkadian speaking Semites who later called themselves as Asshuraiu. Their Indian name as known from Rgveda is 'Asura' which is not far removed. That this region should be inhabited by different clans of the same ethos is not very surprising. It would however be wrong to think that it was a racially homogenous group. As our linguistic evidence shows it was a mixed population of the Akkadians and Sumerians. The other ethnic groups also may have been present, whose traces may be looked for in future work. This mixed composition of the population is not inconsistent with the present state of knowledge, as the presence of these ethnic elements in the Indus valley only confirms and extends an identical demographic pattern, which was in existence probably from the earliest times of prehistory and civilization.

"If these Akkadians were the same as the West Asian clan, there should have been an equal preponderance of this primaeval couple in the Vedic mythology. However, beyond one cryptic reference, there is no reference to them. This was baffling. It seemed unlikely that this clan was without the primaeval parents, though their god was Asura. The predominance of Brahman in RV as the primaeval father is there which is also inadequate as he is male principle alone. A close look at Brahman revealed its ancestry to be made of two words Abu + Rahmu which is the primaeval pair in the Semitic mythology. The Akkadian counterpart of Rahmu is Lahmu which later became goddess Laksmi, born in the sea and courted by both gods and demons. Lahmu is a dragon in Akkadian but in Ugaratic Rahmu is the lass of Abu. Brahma (abu + rahmu = abrahma = brahma) all the changes postulated here being covered in the above correspondences, or lass of Abu, the supreme Semitic godhood, has undergone many transformations and has many counterparts in the Indian pantheon, amongst whom is Laksmi one of the important ones being worshipped as the goddess of all material creation. Thus the Asura clan of the Indus valley worshipped Abu-Rahmu as the primaeval couple."

Ms. Shendge's research really strengthens my conviction that the remains of Abraham and Sarai in Hebron may really be those of the real Brahm and Saraisvati. Our Abraham was evidently a priest, perhaps even the founder, of the Abu-Rahmu (Adam and Eve) cultus, who brought his monotheistic religion to West Asia. Though he and Sarai were deified in various forms back in their native India, they remained as humans in Judaism.


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