Austraalia väed rebaseaugus, Paapua

Austraalia väed rebaseaugus, Paapua

Austraalia väed rebaseaugus, Paapua


Austraalia väed veest rabatud rebaseaugus, vaid kolmkümmend meetrit Jaapani rindejoonest Gona-Buna rindel, Paapua põhjarannikul.


Esiküljel seksuaalsuse salajane ajalugu

Borneos oli palav öö ja kaheksa Austraalia sõdurit istusid ja arutasid filmitähti, keda nad arvasid. Sõda oli just lõppenud - Hiroshima ja Nagasaki olid tuhaks -, kuid enamik Aasia sõdureid jätkasid tegevteenistust kõikides meessoost keskkondades, millega nad harjunud on. Nad olid näljas suhetest naistega, nii et ekraani ebajumalate fantaasia oli intensiivne.

Üks poiss ütles, et June Allyson oli tema lemmik, teisele meeldis Susan Hayward ja kolmas nägi unes Betty Grablit. Kui keegi Marlene Dietrichist rääkis, läks asi auravaks. Üks kiimasõduritest, kirjutab Roderic Anderson oma mälestusteraamatus Vaba radikaal, ütles, kui väga ta seksi tahab. Aga kui keegi pani ' 'sissy hääle ' ' ja ütles ' ', ma ei teadnud, et sa sellest hoolid! .

Graafiline kunst. Dušš varemetes, 1945. aasta Donald Sõbra pliiatsi-, pintsli- ja tinditöö. Krediit: Austraalia sõja mälestuskunst

Mõni päev pärast seda juhtumit olid need samad kaheksa sõdurit aga purjus ' 'jungle mahla ' ' joobes. Anderson kirjutab, et tuled kustutati, nad ' ' kohanesid üksteisega, paarusid ja kadusid öösse ' '. Hiljem mahamatmata vandenõu vandenõu mattis asja maha ja keegi ei arutanud, kas nad on ' ' tehes ' ' või on see püsivam orientatsioon.

Nendel aegadel, mil ' 'gay ' ' tähendas õnnelikult muretut, oli idee selgelt eristuvast homoseksuaalsest identiteedist lapsekingades. Homoseksuaalsus oli Austraalias ebaseaduslik ja kaitseväes karistati homoseksuaalseid tegusid eluaegse vangistusega. Tänapäeval iseenesestmõistetavaks peetav heteroseksuaalne -homoseksuaalne lõhe oli suhteliselt uus mõiste - mõiste ' 'homosexual ' ' tekkis alles 19. sajandi lõpus.

Ametlik vaikus, saladuseloor ja isegi otsene uskmatus sõjaaegse seksi suhtes sõjaväelaste seas on sellest ajast peale valitsenud, millele lisanduvad müüdid Austraalia kaevurite ja ' 'matehip ' ' legendide kohta. Nüüd räägivad ajaloolased teistsugust, realistlikumat lugu tänu sõjaväe toimiku avaldamisele meeste homoseksuaalide vabastamise kohta Teises maailmasõjas.

Viimase kahe aasta uurimiste käigus said teadlased Yorick Smaal ja Graham Willett peaaegu täieliku juurdepääsu rahvusarhiivi toimikule, mis avaldati esmakordselt 1992. aastal, kuid tugevalt redigeeritud kujul, mis paljastas vähe.

Üks olulisemaid episoode, mis on esitatud täielikus failis, käsitleb mitmeid juhtumeid Uus -Guineas 1943. aasta lõpus, mis hõlmasid ennast identifitseerivaid homoseksuaale - või ' 'kamp ' ' - mehi. Protokollid hõlmavad nende 18 sõduri elulugusid, keda üks major küsitles pärast seda, kui Ameerika Ühendriikide kaitseuurija teatas ebaseaduslikust seksist.

Sõdurite nimesid ja identifitseerivat materjali on peidetud, kuid fail kirjeldab, kuidas armee ametivõimud hakkasid esmakordselt tegelema ideega, et homoseksuaalse käitumise ja homoseksuaalse identiteedi vahel on erinevus.

Dr Willett, Melbourne'i ülikooli Austraalia keskuse vanemõppejõud, kahtlustab, et mehed nõustusid oma lugusid üksikasjalikult rääkima vastutasuks meditsiinilise heakskiidu andmise eest, mitte ebaausa eest.

Ajaloolased, kelle uurimistööd rahastas osaliselt Austraalia armee ajalooüksus, väidavad, et nad olid juba ammu kahtlustanud, et relvastatud teenistustes on homoseksuaalsus palju tavalisem, kui traditsiooniliselt tunnistatakse. Esialgu koondasid nad romaane, päevikuid, mälestusi, suulisi lugusid ja ametlikke dokumente. Kontod hõlmavad ' 'olukordlikku seksi ' ' meeste vahel - ' 'tegemist ' ', kuna ümberringi polnud naisi, nii et ' ɻutch ' ' mehed võiksid seksida & #x27 'kohvikud ' ' kaotamata oma mehelikule staatusele. Võimalik, et see on nii mõnegi 1945 ' 'jungle mahla ja#x27 ' sõduri puhul Borneos. Teised juhtumid, millega teadlased kokku puutusid, hõlmasid homoseksuaalse identiteedi selgemalt väljendatud olemust.

Rahvusarhiivi failis olevad lood on aga teistest allikatest erinevad: need ei anna mitte ainult erakordset ülevaadet rindel olevate homoseksuaalsete meeste elust, vaid kirjeldavad ka nende esimesi seksuaalseid kogemusi, suhteid ja sõprussuhteid, seksuaalelu, armee kogemusi. ja nende suhted üksteise ja läheduses paiknenud Ameerika sõduritega.

Fail ja muu Uus -Guinea uurimismaterjal paljastavad selliseid asju nagu metsikud seksipeod džunglis, korrapärane seksuaalne ratsutamine ja suhted Ameerika sõduritega vanades duššiplokkides.

' 'Sex oli kindlasti nende sõjaaegse kogemuse keskmes ja ameeriklased olid eriti hinnatud, ' ' ütleb dr Smaal nende 18 sõduri kohta. Griffithi ülikooli ajaloolane, doktorikraad seksuaalsuse teemal Teises maailmasõjas, algatas dr Willetiga uurimise.

' ' 'Kaubandust ' leiti sageli Ameerika Punase Risti baarist Ela Beachil, kus oli palju rahvast. Mõned ameeriklased viisid sageli pool tosinat Austraalia ja#x27 tüdrukut ', nagu nad olid teada, džiibi või veoautoga põõsasse, kus seks toimus. Tavaliselt oli neil pidudel umbes 15 USA meest kuni kuuele ' tüdrukule ja#x27 ning oli tavaline, et austraallastel oli öösel rohkem kui üks partner, et mehed oleksid rahul. ' '

Dr Smaal ütleb, et Uus-Guinea ' 'girls ' ' rollimängu kujundasid tänapäeval levinud arusaamad seksuaalsusest ja soost. ' 'Nad olid USA armee praosti sõnadega, kes hoiatasid Austraalia ametnikke, mehed, kes praktiseerisid homoseksuaalsuse naissoost poolt ja#x27.

Ühes väljavõttes armee toimikutest jutustab sõdur, kuidas ta käituks teiste ' 'kamp ' ' meestega, külastades Ameerika Punast Risti Ela rannas. ' 'Mitu korda korjasid meid Austraalia või Ameerika sõdurid. Üks -kaks käisime mööda randa, teinekord käisime pidudel veoautodes põõsasse. Meil olid nendega suhted. ' ' Teised rääkisid sellest, kuidas ' 'tädid ' ' võtsid vähem kogenud mehed oma tiiva alla ja õpetasid neile kaubanduse trikke ' '.

Kuigi dr Smaal ütleb, et ' 'girls ' ' olid lihtsalt üks rühm austraallasi - suure tõenäosusega oli ka naissoost ameeriklasi koos naiselike ameeriklastega -, siis lihtsalt juhtub, et see on rühm, kellest nad on teada saanud. ' 'Tõendid on nii katkised, et peame olema liiga kaugele ekstrapoleerimisel ettevaatlikud, ' '. ' ɺga selgelt on see, mis Uus -Guineas toimub, peegel sellest, mis toimub kodusel rindel ja see on intervjuudes üsna selge. Kõik Uus -Guineas mängivad ideed nende enesetunde ja identiteeditunde kohta on samad, mis toimuvad tagasi Sydneys, Brisbane'is või Melbourne'is. See ei ole üksikjuhtum. ' '

Džungliseksi peod avastas USA armee praost dr Smaal nõiajahina. ' ɺmeerika armeel on sellise tegevusega kindlasti sugupuu, ' ' ütleb ta. Proost oli töötanud koos asepresidendiga, ja ta teadis, mida ta otsis - märke ja koode, mis on suunatud ümberpööratud tavadele ja#x27, mida ta otsis ' '.

Gore Vidal, varalahkunud Ameerika kirjanik ja USA armee veteran Vaikse ookeani piirkonnas, on tsiteeritud ajakirjas Dennis Altman 's Tulemas seitsmekümnendatel, nagu öeldes, et Austraalia sõduritel oli#kuuldavalt kõhuli ümbermineku maine ' '. Seda tüüpi konto, sealhulgas Robert Hughesi teated laialdastest süüdimõistetud aegadest pärit homoseksuaalsetest tavadest Surmav kallas, kohtub sageli karmi eitamisega ' ', relvastatud teenistustes ei olnud näpunäiteid ' '.

Kuid ajaloolase Frank Bongiorno 's uus raamat Austraallaste seksielu: ajalugu, peetakse tõenäoliseks, et kaitseväes esines homoseksuaalseid tegevusi tunduvalt rohkem, kui neid on säilinud, sest avastamisega tegeleti võimalusel vaikselt ja mitteametlikult, et mitte juhtida tähelepanu selle piinlikkusele kohalolek ' '.

Tähelepanuväärselt see Uus -Guineas nii ei olnud. Dr Willett ütleb, et Austraalia ja#x27 sõjavägede ülem Uus -Guineas kirjutas murelikult Melbourne'i peakorterisse ja tahtis teada, mida teha pärast seda, kui USA oli talle meeste seas toimuvast rääkinud.

Kui hoiatati ' 'probleemi ' ' eest, veetis ülemine messing mitu kuud põhjuste ja selle kohta, kuidas reageerida, olles ebakindel, kas kasutada seaduslikke või meditsiinilisi lähenemisviise. ' ɺrmees töötavad mitmed erinevad (ja sageli vastandlikud) arusaamad homoseksuaalsusest - nimelt distsiplinaar-, meditsiinilised ja moraalsed diskursused - esitasid komandöridele mitmesuguseid poliitilisi tulemusi, ' ' ütleb dr Smaal. ' ' Selle probleemi lahendamisel sai armeest üks esimesi Austraalia institutsioone, kes praktiliselt võitleb homoseksuaalse käitumise ja homoseksuaalse identiteedi erinevustega. ' '

Kaitsejõud olid aga ilmselt mures selle pärast, et Uus -Guinea vahejuhtumid võivad viidata palju suuremale probleemile, mistõttu võeti ühendust kõigi Austraalia ülematega, et saada aru selle ulatusest ja selle käsitlemisest. seda. ' 'Uus-Guinea oli leekpunkt, mis pani Melbourne'i [peakorteri] mõtlema homoseksuaalsusele ja identiteedile ning sellele, kuidas see reastatakse ja kuidas sellega toime tulla. Nad mõistsid, et see puudutab pigem homoseksuaalseid inimesi kui homoseksuaalset käitumist. ' '

See oli tema sõnul radikaalne muutus minevikku. ' 'Kui lähete tagasi Austraalia legendi idee juurde, siis see idee sublimeeritud paaritumisest ja meeste sõprusest, mis sobib sõjaväele kui institutsioonile nii hästi - uurimisi ja ülekuulamisi oli väga vähe platoonilisi ja emotsionaalseid sidemeid meeste vahel ja võib -olla seal, kus see hägustub millekski füüsilisemaks või intiimsemaks. ' '

Paljud Uus-Guinea ja Borneo sõdurid 1940. aastate keskel on ilmselt nüüdseks surnud, kuid dr Smaal ütleb, et mõnel neist pidi olema äratatud enesetunne. ' 'See pidi olema üsna ilmutuslik kogemus, pannes nad kokku tunnete ja soovidega, mida nad ei suutnud või ei tahtnud kodurindel uurida. See võis kinnitada nende identiteeditunnet ja soovi teiste meeste vastu. Mõne mehe jaoks ei oleks nad valmis naasma oma ellu, mida nad elasid enne sõda ja soovisid tagasi minna ning elada koos oma parimate sõprade ja armastajatega. ' '

Nagu üks sõdur toimikutes teatab, pärast esimest sõjaväkke minekut ja kaheksa või üheksa sõduriga oma üksuses seksimist ta naudib palju ja naudib palju seksuaalseiklusi, kuid viis nädalat enne avaldus, et oli kohtunud ameeriklasega Ameerika Punasel Ristil. ' 'Ma olen temasse väga armunud, ta tagastab mu armastuse ja palus mul temaga hilisemas elus koos elada. Seda olen lubanud teha. ' '


Anna talle oma koormus

Vaene mees Iirimaal kõndis kodu poole, kaasas suur kott kartulit. Hobune ja vagun tõttasid lõpuks tee äärde tema kõrvale ja juht kutsus mehe pardale ronima. Pärast vagunile istumist istus ta maha, kuid jätkas raske koti hoidmist.

Kui juht soovitas mehel kotti vagunisse panna, vastas ta: "Ma ei taha teile liiga teha, söör. Sa sõidad mulle juba sõitma, nii et ma lihtsalt kannan kartulit. & Quot

& quot; Kui rumal temast! & quot; ütleme me. Ometi teeme mõnikord sama asja, kui püüame oma elu koormat oma jõududega kanda. Pole ime, et me väsime ning oleme ärevuse ja hirmu all.

Psalmis 55 rääkis Taavet ärevusest, mida ta tundis, sest vaenlased ründasid teda (s.1-15). Kuid siis andis ta oma mured Issandale ning oli täis uut lootust ja enesekindlust (s 16-16). Sellepärast võis ta kirjutada: "Loovutage oma koorem Issandale ja ta toetab teid" (s 22).

Kui meenutate lugu mehest ja tema kartulikotist, pidage meeles lihtsat õppetundi, mida see illustreerib: selle asemel, et püüda oma koormaid ise kanda, pange need Jumala kätte. —Henry Bosch

Anna talle iga hämmastav probleem,
Kõik teie vajadused Temale tehakse teatavaks
Tooge Tema juurde oma igapäevane koormus ja#151
Ärge kunagi kandke neid üksi! —Adams

Jumal kutsub meid koormama Teda sellega, mis meid koormab.

Sünnikuupäevad, mis toimusid 25. aprillil:
1214 Louis IX Prantsusmaa kuningas (1226-70)
1228 Koenraad IV roomakatoliku Saksa kuningas (1237-54)
1284 Inglismaa kuningas Edward II (1307–27)
1599 Oliver Cromwell puritaanlik Inglismaa kaitsja (1653–58)
1710 James Fergusoni astronoom
1792 John Keble anglikaani preester/asutaja (Oxfordi liikumine)
1825 Charles Ferdinand Dowd USA, standardiseeritud ajavööndid
1840 James Dearingi brigaadikindral (Konföderatsiooni armee), suri 1865
1874 Guglielmo Marconi Bologna Itaalia, leiutaja (raadio/Nobel 1909)
1900 Wolfgang Ernst Pauli Austria, füüsik (Pauli pärssimine/Nobel 1945)
1906 William J Brennan Jr Newark NJ, 92. ülemkohtu kohtunik (1956-90)
1908 Edward R Murrow Pole Creek NC, uudistejuht (inimeselt inimesele)
1912 Gladys L Presley Elvise ema
1918 Ella Fitzgerald Newport News VA, džässlaulja (The First Lady of Song, Kas see on otse või Memorex, A-Tisket A-Tasket)
1923 Albert King Indianola MS, bluusilaulja/kitarrist (Bad Look Blues)
1925 Flannery O'Connori novellikirjanik (või 25.03.)
1930 Paul Mazursky Brooklyn NY, kirjanik/režissöör (Moskva Hudsonil)
1932 Meadowlark [George] Lemon korvpallitäht (Harlem Globetrotter)
1940 Al Pacino New York NY, näitleja (And Justice For All, Godfather, Scorpio)
1942 Jon Kyl (vabariiklasest senaator-AZ)
1945 Stu Cook Oakland CA, rokkbassist (Creedence Clearwater Revival-Proud Mary)
1952 Vladislav Tretiak NSV Liidu hokimängija (olümpia-kuld-1972, 76)
1971 Michelle Harris Newark DE, Miss Delaware-Ameerika (1996)

25. aprillil toimunud surmajuhtumid:
1295 Suri Sancho IV, vapper, õpetlane/Kastiilia/Le & oacuten kuningas
1342 Suri Benedictus XII [Jacques Fournier] paavst (1334-42)
1482 Anjou kuninganna (Henry VI) Margaret suri
1607 Don Juan Alvarez Hispaania admiral (Gibraltar), hukkub lahingus
1744 Anders Celsius Rootsi astronoom (Centegrade termomeeter), suri 42 -aastaselt
1840 Sim & eacuteon-Denis Poisson Prantsuse matemaatik (Poisson verdelling), suri
1862 Charles Ferguson Smith USA Liidu kindralmajor suri 55-aastaselt nakkusesse
1882 Suri Johann CF Z & oumlllner Saksa astronoom (astrofotograafia)
1905. aastal suri umbes 70 -aastaselt hollandi fotograaf Jacob Olie
1937 Clem Sohni õhusaate esineja sureb 26 -aastaselt, kui tema kraanikauss ei avane
1955 Paulus B Barth Šveitsi maalikunstnik/litograaf, suri 73 -aastaselt
1960 Amanullah emir/Afganistani kuningas (1919-28), suri 67-aastaselt
1981 6 ja 12 aastat vana hiir Dixie sureb
1982 Don Wilsoni telediktor (Jack Benny Show), suri 81 -aastaselt
1982 John Cody USA kardinal/Chicago peapiiskop (1965-82), suri 74-aastaselt
1982 William R Burnett USA, kirjanik (Asphalt Jungle), suri 82 -aastaselt
1988 Clifford D [onald] Simaki sci-fi autor (Hugo, Way Station), suri 83-aastaselt
1995 Art Flemingi mängusaatejuht (Jeopardy) suri 74 -aastaselt
1995 Ginger Rogersi näitlejanna/tantsija (silmuskübar, lavauks), suri 83 -aastaselt

Teatatud: MESSING in ACTION

1967 STACKHOUSE CHARLES D .--- SHEBOYGAN WI.
[03/04/73 VABASTATUD DRV, ALIVE AND WELL 98]
1967 WESKAMP ROBERT LARRY --- ARVADA CO.
[03/06/74 JÄÄB TAGASI]
1968 CROSSMAN GREGORY J .--- STURGIS MI.
1971 LEMON JEFFREY C .--- FLOSSMOOR IL.
1971 ODOM CHESTER R. II
[AWOL?]
1971 SIGAFOOS WALTER H. III --- RICHBORO PA
1972 BROWNLEE ROBERT W .--- CHICAGO IL.
1975 WALSH BRIAN
[LED EEMALT GUNPOINTIS]
1975 YIM JOHN SUNG

POW / MIA Data & amp Bios tarnija
P.O.W. VÕRK. Skidmore, MO. USA.

Sellel päeval.
1185 Merelahing Dan-no-ura juures Minamoto Yoritomo võidab Taira perekonna
1449 paavstivastane Felix V astub tagasi
1507 Geograaf Martin Waldseemuller 1. kasutas nime Ameerika
1607 Lahing Gibraltaril võitis Hollandi laevastik Hispaania/Portugali laevastiku
1614 Amsterdami laenupanga vormid
1660 Londoni konvendi parlament kogub ja hääletab Charles II taastamiseks
1684 Sõrmkübarale on antud patent
1707 Almansa-Prantsuse-Hispaania vägede lahing alistas anglo-portugali
1719 Daniel Defoes avaldab "Robinson Crusoe"
1792 Kasutati 1. giljotiini, hukkab maanteeliige Nicolas J Pelletieri
1850 Paul Julius Reuter, kasutage börsihindade kandmiseks 40 tuvi
1859 Maa murdus Suessi kanali jaoks
1861 7. New York saabub Washingtoni tugevdama
1861 Lavaca lahing TX
1862 New Orleansi lahing LA - USA admiral Farragut hõivab New Orleansi
1864 Battle of Marks 'Mill AR (Camdeni ekspeditsioon)
1867 Tokyo avatakse väliskaubanduseks
1875 NYC mõõdetava lume viimane kuupäev (3 & quot)
1876 ​​Chicago Cubs 1. Rahvusliiga mäng, võitis Louisville'i 4: 0 (1. Rahvusliiga sulgemine)
1881 250 000 sakslast palusid välisjuutidel Saksamaale siseneda
1881 Prantsuse väed okupeerivad Alžeeria ja Tuneesia
1886 Sigmund Freud avab praktika aadressil Rathausstrasse 7, Viin
1896 võitlus keskses tantsusaalis süttib (Cripple Creek CO)
1898 kuulutas USA Kuuba pärast Hispaaniale sõja
1901 New Yorgist saab esimene osariik, mis nõuab auto numbrimärke (tasu 1 USD)
1915 Gallipolis maabub 78 000 ANZACi sõdurit
1925 Paul von Hindenburg valiti Saksamaa teiseks presidendiks (Adolf Hitler on kolmas)
1926 esietendub Milanos Giacomo Puccini ooper & quot; Turandot & quot;
1926 Pärsia kasakate ohvitser Reza Chan kroonib ennast Shah Palawiks
1927 Hispaania suunab 20 000 sõdurit Marokosse (ülestõus Rifkabylen)
1928 Saksa lambakoer Buddy sai esimeseks pimedate juhtkoeraks
1933 USA ja Kanada loobuvad Gold Standardist
1944 ühendab United Negro College Fund
1945 46 riiki kutsuvad San Francisco CA -s kokku ÜRO rahvusvahelise organisatsiooni konverentsi
1945 Salajane raadio 1212, mida kasutati natsi -Saksamaa viimase edastuse petmiseks
1945 viimane Boeing B-17 rünnak natsi-Saksamaa vastu
1945 USA ja Nõukogude väed kohtuvad Torgau Saksamaal Elbe jõe ääres
1945 Punaarmee ümbritseb täielikult Berliini
1947 Algab kohtuprotsess Teise maailmasõja Amsterdami linnapea Edward Vo & ucircte vastu
1950 Chuck Cooperist sai esimene mustanahaline, kes mängis NBA -s
1952 Ameerika bowlingukongress kiitis heaks automaatse kurikaseadja kasutamise
1952. NBA 6. meistrivõistlused Minneapolis Lakers võitis New York Knicksi 4 mänguga 3
1953 Teadlased tuvastavad DNA
1954 Bell labs kuulutab välja esimese päikesepatarei (New York NY)
1954 Briti haarang Nairobi Keenias (25 000 Mau Mau kahtlustatavat vahistatakse)
1954 USA sooritas Bikini saarel atmosfääri tuumakatsetuse
1956 Elvis Presley "Heartbreak Hotel" läheb #1
1957 käitus esimene eksperimentaalne naatriumtuumareaktor
1957 Ibrahim Hashim moodustab Jordaania valitsuse
1959 St Lawrence'i meretee, mis ühendab Atlandi ookeani, Suured järved, avatakse laevandusele
1960. aastal lõpetati Maa esimene sukeldumine (Triton)
1961 rakett Mercury/Atlas tõsteti maha elektroonilise mannekeeniga
1961 Robert Noyce patenteeris integraallülituse
1961 Kongos arreteeriti Katanga peaminister Mo & iumlse Tsjombe
1967 Abort legaliseeriti Colorados
1967 esietendub NYC -s Jules Feifferi "Väikesed mõrvad"
1971 Umbes 200 000 Vietnami sõja vastast meeleavaldajat marsivad Washingtoni
1972 Hans-Werner Grosse libiseb AS-W-12-ga 1471 km (907,7 ​​miili)
1974 Kantsler Willy Brandt sekretär G & uumlnther Guillaume leiti spioonina
1974 Portugalis kukutati Marcello Caetano, ta saadeti Madeirale ja hiljem Brasiiliasse (nelgi revolutsioon)
1975 Mario Soarese sotsialistlik partei võitis Portugalis esimesed vabad valimised
1975 õhkiti Lääne-Saksamaa saatkond Rootsis Stockholmis
1976 Cubi keskväljamees Rick Monday päästis USA lipu kahelt fännilt, kes üritasid seda põlema panna
1976 Rahvusassamblee valimised Vietnamis riigi taasühendamiseks
1978 esines Phillie Phanatic
1978. aasta ülemkohtu otsuses ei saa pensioniplaanid nõuda naistelt rohkem maksmist
1979. aasta "Rock 'n Roll High Schools" esilinastus
1979 jõustub rahuleping Iisraeli ja Egiptuse vahel
1980 kuulutati välja Iraanis pantvangi päästva Jimmy Carteri bungle
1982 Vastavalt Camp Davidile lõpetab Iisrael Siinai taandumise
1983 Juri Andropov kutsub USA koolitüdruku Samantha Smithi NSV Liitu
1984 Rokkgrupp Wings läheb laiali
1985 Teist korda lööb Wayne Gretzky karikamängus 7 väravat
1985 Lääne -Saksamaa parlament tunnistas holokausti eitamise ebaseaduslikuks
1986 ETA pomm ründas Madridi, tappes 5 inimest
1988 John Demjanjuk (Ivan Julm) mõisteti Jeruusalemmas surma
1990 Hubble'i kosmoseteleskoop paigutatakse orbiidile süstiku Discovery abil
1991 Lisa Olson esitab hagi NFL New England Patriots'i vastu seksuaalse ahistamise eest
1993 Venemaa valib Boriss Jeltsini juhiks
1994 14 & quot; lumi Lõuna -Californias
1994 Malaisia ​​kuningas Azlan Shah astub tagasi
1994 rööviti Mehhiko ärimees ja miljardär Angel Losada
1996 Ambassador Theatre NYC -s avatakse "Sisestage Da Noise, Bring in Da Funk"
1998 Esimene leedi Hillary Rodham Clinton tunnistas Whitewateri juhtumi žürii Little Rock, Ark.
1999 asepresident Al Gore oli nende 70 000 seas, kes osalesid viis päeva varem Columbine'i keskkooli tulistamiste ohvrite mälestusteenistusel.
2001 Ebatavaliselt otsekoheselt hoiatas president Bush Hiinat, et rünnak Taiwani vastu võib esile kutsuda USA sõjalise vastuse.
2001 Päästelennuk lendas koos haige Ameerika arsti Ronald S. Shemenskiga lõunapooluselt läbi kõige julgema õhusõiduki, mis pole kunagi olnud.

Pühad
Märkus. Mõned pühad kehtivad ainult teatud nädalapäeval

Austraalia, Nauru, Uus -Meremaa, Saalomon, Tonga, W Samoa: ANZACi päev (1915)
Assoorid: Portugali päev (1974)
Itaalia: vabastamispäev
Portugal: revolutsioonipäev (1974)
Inglismaa: Kägupäev
Babülon: uusaasta (va liigaastad)
Svaasimaa: lipupäev
Alabama, Florida, Mississippi: Konföderatsiooni mälestuspäev (1868) (esmaspäev)
USA: National Dream Weekend
USA: algab riiklik maavärinateadlikkuse nädal
Näitlejate tunnustamise kuu

Usulised tähtpäevad
Vana -Rooma: Robigalia hallituse jumal palus mitte kahjustada
Anglikaani, roomakatoliku, luteri: evangelisti Püha Markuse püha
Kristlane: viimane lihavõttepühade kuupäev (nt 1943, 2038)
Rooma katoliku: Suur -Litania mälestus
Kristlane: üleriigiline kristliku kolledži päev
Budist-Laos: budistlik puhkus

Usuajalugu
1530 Augsburgi usutunnistus loeti avalikult usside dieedil. Peamiselt Philip Melanchthoni kirjutatud dokument sisaldas esimest ametlikku kokkuvõtet luteri usust.
1792 sündis inglise vaimulik ja luuletaja John Keble. Keble, kellele omistati 1833. aastal Oxfordi liikumise asutamine, on kirjutanud ka hümni "Päike mu hingest, sa, Päästja kallis" (1820).
1800 William Cowperi surm, 69, inglise luuletaja. Cowper, kes on eluaegne depressiooni ohver, jättis sellegipoolest suure vaimse kirjandusliku pärandi, sealhulgas kolm püsivat hümni: "Jumal liigub salapäraselt", "Oh, Jumalaga lähemal jalutuskäigul" ja "Seal on purskkaev."
1929 Detroitis korraldati Ameerika Rumeenia õigeusu piiskop, osaliselt vastuseks kommunismi mässule Ida -Euroopas. Varem olid selle kihelkonnad Ungaris Bukarestis patriarhaadi jurisdiktsiooni all.
1982 Iisrael tagastas 1967. aastal vallutatud Siinai poolsaare Egiptusesse, osana Camp David Accordist 1979. aastal.

Allikas: William D. Blake. KRISTLIKU KIRIKU ALMANAAK. Minneapolis: Bethany House, 1987.

Päeva mõte:
& quot; Kevad näitab, mida Jumal saab teha tuima ja räpase maailmaga. & quot

Martha Stewarti tee vs tõeline naise tee.
Marta tee nr 6: Pintseldage veidi lahtiklopitud munavalget pirukakoorele vahetult enne küpsetamist, et saada ilus läikiv viimistlus.
Tõeline naise tee #6: Proua Smithi külmutatud pirukate juhised ei sisalda munavalgete harjamist üle kooriku, nii et ma ei tee seda.

Uued osariigi loosungid.
Mississippi: Me pole Arkansas

Meeskeele mustrid.
& quot; Ma läksin temaga lahku. & quot; TÕESTI TÄHENDAB,
"Ta heitis mu maha."

Naiskeele mustrid.
& quot; Sa ei saaks aru. & quot; TÕESTI TÄHENDAB,
& quot; Ma ei saa aru, aga ma ei ütle teile seda. Kas olete kindel, et oleme seaduslikult abielus? "


Inglid ja ohvrid: Uus -Guinea rahvas II maailmasõjas

Uus-Guinea kampaania oli üks Teise maailmasõja raskemaid võitlusi. Ameerika ja Austraalia väed tuginesid võidu saavutamiseks põlistele Uus -Guinea elanikele.

Seal võidelnud valgete Austraalia ja Ameerika (ja mõnede Aafrika -Ameerika) vägede jaoks oli Uus -Guinea üks Teise maailmasõja kohutavamaid lahinguvälju. Tihedad džunglid, tugev kuumus, haigused ja Jaapani äge vastupanu - kõik koos teenindavad saarel - suuruselt teisel kohal maailmas - viletsust. Ja see kestis kaua: 8. märtsist 1942, kui Jaapani väed saarele esimest korda maandusid, kuni II maailmasõja lõpuni 1945. aasta suvel toimusid lahingud üle Uus -Guinea saare ja selle lähedal asuvates saartekettides. .

Kõige rängemaid kannatusi kannatasid aga Uus -Guinea põlisrahvad, alates praegusest iseseisvast Paapua Uus -Guinea riigist idas, kuni Lääne -Paapuani, mis on praegu Indoneesia osa. Teise maailmasõja ajal oli rahvaarv umbes 1,5 miljonit inimest, põlvnedes saare esimestest inimohvritest kümnete tuhandete aastate eest ja jagunedes arvukateks hõimudeks. Nendel inimestel oli rikas kultuur ja sõja survel ilmutasid nad märkimisväärset julgust, aga ka lahkust ja kaastunnet. Jaapani sissetungijatele ning Austraalia ja Ameerika Ühendriikide okupantidele ilmusid Uus -Guinealased aga parimal juhul koloonia alamatena ja halvimal juhul orjadena.

Jaapanlased kohtlesid Uus -Guinea elanikke sageli äärmiselt julmalt, nagu ka teisi põlisrahvaid kogu Aasias. Toitu oli alati vähe ja põlisküladesse saabunud Jaapani väed rekvireerisid sageli lihtsalt kõik soovitud toidud, mõrvasid mõned külaelanikud ja jätsid ülejäänud nälga. USA merejalaväelane Robert Leckie oma mälestustes Kiiver minu padjalekirjeldas kohtumist terve jaapanlaste eest põgenenud põlisrahvaste, meeste, naiste ja laste külaga: „Mõned lõdisesid suhkruroost valmistatud ebaviisakate karkudega, mõned - muistsed - kandsid pesakondadel üleval, mõnda toetasid seda järsem oli nende nälgimise tõttu taandunud inimpulkadeks. ” Paljud nende mehed olid kadunud, sest jaapanlased olid nad sunnitud orjatööle. Teistes külades polnud Jaapani okupatsioon palju hullem kui austraallaste ajal. Sellest hoolimata sureb järgnevates kampaaniates nälga rohkem Jaapani sõdureid kui muul põhjusel.

Enne Teise maailmasõja algust sattus Uus -Guinea saar Austraalia haldusalasse. Siis ja pärast lahingute algust kohtlesid Austraalia võimud põliselanikke kui lapsi - kindlasti mitte jõhkralt, aga ka siis, kui neid ei peeta oma asjade ajamiseks võimelisteks. Austraallased pidasid peamiselt Uus -Guinea põliselanikke pakkumise ja tööjõu allikateks. Mõned pakkusid vabatahtlikult tööd. Teisi kutsuti sunniviisiliselt ühte või teist liiki teenistusse. Sõja ajal töötas sunnitööna koguni 37 000 Uus -Guinea elanikku. Üks Austraalia ametnik märkis 1942. aastal oma arvamust, et „need põliselanikud reageerivad jõule ja käsule, kuid neid ei meelitata”.

Põlisrahvaste külaelanikud kannavad haavatud sõdureid Ameerika abipunkti Uus -Guineas Buna lähedal. Pilt viisakalt Kongressi raamatukogust.

Võitluste kiirenedes avastasid austraallased aga eelkõige paapua rahvastele uue mõõtme, eriti mööda legendaarset Kokoda rada Owen Stanley mäestikust Port Moresby elutähtsasse postitusse. Austraalia väed, kes võitlesid selles keelupiirkonnas jaapanlastega, kannatasid rängalt ja sageli võitlesid haavatud mehed üksustest või eraldati piisavast arstiabist. Jaapanlaste tabatud võivad oodata pikki kohutavaid vangistusi, kui neid otseselt ei tapeta. Põliselanikud kohtlesid haavatud ja kaotatud austraallasi aga väga heatahtlikult, pakkudes neile toitu ja peavarju või kandes nad mitu miili tagasi liitlaste liinidele - kõik olid iseendale suures ohus ning mingit tasu ei küsitud ega lubatud. Austraallased nimetasid Uus -Guinea "hägusteks hämarateks ingliteks" ning ajakirjanikud tegid suure osa nende kangelaslikkusest ja eeldatavast lojaalsusest.

Samamoodi sõltusid „rannavalvurid” - Austraalia istutajad, kes jäid maha pärast seda, kui jaapanlased okupeerisid Uus -Guinea osi, ning väikesed Austraalia ja Ameerika sõjaväeosad - täiesti sõltunud põlisrahvastest, kes varustasid neid varustusega ja olid teejuhtideks. Peaaegu kõigil juhtudel osutasid Uus -Guinealased seda abi meelsasti, riskides sellega ja sageli kaotades oma elu.

Austraallased ja hiljem ameeriklased, nagu Leckie, üritasid sageli neid heategusid vastutada oma liigutustega, pakkudes kannatavatele külaelanikele toitu, arstiabi ja muud abi. Mõnel juhul kohtlesid austraallased ja ameeriklased põliselanikke üleolevalt või jõhkralt, pekstes neid, kes keeldusid nende heaks töötamast, või mis veelgi hullem. Kuigi laialdast tahtlikku julmust, nagu jaapanlased, ei olnud, elasid Austraalia ja Ameerika kontrolli all elavad inimesed endiselt kohutavaid elutingimusi. Sõja ajal mõnes saareosas sureb iga neljas põliselanik nälga, haigustesse, sõjategevusse või mõrva.

Kohalikud kanderaamid kannavad haavatud liitlassõdurit Uus -Guineas Sanananda lähedal läbi ebatasase maastiku. Pilt viisakalt Kongressi raamatukogust.

Aeg tõestaks, et Uus -Guinea põlisrahvaste lahkus ameeriklaste ja austraallaste vastu oli tõeline, kuid nende oletatav “lojaalsus”, mida liitlaste propaganda paljastab, ei olnud. Tõde on see, et keegi pole kunagi küsinud põliselanike arvamust. Pärast sõja lõppu olid teadlased, kes otsisid sõda elanud Uus -Guinealt suulisi tunnistusi, hämmastunud, kui said teada, et põlisrahvad on ühel arvamusel: nad tahavad "valgeid" - nende hulka kuulusid jaapanlased, austraallased ja ameeriklased. - lihtsalt minema ja neid rahule jätma.

Ameerika India koodi rääkijad

Idee kasutada Ameerika indiaanlasi, kes valdasid vabalt nii oma traditsioonilist hõimukeelt kui ka inglise keelt, lahingus salajaste sõnumite saatmiseks, pandi esimeses maailmasõjas koos Choctawi telefonisalga ja teiste põliselanike kommunikatsiooniekspertide ning sõnumitoojatega proovile.

Ed Lengel, PhD

Edward G. Lengel on Rahvusliku Teise maailmasõja muuseumi sõja ja demokraatia uurimise instituudi programmide vanemdirektor.


Indoneesia vastasseis, 1963–66

Between 1962 and 1966 Indonesia and Malaysia fought a small, undeclared war which came to involve troops from Australia, New Zealand, and Britain. The conflict resulted from Indonesia's President Sukarno's belief that the creation of the Federation of Malaysia, which became official in September 1963, represented a British attempt to maintain colonial rule behind the cloak of independence granted to its former colonial possessions in south-east Asia.

The term "Confrontation" was coined by Indonesia's Foreign Minister, Dr Subandrio, in January 1963, and has come to refer to Indonesia's efforts at that time to destabilise the new federation, with a view to breaking it up. The actual war began when Indonesia launched a series of cross-border raids into Malaysian territory in early 1963.

The antagonism that gave rise to Confrontation was already apparent in December 1962, when a small party of armed insurgents, with Indonesian backing, attempted to seize power in the independent enclave of Brunei, only to be defeated by British troops from Singapore. By early 1963 military activity had increased along the Indonesian side of the border in Borneo, as small parties of armed men began infiltrating Malaysian territory on propaganda and sabotage missions. These cross-border raids, carried out by Indonesian "volunteers", continued throughout 1963. By 1964 Indonesian regular army units had also become involved.

Accession Number: P01499.003

Malaya, 29 October 1964: captured infiltrators emerge from the jungle near Sungei Kesang, South of Terendak. D Coy 3 RAR troops guard them.

Australian units that fought during Confrontation did so as part of a larger British and Commonwealth force under British command. Australia's commitment to operations against Indonesia in Borneo and West Malaysia fell within the context of its membership in the Far East Strategic Reserve.

At first the Australian government kept its troops from becoming involved in Confrontation, not least because of fears that the conflict would spread to the long - and difficult to defend - border between Papua New Guinea and Indonesia. Requests from the British and Malaysian governments in 1963-64 for the deployment of Australian troops in Borneo met with refusal, though the Australian government did agree that its troops could be used for the defence of the Malay peninsula against external attack. In the event, such attacks occurred twice, in September and October 1964, when Indonesia launched paratroop and amphibious raids against Labis and Pontian on the south-western side of the peninsula. Members of the 3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment (3 RAR) were used in clean-up operations against the invading troops. Although these attacks were easily repelled, they did pose a serious risk of escalating the fighting. The Australian government relented in January 1965 and agreed to the deployment of a battalion in Borneo.

The military situation in Borneo thus far had consisted of company bases located along the border between Indonesia and Malaysia to protect centres of population from enemy incursions. By 1965 the British government had given permission for more aggressive action, and security forces now mounted cross-border operations with the purpose of obtaining intelligence and forcing the Indonesians to remain on the defensive on their own side of the border. Uncertain where the Commonwealth forces might strike next, the Indonesians increasingly devoted their resources to protecting their own positions and less on offensive operations, although these continued on a much reduced scale.

Accession Number: P01706.003

Sarawak, British North Borneo, 1965: soldiers of 3 RAR board a Belvedere helicopter to search for Indonesian infiltrators.

The first Australian battalion, 3 RAR, arrived in Borneo in March 1965 and served in Sarawak until the end of July. During this time the battalion conducted extensive operations on both sides of the border, engaged in four major contacts with Indonesian units, and twice suffered casualties from land mines. Its replacement, the 28th Brigade, 4 RAR, also served in Sarawak - from April until August 1966. Although it had a less active tour, the 28th Brigade also operated on the Indonesian side of the border and was involved in clashes with Indonesian regulars. Two infantry battalions, two squadrons of the Special Air Service, a troop of the Royal Australian Signals , several artillery batteries, and parties of the Royal Australian Engineers were involved in Borneo. Ships of the Royal Australian Navy served in the surrounding waters and several RAAF squadrons were also involved in Confrontation.

Accession Number: P01654.008

Member of 4RAR cleaning a Bren gun at a camp near the Sarawak/Kalimantan border, 1966. The marks on his legs are an antiseptic applied to mosquito bites sustained on jungle patrols

Continuing negotiations between Indonesia and Malaysia ended the conflict, and the two sides signed a peace treaty in Bangkok in August 1966. Twenty-three Australians were killed during Confrontation, seven of them on operations, and eight were wounded. Because of the sensitivity of the cross-border operations, which remained secret at the time, Confrontation received very little coverage in the Australian press.


Charles Bean was Australia's Official War Correspondent and later Official Historian for the First World War. Many of the items in these papers were written or maintained by Bean in his role as war correspondent, reporting events for the Australian public at the time. These papers were also referenced by Bean during development of the Official History of the First World War. Read more about the records of Charles Bean.

A brief history on the service of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples written by military historian Dr Chris Clark with the assistance of a generous grant from the Gandevia Foundation.


Australian Troops At War In Korea 1950

Title reads: "Special Edition - Exclusive! Australia at War in Korea".

Intertitle reads: "Cinesound, on its own initiative, and with the invaluable co-operation of the Minister for Air and Service Chiefs, is able to bring you this, the first of a series of exclusive stories of Australia's part in the War in Korea".

Intertitle reads: "This story is dedicated to 77 Fighter Squadron RAAF which was the first United Nations unit to go into action alongside the Americans in their gallant struggle to stem North Korean aggression".

CU Geoffrey Thompson, Cinesound cameraman, behind camera. CU Bede Whitman, Cinesound cameraman, behind his camera. Pan over Iwakuni airfield in southern Honsu, Japan. LS planes lined up on Iwakuni airfield. MS servicing of machines inside hangar. CU Japanese mechanic on trolley. CU another Japanese mechanic at work on plane. MS Australian and Japanese at work on aircraft. CU Japanese worker. MS Australian and Japanese worker side by side servicing aeroplane. CU bullet-damaged fuselage of plane. MS Japanese workmen taking trolley-load of bombs for loading into plane (2 shots). CU Rocket being loaded beneath wing of Mustang.

Exterior of bungalow in which Commanding officer of 77 squadron, Wing Commander Lou Spence, lives with his wife and family. MS His two children seated on steps of bungalow. MS Spence and wife walk out of bungalow. Spence enters his car. CU Plate on door - "No. 77 Squadron Operations Room". Corporal walks in. MS Crews being briefed CU Airmen types (3 shots). MS Air crews leaving building and entering truck. MS Truck pulls up. Pilot jumps out and runs to his 'plane. MS Pilot climbing into cockpit. MS Another pilot climbing into cockpit. CU Hatch being pulled over cockpit. CU Another hatch being pulled over cockpit. MS Another pilot entering his plane. MS Pilot in cockpit. MS newsreel camera being fitted in belly of Mustang (2 shots). MS Mustang taxiing. MS Control tower at airfield. LS Towards and pan Mustang taking off. LS Formation of 4 Mustangs if flight.

Various shots of Japanese farm workers looking up as aircraft pass from their work in the fields (4 shots). CU Spence's two children looking up. LS Mustangs roaring overhead. LS Dakota aeroplane in which Thompson flew flying over coast. MS The Dakota in flight. LS Wirraway in flight in which Whiteman flew. MS Wirraway in flight. LS clouds and the coastline of Korea. MS Wirraway in flight. Aerial shots of Taegu (2 shots). Aerial shots of huge refugee encampment in a dry river bed (2 shots). MS Mustang peeling off from formation. Various shots of raid on North Korea, some shots taken from planes as they dive in (10 shots).

MS Mustang in flight. MS 4 Mustangs making for Taegu air field. MS Plane coming in. MS Mustangs being reloaded. MS Dakota being unloaded. MS Unloading truck driving off with mixed crew (from USA, Australia, Korea and Japan). MS Two Afro-American GIs looking up. MS American carrying rocket for loading up. MS Rocket being fitted under wing of Mustang. LS Mustangs on airfield with bombs on trucks in foreground. MS Pile of ammunition. MS Ammunition being loaded. LS servicemen in meal queue at the airfield. MS Americans and Australians in queue. MS Americans and Australians drinking. MS lookout scanning sky with binoculars. CU lookout. MS Mustang taking off.

Various shots of another raid, most shots taken from inside 'plane. (12 shots). LS the Korean coastline. LS Personnel at Iwakuni airfield running for shelter as air raid siren goes (practice raid). MS Workers jumping into slit trench shelters. MS Lookout. LS Mustangs peeling off for landing. MS Fire engine and Japanese crew on standby. CU Japanese firemen. Airfield defence man in foxhole. MS Antiaircraft gun and crew standing by. LS Mustangs landing (2 shots). MS Group of pilots reporting int he Intelligence room (2 shots). CU airman. CU Spence and another man looking at wall map. Night shot of plane being refuelled. CU plane being refuelled. MS rockets being loaded. MSs and CUs Australian airmen sitting round drinking beer (4 shots). MS American General George A. Stratmeyer visiting Squadron, he awards Spence with the American Legion of Merit. CU Stratmeyer, pan to Spence. MS group of pilots. LS towards and pan Mustangs taking off (2 shots). Aerial shot over mountainous country.

Date on original dope sheet is 06/09/1950. RAAF = Royal Australian Air Force.


Remembering the “wasman” of Papua New Guinea

Australia’s embrace of the Pacific future needs to look to the untold past as well.

Forty-four years after Papua New Guinea’s (PNG) independence in 1975, Australia still struggles with the legacy of its colonial past. For those Australians who are aware of the history, it sometimes sits uncomfortably. For many others, it might be a surprise to learn of it at all.

As Australia pursues its “step up” to strengthen ties with its Pacific neighbours, this past still echoes. A positive example of the relationship between Australians and Papua New Guineans can be found farther back, in the Second World War. If we let them, the lessons from this history can point the way to a better relationship today.

Fuzzy Wuzzy Angel Raphael Oimbari helps Private George Whittington in 1942 (Photo: Australian War Memorial)

Some of this history is well known. The campaigns in 1942 against Japan on the Kokoda Track and at Buna and Gona were legendary victories. A famous image from that time shows a Fuzzy Wuzzy Angel – the term for Papua New Guineans who came to the aid of Australians in the Kokoda campaign – helping a blinded Australian soldier as he walks along a track. It’s a picture that captures the connection between two cultures.

There is, however, another legacy of shared wartime history between Australia and PNG, one which is largely unknown and is rapidly disappearing as the living memory of those involved passes.

Even after the successes on the Kokoda Track and at Buna and Gona, there was still a lot of fighting to be done in the islands to Australia’s north. Punching above their weight in this theatre were the Coastwatchers, forerunners of today’s Special Forces, who observed and reported on Japanese movements and came to the rescue of downed Allied airmen and seamen. Future US President John F Kennedy was famously rescued by Coastwatchers after his torpedo boat, PT109, sank in Solomon Islands.

The Coastwatching Organisation had been set up by the the Royal Australian Navy long before the war, but by 1943 it had been subsumed by the highly secretive Allied Intelligence Bureau (AIB) and become known as M Special. Some of the original Coastwatchers in the islands to Australia’s north had stayed behind when the Japanese invaded. A number of them were captured and executed.

With their work behind enemy lines, the Coastwatchers helped turn the tide of the war in the Pacific. And they were not just Australians. In Tok Pisin, the Coastwatchers were called wasmasta või wasman. All but two of the Australian Coastwatchers have passed away, and probably all of the Papua New Guineans.

Some of those who knew the PNG wasman after the war are still living. They heard the stories of the wasman, but rarely tell them. When they pass, the stories will pass as well – unless they can be preserved.

In 1943, the AIB brought 76 young men from Port Moresby to train at a camp in Queensland. The men were from all over the Territories of Papua and New Guinea. Exactly how they came to be in Port Moresby is not clear. Many had been working on plantations away from their home villages in the islands when the Japanese invaded, and they may have fled the invasion at the same time as the white planters they worked for.

Australian and PNG Coastwatchers aboard US Submarine Dace (Photo: Australian War Memorial)

In any case, on 21 June 1943 they embarked an Australian hospital ship bound for Townsville. From there, they travelled by rail and road to the secret camp at Tabragalba, not far from Canungra in the Gold Coast hinterland. Here they trained as Coastwatchers. More young men arrived later.

The Australian officer who set up the Tabragalba camp, Army Captain Harry Murray, was a Gallipoli and Western Front veteran from the Great War who had settled in New Ireland in PNG as a planter. He recognised that reinsertion of Coastwatchers into the islands to observe and report on Japanese positions and movements would not work without local assistance. And so the young men from the islands trained with the Australians at Tabragalba. They were armed with US M1 Carbines, better for jungle fighting than the Army’s bolt-action Lee-Enfield .303, and deployed back to their homeland on US submarines.

The Papua New Guinean Coastwatchers were the eyes and ears of the Australians in a place where white men stood out. The formula worked well, and the intelligence provided by the Coastwatchers would prove critical to the Allied effort.

In addition to the Australian Military Cross and Distinguished Conduct Medal, Murray also received a Silver Star, the US military’s third-highest decoration, in recognition of his and his teams’ contribution.

Captain Harold Murray being presented with the US Silver Star, Torokina, South Bougainville Island, April 1945 (Photo: Australian War Memorial)

Beyond coast watching, there were also successful guerrilla campaigns in Papua and New Guinea in places such as New Britain, where almost all the fighting was done by hundreds of armed locals, coordinated by a small number of Australians who mainly stayed in their camp.

Many of the young Papua New Guinean men who served with Australian soldiers formed bonds of comradeship with them, something rarely possible before the war, in a land where the relationship at the time was one of “master” and “native”.

Older Papua New Guineans in some areas have knowledge of the Second World War through the stories of people who lived through it, notably in the provinces surrounding the Kokoda Track, the islands region, and the northern coast of PNG. Some of these people were children during the war years and are still living. For them, the shared wartime experience forms part of the positive way in which Australia is still perceived, in some cases despite the later conditions of colonial rule.

For many years, although less and less, Anzac Day has been commemorated at small cenotaphs and memorials around the country, and in a large ceremony at Bomana, outside Port Moresby, by expatriates and Papua New Guineans who took part in the war. Papua New Guineans who fought the Japanese would proudly roll out and march or take part in ceremonies, sometimes travelling long distances from their home villages.

Sargeant Major Rayman, a New Ireland native, served with the Coastwatchers in the south-west Pacific (Photo: Australian War Memorial)

PNG also has its own annual day for commemorating those killed in war, National Remembrance Day, held on 23 July.

In Australia, some of the stories of the wasman have been kept alive, mostly in private accounts by Australians who owed the success of their operations ­­– and their lives – to the local knowledge, skill, and courage of their PNG comrades. These accounts were mostly written soon after the war.

Few in Australia would be aware of these stories today. The Australian emphasis on the Kokoda Track campaign means that far more people are likely to know about the Fuzzy Wuzzy Angels.

In PNG, knowledge of the wasman is largely restricted to those older people who knew them when they were young or saw them on Anzac Day, wearing their medals if they had them. Younger Papua New Guineans are hardly aware of what their forebears did during the war, but it is a history all Papua New Guineans should not only know, but of which they should be proud.

Many memorials and cemeteries from the era, apart from those tended by the Office of Australian War Graves, have fallen into disrepair or become overgrown, to varying degrees according to their remoteness from central administration. Well-attended commemorative activities and sites which are taken care of are likely to be close to central administration, and unfamiliar to people distant from these places. As a result, commemoration of the service and sacrifice of Papua New Guineans during the war based on war graves, memorials, museums, or interpretive centres is out of reach for most of the population. With probably all of the wasman now passed and only a few older people still alive who lived through the war, knowledge of this legacy of shared history of Australia and PNG is disappearing fast.

The Cenotaph in Kavieng, New Ireland (Photo: Paul Slater)

Like many things in PNG, where personal relationships carry so much weight, sustaining this legacy needs a different approach, a more personal one. Things often do not go to plan, and it is difficult to know what will work and what will not. One thing is certain, though: many Papua New Guineans love a good story, because stories are personal. Lugu wasman is a great story. And because it is about both our cultures, it reinforces positive perceptions of Australia’s history in PNG.

The key to preserving the legacy may lie in schools, by telling the story through the voices of both Australian and PNG historical characters, in English and Tok Pisin. The effort could be supplemented with teaching at both Primary and Secondary levels, with links to the Australian curriculum, and a focus on how our two peoples worked together for success.

This should not be a bald exercise in promoting Australian interests. Those interests would be well served by helping PNG honestly tell its own stories, from a PNG perspective. They may have been told locally by those who took part, but usually only in the oral tradition – they have seldom been written down. The written historical resources, those on which an educational legacy could be based, are mostly in Australia in the National Archives, the Australian War Memorial, and in personal accounts by Australians, who in telling their own stories also told those of their PNG comrades.

Time is limited, but the 80th anniversary of the start of the Second World War is an opportunity to give those stories a PNG voice, to ensure they outlast the living memory of the war.

Cemeteries away from central administration have become overgrown (Photo: Paul Slater)

Some former wasman went on to become successful in administration and government, while others languished, perhaps wondering where the camaraderie they had shared with Australians went after the Japanese were gone. For any of these men, their experiences would likely have shaped the rest of their lives, just as they did for their Australian counterparts. That is why, for as long as they could, they still travelled long distances to attend Anzac Day ceremonies in centres remote from their villages.

Their positive experience was not always replaced with a positive experience of Australian administration following the war, when the undeniably racist colonial rule, sometimes benevolent, sometimes not, reverted to its previous mode of “master” and “native”.

These historical contradictions persist today, 44 years after PNG’s independence. At the government level, Australia’s ability to manage the relationship is tainted by developed-versus-developing-country problems. Australia’s current lack of knowledge and understanding of the people, geography, and culture of our nearest neighbour means that PNG is more foreign to us than Southeast Asia or the Middle East. Our attempts at engagement are sometimes awkward, fraught, and characterised by poor, confusing, and 180-degree decision-making.

Australia is working to fix this through the Pacific “step up”. To some degree, this effort will be seen in PNG through the lens of Chinese expansion, and there will be a sneaking (and partly correct) suspicion that this is the motive. Therefore, we need to show we are not just trying hard, but genuinely interested, on a cultural and personal level, in a place where everything is intensely personal. What better place to start than with lessons from the past, when we worked so well together?

It will only work if we both know what happened.

A lonely unmarked cross on Nago Island near Kavieng, where Coastwatchers were executed by the Japanese (Photo: Paul Slater)

Australia’s colonial army

Papua New Guineans have a long history of involvement in the Australian military. The first PNG soldiers were recruited by Australians immediately before Japan entered World War Two. They eventually formed five battalions of the Pacific Islands Regiment, or PIR.

The iconic image of ‘fuzzy wuzzy angel’ Raphael Oimbari escorting wounded Australian soldier Dick Whittington. George Silk/Australian War Memorial

Despite active service throughout New Guinea during the war, the PIR was disbanded in 1947 by Australian authorities as a result of fears of “arming the natives”. It was raised again four years later as the Cold War threatened to turn hot.

During the 1950s the 600-man regiment had much in common with other “colonial armies” in its segregation and the assumptions about the inherent capabilities of PNG troops. Only Australian officers were considered capable of command, as PNG troops were seen as not yet up to the task of modern warfare.

The racially based differences were most starkly represented in unequal pay and conditions for the soldiers. Papua New Guineans, for instance, were not issued with boots or shirts.

The lower wages and poor conditions made the PIR an inexpensive addition to Australia’s defence. But, for Papua New Guineans, the army offered relatively high pay and social status. There was never a shortage of willing volunteers.

PNG soldiers represented a real contribution to Australia’s defence when the entire regular infantry force during the 1950s consisted of just three other battalions.


'It was a real labour of love'

Ramale, New Britain, 14 September 1945. Daughters of Mary Immaculate, or F.M.I. Sisters, who risked their lives to deliver food to missionaries and civilian detainees held captive for three and a half years in New Britain during the Second World War.

When the Japanese invaded Rabaul on New Britain in January 1942, a group of 45 F.M.I. Sisters refused to give up their faith. Instead, they risked their lives to help save hundreds of Australian and European missionaries and civilian detainees who were held captive by the Japanese for three and a half years, first at Vunapope and then in the dense jungle of Ramale.

More than 75 years later, Lisa Hilli, an Australian artist of Gunatuna (Tolai) heritage, discovered their little-known story while researching Australia and Papua New Guinea’s shared war history as part of a creative commission for the Australian War Memorial, supported by the Anzac Centenary Arts and Culture Fund.

It was while she was researching in Rabaul that she first learned of the Daughters of Mary Immaculate, or F.M.I. Sisters, of the Vunapope Catholic Mission. These remarkable Tolai, Bainings and New Guinea Islands women had helped to save the lives of hundreds of men, women and children in New Britain during the Second World War.

Ramale, New Britain, 16 September 1945. View looking down on the mission, the home of 300 internees, mostly Catholic Missionaries.

“Vunapope in my language of Kuanua means place of the Pope,” she said. “It was a Catholic mission, which was established by European missionaries, so a lot of European and Australian missionaries were based there from the late 1800s. When Japan invaded Rabaul in 1942, a lot of the Australians were evacuated, but the ones who stayed behind evacuated to Vunapope, and so Vunapope became this refuge, or safe haven, for a few months.”

Vunapope was eventually taken by force by the Japanese, and in October 1942, the Japanese set up an internment camp to hold the Europeans, Australians and mixed-race children.

“It was only due to the courageous acts and efforts of Bishop Leo Scharmach that their lives were spared at all,” Lisa said. “He was Polish, but he managed to convince the Japanese that he was German and they should spare the lives of the missionaries and the mixed-race children who were there at Vunapope.”

Ramale, New Britian, 16 September 1945. Bishop Leo Scharmach, pictured on the left, wearing a white hat and glasses. The Bishop convinced the Japanese he was German and helped save the lives of the men, women, and children who were interned at Vunapope and then Ramale.

The bishop is said to have told the Japanese he was the Adolf Hitler’s representative in New Guinea and that they had to respect his status and those under his care.

At about this time, the Japanese declared that the Indigenous people of New Britain, including the F.M.I. Sisters based at Vunapope, were ‘free’.

“When the Japanese invaded the then Australian territory of Papua and New Guinea, they ‘liberated’ all the Papua New Guineans and held all the Australians and Europeans captive,” Lisa said.

“The Japanese said, ‘You’re free you don’t have to worship your western masters’ religion anymore’ … but the F.M.I. Sisters were completely loyal to their faith, and to their religion, and to their service to the Catholic missionaries.

“The F.M.I. Sisters basically risked their own lives and provided food for the Catholic missionaries and for the Australians and Europeans whilst they were held at Vunapope. They refused to give up their faith.”

Vunapope, New Britain, 16 September 1945. Japanese naval guards at Vunapope Mission watching the Australian party come in for the evacuation of Catholic Sisters and Priests from the Ramale Valley internment camp.

When Vunapope was destroyed during the Allied counter-offensive in June 1944, the Japanese marched 300 men, women and children six kilometres away into the dense jungle valley of Ramale.

The internees represented 17 different nationalities and came from countries such as Germany, Austria, Belgium, Netherlands, France, Italy, Ireland, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Sweden, America, Canada, Britain and Australia.

Despite Japanese efforts to stop the F.M.I Sisters from engaging and practising Christianity with the Australian and European Sisters, the women continued to devote themselves to God. They were determined to help keep the Australian and European missionaries alive by growing and harvesting fresh produce and delivering heavy baskets of it over gruelling distances, up and down a steep incline.

Ramale, New Britain, 16 September 1945. After the internees were liberated, food was brought from Rabaul and carried downhill to the camp. The F.M.I. Sisters had risked their lives carrying baskets of fresh produce through grueling conditions to help keep the 300 Australian and European internees alive during the war .

“They disobeyed the Japanese, and they stayed true to their vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience, even in war,” Lisa said.

“They started building gardens and growing food, and every day they would bring heavy bags of fresh produce, carrying them on their heads.

“The Japanese would stand guard at the top of the valley, and inspect the food to make sure they weren’t smuggling anything else in.

“They would then take the best of the food, and the Sisters would walk back down into the valley and give the rest of the food to the prisoners of war. And they did that every day.”

Ramale Valley, New Britain, 14 September 1945. A choir comprised of the internees at Ramale Valley Internment Camp singing for Major General K.W. Eather, General Officer Commanding 11 Division.

Ramale Valley, New Britain. Some of the inmates at the Ramale Valley Internment Camp. Contact with the camp was made by Allied troops and representatives of the Australian Red Cross following the surrender of the Japanese. The internees had to wait for several months in Ramale Valley until suitable buildings were prepared for them. Vunapope Mission had been razed to the ground.

The Ramale camp was liberated by Australian troops on 14 September 1945 when troops of HQ 11 Division occupied the area following the surrender of the Japanese.

“It’s an amazing story, and it’s been sitting there for 75 years, just waiting to be found,” Lisa said. “The F.M.I. Sisters kept them alive essentially, but no one had really looked at them, and honoured them for it.”

Lisa has since created an artwork in recognition of their strength, labour, and dedication. To complete the work, she relied heavily on a draft 100-year history from Sister Margaret Maladede at Vunapope and research at the National Library of Australia and the Memorial. The resulting artwork features a large digital photographic collage of an image of the Sisters from the Memorial’s collection and a series of 45 hand-embroidered cotton cinctures, or religious belts worn by the nuns.

Ramale, New Britain, 2 October 1945: Former internees singing Ramale Greets You at a concert staged as thanksgiving for the liberation of the camp. Personnel of the 11 Division attended.

Bitagalip, Ramale Mission, New Britain. The Mission Choir practising for Christmas festivities in December 1945.

“For me, it was really significant, and I felt really honoured to be asked [to complete this commission],” Lisa said.

“I was actually born at Vunapope, and the more I researched into the history of these Sisters, the more it revealed to me the significance of that place, and made me feel really connected to it.

“Their convent is in the lands that I’m from, and the year that the F.M.I. Sisters became their own independent Indigenous-led convent was the year of my birth – 1979 – so throughout the commission there were all these beautiful layers of connection for me.

Ramale Valley, New Britain. A group of Sisters waving as they prepare to move out of the Ramale Valley Internment Camp.

Sisters and Priests boarding an Army barge for transfer to the motor launch Gloria. They are being evacuated from Ramale Valley to Rabaul.

“Military history from the Second World War is everywhere in Rabaul it’s just evident everywhere you go.

“I remember my mother always told me that during the war my grandmother … would lie flat on the ground whenever the planes would fly over and pretend that she was dead. That was my only real understanding of the war in my homelands and how that impacted my family.

“Rabaul was largely a war from the air, and when the Japanese flew in, they dropped bombs everywhere, and I remember thinking about the fear that my grandmother would have felt.

“Then when I found an image of the F.M.I. Sisters in the Memorial archives, taken on the day the Australian troops came in and liberated the camp, I couldn’t believe it.

Artist Lisa Hilli paid tribute to the women through her art, creating a large digital photographic collage of an image of the Sisters from the Memorial's collection and 45 hand-embroidered cinctures.

Ramale Valley, 2018. Artist Lisa Hilli visited the site of the camp as part of her research. Photo: Lisa Hilli

“It was so hard to find any information about them. This is the problem when it comes to archival records about black or Indigenous people their records aren’t always there, so I had to dig really deep into the archives to find anything about them.

“It’s an incredible story and it’s really important for me to be able to share Papua New Guinean women’s stories, particularly related to war, because women’s stories aren’t always told, particularly in war or the military, and then you add another level of being black or Papua New Guinean, and it’s like, good luck. So to find this, and to be able to highlight it, and reveal it, was just really special.

“It’s a legacy for my own people, so it’s really significant for me to be able to do that.”

The watercolour flowers in the artwork were carefully selected to represent the different nationalities of the men, women and children who were held captive at Ramale. The Sister in the middle is holding a sprig of wattle, a reference to Australia and to the Australian soldiers who liberated the camp.

A detail of the stitching on the cinctures. There are 45 cinctures to represent each of the 45 Sisters.Photo: Lisa Hilli

For her artwork, Lisa adorned the Sisters with flowers in reference to the different nationalities of the men, women and children who were held captive at Ramale. There’s the iris to represent the French, the poppy to represent the Belgians, the cornflower to represent the Germans, and a Korean hibiscus to honour the South Korean comfort women that were brought over by the Japanese. The wattle in the middle is a reference to Australia and to the Australian soldiers who liberated the camp at Ramale, while the 45 hand-embroidered cinctures represent each of the individual F.M.I. Sisters.

“Only 12 or 13 of these women were photographed, but there were 45 of them, so I wanted to make sure that they were all recognised and honoured,” she said.

“I was really interested in the Sisters’ habit as an item of clothing that signified the practice of their faith. The black cincture they tied around their waist was a very distinct item of the habit that was worn only at the time. They don’t wear it today, and so I kept coming back to it as a really significant piece of clothing from that war history period.”


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