Moulay Ismaili mausoleum

Moulay Ismaili mausoleum


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Moulay Ismaili mausoleum Meknesis on Maroko ühe kurikuulsaima sultani viimane puhkepaik.

Moulay Ismaili mausoleumi ajalugu

Moulay Ismail oli Alaouite dünastia liige ja riigi valitseja aastatel 1672–1727. Katkestades traditsioonidest, tegi ta Meknesi linna oma pealinnaks ja alustas mitmeid massiivseid ehitusprojekte.

Oma sultaniajal saavutas Moulay Ismail halastamatuse maine, mis oli teenitud tänu tema puhastamisele kõigist, kes ei soovinud teda toetada, ja megalomaaniale, eriti kui tegemist oli monumentide ja paleede loomisega teiste ehitatud hoonete hävitamise arvelt. Üks kuulus Moulay Ismaili ohver on oma materjalide tõttu lammutatud El Badi palee Marrakechis.

Sellegipoolest oli Moulay Ismail tuntud ka väga tõhusa juhina ning tema saavutuste hulka kuulusid näiteks britidelt ja hispaanlastelt selliste alade nagu Tangiers ja al-Mamurah võtmine. Ta lõpetas Ottomani katsed Marokos jalule seada ja lõi õukonnas kristlike vangide lunarahaga kindlamad diplomaatilised suhted Euroopaga.

Orjade ja kriminaalvangide masside loodud sultan jälgis oma haua esialgset ehitamist. Moulay Ismaili mausoleum on hea näide sultani ehitusstiili rikkusest. Suurte sisehoovide ja purskkaevude ümber on keerukate plaatimis- ja krohviseintega toad, mida kaunistavad peened esemed, nagu kellad, mille sultanile kinkis tema sõber, Prantsuse kuningas Louis XIV.

Moulay Ismail sängitati mausoleumisse koos ühe oma (viiesaja) naise ja kahe (kaheksasaja) lapsega. Mausoleumi restaureeris ja avas üldsusele sultan Mohammed V 20. sajandil.

Moulay Ismaili mausoleum täna

Mausoleumikompleks on vaieldamatult Meknesi tipphetk ja seda tasub külastada. Mitte-moslemid ei saa päris hauda siseneda, kuid saavad tutvuda sissepääsu saali ja eeshoovidega. Peate riietuma tagasihoidlikult ja naistel soovitatakse pead katta.

Alates 2016. aastast toimusid kompleksis suured restaureerimistööd: kõige parem on enne külastamist kontrollida, mis on tegelikult avatud ja külastatav.

Moulay Ismaili mausoleumi juurde pääsemine

Mausoleum asub Babnes Marrah avenüül, Meknes'i linnaosas Cite Imperiale, umbes 20 -minutilise jalutuskäigu kaugusel peamisest madrassast. Sõltuvalt sellest, kust linnast te tulete, võib takso olla üsna mugav.


Moulay Ismaili mausoleum

Meie hinnang Neighborhood Rue Palais, Dar el Kebira, Medina Tundi laupäev ja neljapäev 8.30–14.00 ja 14–18 Hinnad Tasuta sissepääs, kuigi 10-tunnine annetus on teretulnud

See sultan Moulay Ismaili rahulik ja vaimne puhkepaik on üks väheseid pühakohti Marokos, mis on avatud mittemoslemitele. Oma eluajal ehitatud Ismail valis selle asukoha, kuna seal oli kunagi asunud Meknese Palais de Justice (kohtumaja), ja ta lootis, et surma otsustab tema rahvas oma kohtus. Kuigi see on väljastpoolt kirjeldamatu hoone, on hauakambrisse viivate kahvatukollaste siseõuede rahulikkus vastupidine Ismaili tormilisele ja julmale valitsemisajale tema eluajal. Viimase siseõue vasakpoolses nurgas on uks, mis viib pühakotta - mille kuningas Mohammed V täielikult renoveeris 1950. aastatel - kuhu sultan on maetud. Enne sisenemist eemaldage austusega jalanõud. Haua eesruumil on seinad, millel on seeria tasandeid, mis koosnevad peenest zellij, emailiga värvitud puit, keerukalt nikerdatud krohv, graatsilised kaared ja marmorist sambad. See on kaunilt jahe ja rahulik ruum ning põrandal olevad murumattid võimaldavad puhata ja vaikselt mõtiskleda. Sellest paremal on haud ise, kuhu mitte-moslemid ei pääse, kuid see on eesruumist nähtav läbi mauride ukseava. Kaks antiikset kella, üks mõlemal pool ukseava, olid kingitused Louis XIV -lt, mille kuningas olevat saatnud, kui ta keeldus Ismaili taotlusest lisada oma tütar printsess de Conti sultani haaremi.

Märge: See teave oli avaldamisel täpne, kuid võib ilma ette teatamata muutuda. Enne reisi planeerimist kinnitage kindlasti kõik hinnad ja üksikasjad otse asjaomaste ettevõtetega.


Moulay Ismaili mausoleum

Suur Almohadi sultan Moulay Ismail tegi Meknesest oma keiserliku pealinna ja just seal on ta hauas. Kuigi tema mausoleum asub kiviviske kaugusel Place El-Hedimist ja Bab al-Mansourist, pole seda lihtne leida, kuna see pole tähistatud. Peate abi küsima.

Mausoleumi sisenedes astute sisse väikesesse sissepääsuruumi, mis on värvitud võikollaseks ja väikese purskkaevuga, mis tähistab ruumi keskpunkti. Sisenemisruum viib esimesele mitmest omavahel ühendatud avatud õueaiast, millest igaüks on värvitud ka kollaseks. Igas suunas helekollaste seintega ümbritsetud on raske uskuda, et olete tegelikult mausoleumis.

Viimane sisehoov asub hauatoa ees ja kui te pole moslem, ei saa te siseneda. Kuid mitte pettuda, ante tuba võtab lihtsalt hinge. See tõuseb mitme korruse kõrgusele, ülaosas on akende rida, mis laseb päikesevalguse sisse filtreerida. Seinu kaunistavad keerukalt nikerdatud krohv ja õrnalt mustrilised zellij -plaadid. Põranda keskel on väike purskkaev, mille krae on kaheksaharuline täht, mis on klassikaline Maroko disainile. Kõigis disainielementides on täiuslik sümmeetria. See on lihtsalt suurepärane ruum!


Sisu

Taust, varane elu ja võimule astumine Edit

1645. aastal Sijilmassa linnas sündinud [alN 1] Moulay Ismail ben Sharif oli Tafilatti vürsti ja Alaouite dünastia esimese suverääni Sharif ibn Ali poeg. Tema ema oli mustanahaline ori. [L 1] Ta väitis, et põlvneb Muhamedi 21. põlvkonna järeltulijast Hassan ad-Dakhilist [3] ja Az-Zakiyast, Muhamedi 17. põlvkonna järeltulijast, kes oli end 1266. aastal Sijilmassa paigaldanud. [L 2]

Pärast Saadi sultani Ahmad al-Mansuri surma astus Maroko rahutuste perioodi, mille jooksul tema pojad võitlesid üksteisega trooni pärast, samal ajal kui riiki tükeldasid erinevad sõjaväejuhid ja usuvõimud. [ArcI 1] [L 3] Zadan Abu Maali valitsemisaja algusest 1613. aastal oli Saadi sultanaat väga nõrk. Dila Zaouia kontrollis Maroko keskosa, Illighi Zaouia [fr] kehtestas oma mõju Soussist Draa jõeni, marabout Sidi al-Ayachi võttis enda valdusesse loodetasandikud, Atlandi ookeani ranniku kuni Taza, Salé Vabariigi sai iseseisvaks riigiks Bou Regregi suudmes ja Tétouani linnast sai linnriik Naqsise perekonna kontrolli all. [4] Tafilaltis määrasid alauid kohalikud inimesed, et kontrollida Illighi ja Dila Zaouiate mõju. Nad olid sõltumatu emiraat aastast 1631. [L 3]

Ismail ben Sharifile eelnesid kolm valitsejat: tema isa Moulay Sharif, seejärel tema kaks poolvenda. Alaouite dünastia esimese suveräänina aastast 1631 õnnestus Moulay Sharifil hoida Tafilalt väljaspool Dou Zaouia võimu. [L 4] Ta loobus troonist 1636. aastal ja tema vanim poeg Moulay Muhammad ibn Sharif järgnes talle. Viimase valitsemisajal laienes Alaouite valdkond riigi põhjaossa, Tafna ja Draa jõeni. [alN 2] Tema poolvend Moulay Rashid mässas tema vastu ja suutis ta tappa 3. augustil 1664 lahingus Angadi tasandikul (Oujda lähedal). [ArcI 2] Moulay Ismail otsustas toetada Rashidi ja sai preemia, kui ta määrati Meknesi kuberneriks. Seal pühendus Ismail oma piirkonna jõukuse suurendamiseks piirkonna põllumajandusele ja kaubandusele, [L 1] samal ajal kui Moulay Rashid valitses Tafilalti emiirina ja seejärel Maroko sultanina pärast Fezi vallutamist 27. mail 1664. [ArcI 2 ] Lisaks usaldas Rashid Ismailile Maroko põhjaosa sõjalise kontrolli ning tegi temast 1667. aastal feodatilise kalifi ja Fezi asevalitseja, samal ajal kui ta sõdis Maroko lõunaosas. Rashid vallutas Dila Zaouia 1668. aastal ja võttis seejärel kaks aastat aega mässuliste võitmiseks Marrakechis, enne kui ta 1669. aastal linna tungis. [5]

6. aprillil 1670 tähistas Ismail oma esimest abielu Fezis oma venna Rashidi juuresolekul. [alN 3] 25. juulil tappis ta kuuskümmend Oulad Djama brigandi, lüües nad risti Fezis Borj el-Jadid'i seinale. [alN 4] Kui Rashid jätkas kampaaniaid Kõrg -Atlase iseseisvate hõimude vastu, tapeti ta 9. aprillil 1672 Marrakeshis pärast hobuse seljast kukkumist. 13. aprillil, [alN 1] pärast seda, kui ta oli Rashidi surmast teada saanud, tormas Moulay Ismail Fezisse, kus ta võttis oma venna riigikassa enda valdusesse ja kuulutas end seejärel 14. aprillil 1672 kahekümne kuueaastaselt Maroko sultaniks. [L 1] [alN 1] [L 5] See väljakuulutamine toimus umbes kella 14 paiku ja sellele järgnes suur tseremoonia. [alN 1] Kogu Fezi elanikkond, sealhulgas aadlikud, intellektuaalid ja šarifid, vandusid olema uuele suveräänile lojaalsed, nagu ka Fezi kuningriigi hõimud ja linnad, kes saatsid talle saatkonnad ja kingitused. Ainult Marrakech ja selle ümbruskond ei saatnud saatkonda. Ismail rajas oma pealinna Meknesesse linna veevarustuse ja kliima tõttu. [alN 5]

Keeruline varane valitsemisaeg Muuda

Pärast võimuhaaramist seisis Moulay Ismail silmitsi mitmete mässudega: kõige olulisem oli tema vennapoeg Moulay Ahmed ben Mehrezi, Moulay Murad Mehrezi poja, mäss, seejärel tema vendade mässud, sealhulgas Tafilalti kuninga tiitli võtnud Harran ibn Sharif. Ka Tetouani sõjapealik Khadir Ghaïlan astus sultan Ismailile koos mitmete hõimude ja usurühmitustega vastu. [L 6]

Kui teade Rashidi surmast Sijilmasasse jõudis, tormas Ahmed ben Mehrez Marrakechisse, et end sultaniks kuulutada. Temaga ühinesid Al Haouzi hõimud, Soussi araablased ja Marrakechi elanikud ning ta suutis selle piirkonna üle võtta. Ta koondas lõunapoolseid hõime ja kuulutati Marrakechis sultaniks. Vastuseks alustas Moulay Ismail 27. aprillil 1672. aastal oma vennapoja vastu kampaaniat. [AlN 6] Ismail oli oma suurtükiväe tulemusel võidukas. Ta sisenes Marrakechi linna ja tunnistati seal 4. juunil 1672. sultaniks. [L 6] [alN 6] [ArcI 3] Ahmed sai kuulihaava ja põgenes mägedesse. [L 1] Ismail andis Marrakeshi elanikele armu ja korraldas ümber linna kaitse. [L 7] Seejärel läks ta tagasi Fezisse, et koguda oma venna Rashidi kirst ja paigutada see Sheikh Ali ibn Herzouhmi mausoleumi, enne kui ta 25. juulil 1672. aastal Meknesesse tagasi jõudis. [AlN 6]

Moulay Ismail korraldas impeeriumi korraldamise ja jagas kaupu oma armee sõduritele, valmistudes ette ekspeditsiooniks Saharasse. Projektist loobuti aga pärast seda, kui Fezis puhkes mäss, mille käigus ekspeditsiooni kavandatud juht Caid Zidan ben Abid Elamri tapeti ja sultani väed linnast välja saadeti. 1672. Moulay Ismail saabus kohe ja laagris väljaspool linnamüüre. Pärast mitu päeva kestnud konflikti pöördusid Fezi aadlikud klannid meeleheitel Ahmed ben Mehrezi poole. Ta reageeris nende pöördumisele positiivselt ja sõitis Debdou kaudu Tazasse, kus ta kuulutati uuesti sultaniks. Vahepeal saatis Khadir Ghaïlan sõnumitooja Fezisse ja teavitas elanikke oma saabumisest meritsi Alžeeriast Tetouani, kus teda tervitas linna juhtinud Ennaqsi perekond. Need sündmused tekitasid riigis tõsiseid rahutusi. Moulay Ismail marssis Taza poole, mis alistus talle pärast mitu kuud kestnud piiramist ning sundis Ahmed ben Mehrezi Saharasse põgenema. Kui Fezi piiramine jätkus, [alN 7] Ismail pöördus loode poole ja asus silmitsi Khadir Ghaïlaniga, kes oli Alžeerias Ottomani abiga võtnud kontrolli alla Habti piirkonna (Gharbi ja Khloti tasandikud ning osa Jebala territooriumist). Ismail surus 12 000-mehelise väega mässu maha ja rahustas põhjapoolsed provintsid, [L 6] tappes 2. septembril 1673 Ksar el-Kebiris Ghaïlani [ArcI 4] Ta naasis uuesti Fezi, mis oli endiselt tema vägede piiramisrõngas. . Linna süda Fez Jdid avas lõpuks oma väravad 28. oktoobril 1673, pärast neliteist kuud ja kaheksa päeva kestnud piiramist. Ismail andis Fezi elanikele armu. Ta korraldas linna ümber ja määras kubernerid Fez el Bali ja Fez Jdidi eeslinnade eest. [alN 7]

Meknesesse naastes jätkas Moulay Ismail ehitustöid ja ehitas mitu paleed. [H 1] Teda häiris veel kord tema vennapoeg Ahmed ben Mehrez, kes vallutas Marrakechi millalgi pärast maikuud 1673. [L 8] [6] [7] Kui Ismail sellest 1674. aastal teada sai, alustas ta esmakordselt kampaaniat araablaste vastu. Angaadi piirkonna hõimud, kes tegelesid bandiitlusega. Ta alistas rängalt Sgoûna hõimu ja asus seejärel valmistuma suureks kampaaniaks oma vennapoja vastu. Ismail marssis oma armee eesotsas Tadla piirkonda ja kohtus Ahmed ben Mehrezi armeega Bou Agbas, Oued El Abidi lähedal. Ismail võitis oma vennapoja armee ja tappis selle ülema Hida Ettouïri. Onu jälitas Ahmedit kuni Marrakechini, kus ta end kinnistas. Ismail piiras linna ja võttis selle 1674. aastal jõuga, sundides Ahmedi põgenema Drâa provintsi. Seejärel juhtis sultan mitmeid operatsioone Chaouia hõimude vastu. [H 1] Samal aastal mässas Kõrge ja Kesk -Atlase Sanhaja mässu ja tappis sultani saadikud pärast seda, kui oli keeldunud maksmast. Moulay Ismail alustas esimest ekspeditsiooni ja üritas neid mägipiirkondadest, kus nad olid end sisse seadnud, välja tõrjuda. [Kaar 1] Sultani väed löödi tagasi 8000 berberi jalaväe ja 5000 berberi ratsaväe koosseisus. Järgnes teine ​​ekspeditsioon ja seekord lõid sultani väed mässulistele tugeva lüüasaamise, haarates märkimisväärset saaki. [Kaar 2]

1675. aastal naasis Ahmed Taroudanti elanike abiga salaja Marrakechi, saatis kuningliku armee välja ja hõivas linna uuesti. [L 9] Ismail pani Marrakeshi uuesti piiramisrõngasse. Võitlused olid verised ja väga suured ohvrid mõlemal poolel, eriti juunis 1676. [alN 8] Ahmed pidi lõpuks 26. juunil 1677 linnast põgenema, suundudes Soussi poole. [alN 9] Seekord vallandas Ismail linna Ahmedi toetamise eest vägivaldselt. [L 6] [L 9] [7] [8]

Veel Marrakechis viibides sai Ismail teada, et Mohammed al-Hajj ibn Abu Bakr al-Dila'i lapselaps Ahmed ben Abdellah ad-Dila'i oli mägedest kokku kogunud suure sanhaja hõimude armee, ületanud Moulouya jõe ja rüüsteretke araablaste hõimudele Tadla ja Saïss, sundides neid põgenema Fezi, Meknesi ja Sale'i linnadesse. Ahmed üritas taaselustada Dila kadunud Zaouiat ja teda toetasid Alžeeria osmanid, kes olid talle varem varjupaika andnud. Kuna Ismail oli Soussis hõivatud Ahmed ben Mehreziga, saatis ta autonoomse 3000 ratsaväe väe. Berberi armee Ahmed ben Abdellah sai nad lüüa ja väejuht Caid Ikhlef tapeti. Seejärel saatis Ismail veel kaks armeed, kumbki 4000 meest, kes samuti peksti - esimene Meknesi lähedal ja teine ​​Kasba Tadlas, mille Sanhaja seejärel vallutas ja hävitas. Vahepeal sai Ismail teada ka, et kolm tema venda, Moulay Harran, Moulay Hammada ja Moulay Murad Mehrez (Ahmed ben Mehrezi isa) olid Tafilaltit mässanud ja rünnanud. Sultan otsustas kõigepealt Tadla rahutustega tegeleda. Ta isiklikult sekkus ja juhtis berberid lahingusse, mille kohaselt on surnud 3000 berberit ja mitusada keiserliku armee sõdurit. [alN 10] Ta võttis Tadla tagasi, stabiliseeris oma suurtükiväega Kesk -Atlase piirkonna ja ümbrusmanöövri, mille viis läbi Oudaya guich. [Arc 2] Ligi 700 mässaja pead naelutas Cez Abdellah Errousi Fezi müüridele. [L 10] Moulay Ismail naasis Meknesesse 1677. aasta lõpus ja lõpetas oma vendade mässu. Ta tabas Moulay Harrani, kuid otsustas teda säästa. [alN 11]

Impeeriumi stabiliseerimine Muuda

Aastatel 1678–1679 üritas Moulay Ismail ekspeditsiooni üle Amouri mäestiku Chergi piirkonda, koos suure kontingendi araablaste hõimudega, sealhulgas Beni Amer. Türgi suurtükivägi pani kõik ekspeditsiooni araabia hõimud lendu ja sultan oli sunnitud seadma piiri Ottomani impeeriumi ja Maroko vahel Tafnas. [9] [10] Moulay Ismail taastas ja korraldas tagasi tulles Oujda. [alN 12] Pärast 1678. aasta ekspeditsiooni korraldas ta impeeriumi lõunaosa ümber Soussist ja Touati oaasist kuni tänapäeva Mauritaania Sudaani piirkonna piiril asuvate Chenguiti provintsideni. [Kaar 3] Ismail määras oma teekonna ajal kaidid ja pashad ning käskis ehitada linnused ja ribatid, et näidata nende kontrolli makhzenitele nendes piirkondades. [11] Selle ekspeditsiooni ajal võttis sultan vastu saatkonnad kõikidelt Makili hõimudelt riigi Sahara provintsides, mis ulatusid Senegali jõeni. [alN 13] Maroko kontroll Timbuktu pashaliku üle kehtestati 1670. aastal ja see jätkus kogu Moulay Ismaili valitsemisajal. [L 3]

Umbes Ramadaani lõpus 1678-1679 mässasid Ismaili kolm venda Harran, Hašem ja Ahmed ning kolm tema nõbu Sanhaja Aït Atta konföderatsiooni ning Toudra [fr] ja Dadèsi orgude hõimude abiga. Moulay Ismail alustas tohutut ekspeditsiooni ja vallutas kiiresti järjest Ferkla, Gueria, Toudra ja Dadèsi. Mässulised hõimud hülgasid oma oaasid ja põgenesid Anti-Atlase idaosas asuvasse Jbel Saghrosse. Suure sõjaväega pidas Ismail 3. veebruaril 1679. aastal raske lahingu Jbel Saghros. [AlN 14] [L 6] Raskete kaotuste hulka kuulusid Maroko armee ülem Moussa ben Ahmed ben Youssef ja 400 sõdurit Fezist. See oli osaline ebaõnnestumine. Lahing lõpetati kokkuleppega, mille kohaselt mässuliste hõimud andsid Tafilati inimestele vaba läbisõidu Marrakechisse läbi Sahara mässuliste hõimude territooriumi ja lubasid tulevast abi kristlaste vastu. [Kaar 4] Tagasiteel tabas lumetorm jõge, kui see ületas Atlase Telwetis või Elglâouis Jbel Ben Dereni kaldal, hävitades ligi kolm tuhat telki, osa armeest ja saagist. [Arc 4] Moulay Ismail hukkas raevus oma visiiri, et kätte maksta neile, kes olid koos temaga reisinud, kuigi juht ei olnud selle katastroofiga kuidagi seotud. [alN 14] [L 9]

Sel ajal tabas katk, mis tappis mitu tuhat inimest, peamiselt Rharbi ja Rifi tasandikul. [L 9] [12]

Pärast seda, kui ta oli saavutanud Maroko ühendamise, otsustas Moulay Ismail lõpetada kristliku kohaloleku riigis. Esmalt käivitas ta kampaania Tangiersi linna vallutamiseks, mis oli alates 1471. aastast inglise kontrolli all - esialgu portugali keel, oli linn pärast Braganza Katariina abiellumist Charles II -ga inglaste kätte läinud. Linn oli tugevalt kindlustatud ja seal oli suur garnison 4000 mehega. [13] Moulay Ismail määras ühe oma parimatest kindralitest Ali ben Abdallah Er-Riffi [fr] 1680. aastal Tangieri piirama. [L 11] Tangeris pidasid inglased vastu, kuid kõrgete ülalpidamiskulude tõttu. garnisoni, otsustasid nad linna maha jätta, lammutades 1683. aasta talvel nende kindlustused ja sadama. Maroko armee sisenes linna 5. veebruaril 1684. [L 11] [L 9]

Aastal 1681, kui Tangerite piiramine veel kestis, saatis Moulay Ismail osa oma armeest Omar ben Haddou El-Bottoui juhtimisel La Mamora linna vallutama. [14] See linn oli hispaanlaste poolt okupeeritud kaose perioodil Marokos pärast 1614. aastat. Ismail piiras linna, millel puudus veeallikas, ja vallutas selle koos kõigi linna hispaanlastega, keda oli 309. [ alN 15] Caid Omar oli hispaanlastele öelnud, et neid ei müüda orjusesse, kui nad tingimusteta alistuvad. "Kuigi nad oleksid vangistuses, veedaksid nad oma päevad ilma tööta, kuni esimese lunastuseni." Kuid Moulay Ismaïl ei näinud põhjust täita Kaid Omari lubadusi ega kavatsenud lubada al-Mamurahi vangide lunastamist, nii et nad, sealhulgas viiskümmend "vaest tüdrukut ja naist", olid sunnitud koos oma varaga röövsaagina Meknesesse minema. , relvad ja suurtükivägi (88 pronkskahurit, 15 raudkahurit, tulepotid, musketid ja püssirohi), mille Germain Mousette kirjutas, oli "rohkem kui ülejäänud kuningriigis". [15] Linn nimetati ümber al-Mahdiya. [16] Omar ben Haddou suri tagasiteel katku ja tema asemele tuli tema vend Ahmed ben Haddou. [alN 16]

Kui tema kindralid neid operatsioone ette võtsid, keskendus Moulay Ismail riigi stabiliseerimisele. Pärast ekspeditsiooni Chergi piirkonda Beni Ameri vastu sai ta teada, et Ahmed ben Mehrez sõlmis türklastega Alžeeris veel ühe kokkuleppe. Samuti sai ta teada, et Türgi armee läheneb Tafnale ja on juba jõudnud Beni Snasseni [fr] territooriumile. Ismail saatis kohe suure väeosa riigi lõunaossa Ahmedile vastamisi ja valmistas ette ekspeditsiooni osmanite vastu, mis aga ei toimunud lõpuks, sest Türgi armee tõmbus tagasi. [alN 16] Seejärel marssis ta lõunasse, et 1683. aastal Soussis oma vennapojale vastu astuda. Aprillis toimus seal lahing. Pärast 25-päevast võitlust põgenes Ahmed Taroudanti ja kinnistas end sinna. Teine lahing 11. juunil 1683 maksis üle 2000 inimese elu. Ahmed ja Ismail said ise haavata. Kokkupõrked kestsid kuni ramadaanini. [alN 17] Moulay Ismail võttis ette kaks ekspeditsiooni, mis suutsid rahustada mitu berberi piirkonda. [alN 18] · [alN 19]

Kui Moulay Ismail oli nende hõimudega Atlases hõivatud, sõlmis Ahmed ben Mehrez liidu Moulay Harraniga, et destabiliseerida Ismaili impeeriumi. Kui Moulay Ismail sai aastatel 1684/5 teada, et kaks mässulist on võtnud kontrolli Taroudanti ja selle tagamaa üle, asus ta kohe linna piirama. Ahmed läks koos orjarühmaga pühakoda külastama ja talle tulid vastu mõned Zirâra hõimu liikmed, kes olid Ismaili sõdurid. Kuigi nad teda ära ei tundnud, ründasid Zirârad teda, vallandades lühikese lahingu, mis lõppes Ahmedi surmaga. Sultoni sõdurid mõistsid, kes ta oli, alles pärast surma umbes oktoobri keskpaigas 1685. Ismail käskis tal matused korraldada ja maha matta. [alN 20] [7] Moulay Harran jätkas vastupanu kuni 1687. aasta aprillini, mil ta põgenes Saharasse. Taroudanti elanikud tapeti ja linn asustati uuesti Fezist pärit rifanidega. [H 2] Paljud Ismaili väejuhid olid selles sõjas elu kaotanud, [alN 20], kuid pärast seda kuupäeva ei vaidlustanud keegi teine ​​sultani võimu. Sõda Ahmedi ja Ismaili vahel oli lõppenud pärast kolmteist aastat kestnud võitlust. [L 6]

Moulay Ismail valmistas nüüd ette tugeva armee, hinnanguliselt 30 000–50 000 meest, [C1927 1] Ali ben Abdallah Er-Riffi [L 12] ja Ahmed ben Haddou El-Bottoui juhtimisel, et vallutada Larache linn, mis oli olnud Hispaania kontrolli all alates 1610. [L 13] Sultan, kes teatas oma plaanist 1688. aastal, sundis hispaanlasi linna tugevalt kindlustama, koos 200 kahuriga ja 1500-2000 mehega. [C1927 1] Kampaania algas 15. juulil 1689 ja piiramine algas augustis. [L 12] Maroko armee vallutas linna lõpuks 11. novembril 1689, hinnanguliselt 10 000 surnut. Marokolased tabasid 1600 Hispaania sõdurit, sealhulgas 100 ohvitseri ja 44 suurtükki. Hispaania armee kaotas lahingus 400 sõdurit. [C1927 2] Kümnele marokolasele korraldati vangide vahetus ühe ohvitseriga, seega vahetati sada ohvitseri tuhande Maroko vangi vastu. Ülejäänud Hispaania garnison jäi vangistusse, orjadena Meknesesse, välja arvatud islamiusku pöördunud. [C1927 3] Triumfi tähistamiseks andis Moulay Ismaïl välja ettekirjutuse, millega keelati mustade kingade kandmine, sest väidetavalt tõid hispaanlased selle tava Marokosse sisse, kui nad esmakordselt Larache 1610. aastal omandasid. Fezi mufti oli võidust nii vaimustuses kirjutas,

Kui paljudel uskmatutel on hämaras pea kehalt ära lõigatud! Kui paljusid tiriti surmanurinaga kurku minema! Kui palju kurku on meie Lance olnud kaelakeedena! Kui palju lanssiotsikuid suruti nende rindadesse! [ tsiteerimine vajalik ]

Varsti pärast Larache vallutamist saatis Ismail Ahmed ben Haddou Assilahat piirama. Väsinud Hispaania garnison evakueeris linna meritsi ja Maroko armee okupeeris linna 1691. aastal. [L 13]

Aastatel 1692-3 korraldas Moulay Ismail väga suure ekspeditsiooni viimaste vallutamata hõimude vastu. Need olid Sanhaja Brâbér hõimud, Berberid Fêzzâzis, piirkond Kesk -Atlase lääneosas. Need hõimud moodustasid Bled es-Siba (ala, mis ei aktsepteerinud sultani võimu) viimase tasku. [alN 21] Ismaili armee oli väga suur ja varustatud mörtide, balistade, suurtükkide ja muude piiramisrelvadega, mida kristlikud orjad vedasid kogu tee Moulouyast Ksar Beni M'Tirini. Vahepeal kogunesid Maroko väed Adekhsani. Ismail jagas oma armee kolme rühma. Esimest juhtis pasa Msahel koos 25 000 jalaväega ja ta marssis Tadlast Oued El Abidi, mööda Aït Isrist. Teist armeed juhtis Caid Ali Ou Barka ja see koosnes Aït Imourist ja Aït Idrassenist, kes pidid hõivama Tinteghalini. Kolmandat ja viimast rühma juhtis Ali ben Ichchou El-Qebli, Zemmoursi [B] Hakimi ja Beni Hakimi hooldaja, ning see koondus Kõrg-Moulouyasse. [Kaar 5] Vallutamata hõimud koosnesid Aït Oumalou, Ait Yafelman ja Aït Isri. [alN 21] Neid ümbritses Mulay Ismail, kes kasutas kogu oma suurtükivägi berberi mässuliste lõhkumiseks. Järgnes kohutav lahing, berberid läksid laiali ja põgenesid kuristikesse ja orgudesse. Pärast nende kolmepäevast jälitamist oli sultan vallutanud 12 000 berberit ning saagiks 10 000 hobust ja 30 000 relva. [H 3] Moulay Ismail oli nüüd vallutanud kogu Maroko ja sundinud kõiki riigi hõime tunnustama tema autoriteeti. Ta oli esimene Alaouite sultan, kes selle saavutas. Ta organiseeris kiiresti hõivatud piirkondade kaitsmise, ehitades mitukümmend kindlust kogu riigis, mis aitas keskvõimul jõuda kaugematesse piirkondadesse nagu Fêzzâz. Selle võiduga sai Maroko vallutamine läbi. Aastal 1693 ütles Ahmad ibn Khalid al-Nasiri:

Sultan ei jätnud ainsatki Maroko Maghrebi hõimu hobuste ega relvadega. Ainult must kaardivägi, oudaiad, Ait Imour (guichi hõim) ja rifanid, samal ajal kui fezzanid alustasid püha sõda Ceuta vastu [alN 22]


Guerouanid õppisid seda raskel viisil. Mõned selle hõimu mehed, kes korraldasid haaranguid Zizi jõe ülemjooksul, Sijilmassa teel, juhtisid Moulay Ismaili tähelepanu. Ta käskis teenija Idrassen Ali ben Ichchou El-Qebli neid tappa. Raamatus Ahmad ibn Khalid al-Nasiri Al-Istiqsa, teatatakse, et Moulay Ismail andis Zemmouri ja Bni Hakemi hõimude hooldajale Ali ben Ichchoule 10 000 ratsanikku ja ütles talle: "Ma ei taha, et sa tagasi tuleksid enne, kui oled langenud gerroulaste peale ja kui sa minu juurde tagasi ei too. pea siin igale mehele. " Nii nad lahkusid, et tappa võimalikult palju guerouane ja rüüstada nende laagreid. Ta pakkus 10 mithqali kõigile, kes tõid tagasi täiendava pea. Lõpuks kogusid nad 12 000. Sultan oli sellega väga rahul ja laiendas Ali ben Ichchou käsku, et hõlmata äsja vallutatud Aït Oumalou ja Aït Yafelmâl territooriumid. [alN 23]

Jean-Baptiste Estelle, Prantsuse konsul Salés, kirjutas oma ministrile, markii de Torcyle 1698.

. et Sharifani impeeriumi tohutu säilik on üks üksus Vahemerest Senegali jõeni. Inimesed, kes seal elavad, põhjast lõunasse, on maurid, kes maksavad sultanile Gharama.

Oma kõrghetkel oli Maroko armees 100 000 [L 14] kuni 150 000 musta sõdurit mustas kaardiväes, [Arc 6] ja tuhandeid veel Udaya Guichis, [L 11] Euroopa renegaate ja vasallhõime, kes said maad. ja orjad vastutasuks sõdurite hankimise eest. [L 2]

Hiljem valitsemisaeg ja surm Muuda

Ülejäänud Moulay Ismaili valitsemisaega iseloomustasid sõjalised tagasilöögid ja pärimisega seotud perekondlikud probleemid. Mais 1692 saatis Moulay Ismail oma poja Moulay Zeydani koos suure armeega Osmanite Alžeeriat ründama. Osmanid võitsid teda, kes ründasid vasturünnakuid ja jõudsid Moulouya jõeni. Ismail pidi rahu sõlmimiseks saatma saatkonna Alžeeriasse. [H 4] Aastal 1693 ründas Moulay Ismail Orani piirkonda ja üritas röövida Beni Ameri, mis oli edukas. Orani linn pidas vastu kahele rünnakule, mis viis sultani taandumiseni. Seekord saatsid türklased Ottomani sultani Ahmed II algatusel saadikud rahu sõlmima. [H 3] Aastal 1699 osales Moulay Ismail Maghrebi sõjas ja oli edukas Beyliku ripsmetušši vallutamisel ning jõudis Chelifi jõeni, lükati seejärel tagasi Chelifi lahingus aastal 1701. Moulay Ismail võitles teiste alaealiste vastu. konfliktid Ottomani Alžeeriaga, näiteks Laghouat 1708. aastal, mis osutus edukaks.

Ismail üritas 40 000 sõduriga armeega piirata Ceuta linna, kuid Hispaania vastupanu tugevus tähendas piiramise venimist. [L 15] [18] Osa Ismaili armeest piiras Melillat ka aastatel 1694–1696, kuid linna kindlustused olid nende jaoks liiga suured. [L 15] Kevadel 1701 alustas Moulay Ismail järjekordset ekspeditsiooni Alžeeria vastu. Maroko väed jõudsid Chelifi jõe äärde, enne kui Osmanite armee neid Chediouïas kinni võttis. Alžeeria armeel õnnestus 10 000–12 000 mehe väega võita 60 000 Maroko armee sõdurit. [L 14] Maroko armee sai tugeva lüüasaamise ja sattus korralagedusse. Moulay Ismail ise sai haavata ja pääses vaevu. Alžeeriasse toodi 3000 Maroko sõduri ja 50 Maroko juhi pead. [H 5] Aastal 1702 andis Moulay Ismail oma pojale Moulay Zeydanile 12 000 -mehelise armee ja andis talle käsu Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera vallutada. Marokolased laastasid Hispaania kindluse, kuid ei suutnud la Isletat kinni hoida. [L 16] Vahepeal liitus Inglise admiral George Rooke Ceuta piiramisega, blokeerides sadama 1704. aastal. [L 15]

Aastatel 1699–1700 jagas Moulay Ismail Maroko provintsid oma laste vahel. Moulay Ahmedile anti vastutus Tadla provintsi ja 3000 mustkaardiväe eest. Moulay Abdalmalikule usaldati Draâ provints, kasbah ja 1000 ratsaväge. Moulay Mohammed al-Alam sai Soussi ja 3000 ratsaväge. Moulay El-Mâmoun commanded Sijilmassa and received 500 cavalry. When he died, he was replaced two years later by Moulay Youssef. Moulay Zeydan received command of Cherg, but he lost it after the Ottomans attacked and Ismail made peace with them. [alN 24] He was then replaced by Moulay Hafid. This division of the realm provoked jealousy and rivalry between Ismail's sons, which sometimes degenerated into open clashes. In one of these, Moulay Abdelmalek was defeated by his brother, Moulay Nasser, who took control of the whole of Draâ. [alN 25] Moulay Sharif was appointed governor of Draâ by his father in place of Abdelmalek and succeeded in retaking the region from Nasser. [alN 26]

In response to the intrigues, slanders and opposition of Lalla Aisha Mubarka, who wanted her son Moulay Zeydan to succeed his father as Sultan, Ismail's eldest son Moulay Mohammed al-Alam revolted in Souss and took control of Marrakesh on 9 March 1703. When Moulay Zeydan arrived with an army, Mohammed al-Alam fled to Taroudant. His brother besieged the place and captured it on 25 June 1704, and took him to Oued Beht on 7 July. [alN 26] Mohammed al-Alam was harshly punished by his father, who amputated one hand and one arm, executing both the butcher who refused to spill Mohammed al-Alam's blood on the grounds that he was a Sharif, and the one who agreed to do it. [L 17] He subsequently eliminated a caid of Marrakesh who had been responsible for Moulay Mohammed al-Alam's acquisition of the city, with exceptional violence. [C1903 1] Moulay al-Alam committed suicide at Meknes on 18 July, despite precautions that his father had put in place to prevent this. [alN 27] On learning of the atrocities which Moulay Zeydan had committed at Taroudant, especially the massacre of the city's inhabitants, [alN 26] Moulay Ismail organised for him to be murdered in 1707, having his wives smother him when he was black-out drunk. [L 17] Moulay Nasser also revolted in Souss, but was eventually killed by the Oulad Delim, who remained loyal to Moulay Ismail. [alN 28]

To prevent further trouble, Moulay Ismail rescinded the governorships that he had conferred on his sons, except for Moulay Ahmed, who retained his post as governor of Tadla and Moulay Abdelmalek who became governor of Souss. [alN 29] Since Abdelmalek behaved like an independent and absolute monarch and refused to pay tribute, Ismail decided to change the order of succession - this was aided by the fact that Abdelmalek's mother was no longer close to him. [L 18] Abdelmalek belatedly apologies, but Ismail remained hostile to his son. [L 19] As a result, Moulay Ismail chose Moulay Ahmed as his successor. [L 20]

In 1720, Philip V of Spain, who wanted to get revenge on Morocco for having aided the Grand Alliance in the War of the Spanish Succession, sent a fleet commanded by the Marquess of Lede to raise the siege of Ceuta which had been ongoing since 1694 and to force the Moroccans to give up on retaking the city. The Spanish fleet managed to raise the siege, but Moulay Ismail resumed it in 1721, after the Marquess of Lede had returned to Spain. The Sultan further planned a large armada for an invasion of Spain, but it was destroyed by a storm in 1722. The siege of Ceuta continued until Ismail's death in 1727. [L 17] [L 15]

Moulay Ismail ibn Sharif finally died on 22 March 1727 at the age of 81, [L 17] from an abscess in his lower abdomen. His reign had lasted 55 years, making him the longest reigning Moroccan monarch. [H 6] He was succeeded by Moulay Ahmed. [L 20] Both he and Ahmed were buried in the same mausoleum in Meknes. [19] The empire immediately fell into civil war, as a result of a rebellion of the Black Guards. More than seven claimants to the throne succeeded to power between 1727 and 1757, some of them repeatedly, like Moulay Abdallah who was Sultan six times. [L 21]

Appearance, personality, and contemporary assessments Edit

The main character traits of Moulay Ismail, according to the chronicles and legends of his period, were his "tendency to order and authority, as well as his iron will." He put his strength and power at the service of this unyielding will, "If God gave me the kingship, man cannot take it from me," he is reported to have said. This will was always apparent in his actions and decisions. [20] According to Dominique Busnot, the colour of his clothes was linked to his mood,

Green is the sweetest colour white is a good sign for those appealing to him but when he is dressed in yellow, all the world trembles and flees his presence, because it is the colour that he chooses on the days of his bloodiest executions.

By contemporary Europeans, Moulay Ismail was considered cruel, greedy, merciless and duplicitous. It was his cruelty and viciousness that particularly attracted their attention. Legends of the ease in which Ismail could behead or torture laborers or servants he thought to be lazy are numerous. According to a Christian slave, Moulay Ismail had more than 36,000 people killed over a 26-year period of his reign. [C1903 2] [21] According to François Pidou de Saint Olon, Moulay Ismail had 20,000 assassinated people over a twenty-year period of his reign. [C1903 3] He was described by many authors, including Dominique Busnot, as a "bloodthirsty monster." [C1903 4] [22]

He was also a very good horseman, with great physical strength, agility, and extraordinary cleverness, which he maintained even in his old age. [L 17] [C1903 3] "One of his normal entertainments was to draw his sword as he mounted his horse and decapitate the slave who held the stirrup."

His physical appearance is almost always described in the same way by the Europeans. He had "a long face, more black than white, i.e. very mulatto," according to Saint-Amans, ambassador of Louis XIV, who added that "he is the strongest and most vigourous man of his State." He was of average height and he inherited the colour of his face from his mother, who had been a black slave. [L 17] [L 1]

According to Germain Moüette, a French captive who lived in Morocco until 1682:

He is a vigourous man, well-built, quite tall but rather slender. his face is a clear brown colour, rather long, and its features are all quite well-formed. He has a long beard which is slightly forked. His expression, which seems quite soft, is not a sign of his humanity - on the contrary, he is very cruel. [L 22]

Religioon Muuda

"A faithful and pious follower of his religion," [C1903 5] he attempted to convert King James II of England to Islam, sending him letters whose sincerity and religious feeling are inarguable. [C1903 6] Dominique Busnot, who was generally critical of Ismail, asserted that "he had a great attachment to his Law and publicly practised all the ceremonies, ablutions, prayers, fasts, and feasts with scrupulous precision." [C1903 7]

He enjoyed debating theology with the Trinitarians in Morocco on points of controversy. On many occasions when returning from the mosque on Fridays, he asked for Trinitarians to be brought into his court. During a debate with the fathers of Mercy, he said this:

I have said enough for a man who uses reason if you are stubborn, that is too bad. We are all children of Adam and therefore brothers it is only religion which creates a difference between us. It is therefore, as a brother and in obedience to the commandments of my law that I charitably advise you that the true religion is that of Muhammad, which is the only one in which one can find salvation. I give you this advice for the sake of my conscience and in order to be justified in charging you on the day of judgment.

Ehitus Muuda

Moulay Ismail chose Meknes as Morocco's capital city in 1672 and carried out an extensive building program there that resulted in the construction of numerous gates, mosques, gardens and madrases. On account of the rate of construction, Ismail is often compared to his contemporary Louis XIV. The Saadian El Badi Palace in Marrakesh was stripped of almost all its fittings, so that they could be transported to Meknes. [C1903 9] Marble blocks and pillars were also taken from the ancient Roman ruins at Volubilis. [23] [C1903 7] At least 25,000 workers, mostly paid labourers along with a smaller number of Christian prisoners conscripted into forced labour, were employed on his major construction projects in Meknes. [24] [25] Ismail enjoyed visiting the building sites, to correct or revise whatever did not please him. He was sometimes cruel to the workers and did not hesitate to execute or punish those who produced poor quality work. [C1903 10] [ unreliable source? ]

He began the construction of his magnificent palace complex at Meknes before learning of the work being undertaken by Louis XIV at Versailles. According to European ambassadors present at Meknes in the period, the fortification walls of the palace alone were more than twenty-three kilometres long. Dar al-Kebira, the first of his palaces, was completed after three years of building and was immense, with hanging gardens modelled on those of Babylon. As soon as it was complete, he laid the foundations of Dar al-Makhzen, which linked together around fifty different palaces, containing their own hammams and its own mosque for his wives, concubines, and children. This was followed by Madinat er-Riyad, the residence of the viziers, governors, caids, secretaries and other high functionaries of Ismail's court, which the historian Ahmad ibn Khalid al-Nasiri called 'the beauty of Meknes'. [26] [alN 30]

In the economic sphere, Moulay Ismail built within his citadel the Heri es-Souani, a major storehouse of foodstuffs which was fed by wells, and the Agdal or Sahrij Reservoir which was dug in order to ensure a regular water supply for the gardens of Meknes. [27] [28] Massive stables with a capacity of 12,000 horses were located inside the Heri es-Souani. Ambassadors were received in the Qubbat al-Khayyatin pavilion which he built at the end of the seventeenth century. He also built prisons to hold criminals, Christian slaves, and prisoners of war. Finally, Ismail built or restored in Meknes a large number of mosques, madrasas, public squares, kasbahs, fountains, city gates, and gardens. Construction continued throughout his whole reign. [29]

In the military sphere, Ismail ordered the construction of a network of sixty-seven fortresses, which lined the main roads and surrounded mountainous areas. Meknes was protected by forty kilometres of walls, pierced by twenty gatehouses. [29] Control over the eastern part of the country was ensured by the construction of many strong forts along the border with Ottoman Algeria. Others were built in the territory of individual tribes, to maintain the peace. [12] He also built defensive structures along the route from the Oasis of Touat to the Chenguit provinces, [11] and reorganised or rebuilt the walls of some cities on the model of Oujda. [alN 12] Garrisons of the Black Guards were protected by the construction of Kasbahs in major population centres, modelled on the Kasbah of Gnawa in Sale. [L 23] [30]

Military reforms Edit

Army reforms Edit

Around 1677, Moulay Ismail began to assert his authority over the whole country. Once he had killed and disabled his principal opponents, he was able to return to Meknes in order to organise his empire. [alN 9] It was during this fighting that he had the idea of creating the corps of the Abid al-Bukhari or Black Guard. [alN 31] [L 14]

The Alaouite army was principally composed of soldiers from the Saharan provinces and the provinces on the margin of the Sahara, such as Tafilalet, Souss, western Sahara, and Mauritania - the home of Khnata bent Bakkar, one of the four official wives of Ismail. The Banu Maqil, who inhabited these areas in great numbers, thus represented the foremost contingents of the Alaouites until the middle of Moulay Ismail's reign, as they had under the Saadian dynasty. Several jayshes originated from these Arab tribes. The Alaouites could also count on the tribes of the Oujda region, which had been conquered by Muhammad ibn Sharif. [Arc 7] The jaysh tribes were exempted from import taxes in order to compensate them and were given land in exchange for their troops. [5] [L 2]

Additionally, Moulay Ismail was able to make use of European renegades' knowledge and experience of artillery, when he formed them into a military corps, [L 2] as well as the Arab-Zenata Jaysh ash-Sheraka, [31] which Rashid ibn Sharif had originally installed in the area north of Fez. [Arc 8] Khlot and Sherarda, tribes of Banu Hilal, were given the rank of Makhzen and formed several contingents in the Moroccan army. [Arc 8] He also founded Jaysh al-Rifi, an independent army of Berber tribesmen from the eastern Rif. This group later played an important role in the 17th-century Moroccan wars against Spanish colonization. [32]

However, Ismail could not rely solely on these tribes, because they had a long history of independence and could change sides or desert him at any moment. [Arc 8] Thus he decided to create Morocco's first professional army, the Black Guard or Abid al-Bukhari, who were entirely beholden to him, unlike the tribal contingents. [Arc 6] After the Siege of Marrakesh in 1672, he imported a large number of black male slaves from Sub-Saharan Africa and recruited many of the free black men in Morocco for his army. The initial contingent numbered perhaps 14,000 men. [L 23] The Black Guard was rapidly expanded, reaching 150,000 men towards the end of Ismail's reign. [alN 32] [33] [34] The guards received a military education from age ten until their sixteenth birthday, when they were enlisted in the army. They were married to black women who had been raised in the royal palace like them. [Arc 6]

Moulay Ismail also created the Jaysh al-Udaya, [alN 9] which is to be distinguished from the tribe of Udaya. [35] The guich was divided into three reha. Neist esimene reha was the Ahl Souss (house of Souss), which was composed of four Banu Maqil Arab tribes of Souss: Ulad Jerrar, Ulad Mtâa, Zirara, and the Chebanate. [alN 9] In the 16th century, these tribes had formed the core of the Saadian army, [35] against the Jashem Arabs of Rharb who were part of Banu Hilal and included the Khlot and Safiane, who had supported the Marinid dynasty of Fez. [alN 9] The second reha was the M'ghafra of Mauritania, who were descended from Banu Maqil. Khnata bent Bakkar came from this group. Kolmas reha contained the members of the tribe of Udaya itself. They were a powerful desert tribe who were originally from the Adrar Plateau and were formidable camel riders. Shortly before Moulay Ismail's reign, they had moved north and they were found in Souss under Moulay Ismail. After he reconquered Marrakesh in 1674, Ismail encountered a poor shepherd of the Udaya called Bou-Chefra and learnt that his people had been forced to leave the desert because of the drought and were originally Banu Maqil like himself. Sympathising with their plight, the Sultan decided to turn them into an elite division of his army. [alN 33]

The Jaysh al-Udaya became a major portion of the Sultan's army, governed by the principle of makhzen in which land was granted to soldiers in exchange for military service. According to the historian Simon Pierre, "After the Alaouite conquest, the people of the Maghreb had been despoiled and disarmed and, except for one Berber tribe and the Rifians, only the Abid al-Bukhari and the Udaya exercised the monopoly on violence. Thirty years later, at the death of Moulay Ismail in 1727, it was the caids of the Abid al-Bukhari and the Udaya who joined with the ulama of Meknes and the ministers to choose sultan Moulay Ahmed Adh-Dhahabî!" [35] However, other sources state that Moulay Ismail had designated him as his successor before his death. [L 20] Regardless, during the period of anarchy after Ismail's death, the Udaya certainly played a major role in deposing several Sultans along with the Abid al-Bukhari. [35]

Defensive organisation Edit

By the end of his reign, Ismail had built more than 76 kasbahs and military posts throughout his territory. Each kasbah was defended by a force of at least 100 soldiers drawn from the jaysh tribes or the Black Guard. [Arc 6] Moroccan forces were stationed in all the major cities and provincial capitals. For example, there were 3,000 Sheraka, 4,500 Sherarda and 2,000 Udaya stationed around Fez, which formed a defensive cordon against the unsubjugated Berber tribes in the area. [36]

The kasbahs ensured the defence of the eastern border, where there was a heavy Moroccan military presence, but they also protected the main lines of communication within the kingdom and facilitated the control of unsubjugated tribes, [Arc 9] by continuously raiding them. [Arc 10]


Sisu

Idris I (known as Moulay Idris) was a descendant of the Prophet Muhammad who fled from Abbasid-controlled territory after the Battle of Fakh because he had supported the defeated pro-Shi'a rebels. [2] He established himself at Oualili (Volubilis), a formerly Roman town which by then was mostly inhabited by Berbers and a small population of Judeo-Christian heritage. [3] He used his prestige as a descendant of the Prophet to forge an alliance with local Berber tribes (in particular the Awraba) in 789 and quickly became the most important religious and political leader in the region. As the old site of Roman Volubilis was located on an open plain and considered vulnerable, the settlement moved up a few kilometers towards the mountains, presumably around the site of the current town of Moulay Idriss, leaving the old Roman ruins abandoned. [4] : 22

Idris I died soon after in 791, possibly poisoned on the order of the Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid, just before his son Idris (II) was born. [2] [3] Once Idris II came of age and officially took over his position as ruler in 803, he continued his father's endeavors and significantly expanded the authority of the new Idrisid state. As a result, the Idrisid dynasty was of central importance to the early Islamization of Morocco, forming the first true "Islamic" state to consolidate power over much of its territory. [2] They also founded the important city of Fes, about 50 kilometres away, which became the Idrisid capital under Idris II. [2] [5]

The early history of Moulay Idriss Zerhoun (sometimes called simply Moulday Idriss [6] [7] ) as a town is not widely discussed by historians. A mausoleum for Idris I presumably existed on this site, overlooking Volubilis/Oualili, since his death. The tomb was probably placed inside a qubba (general term for a domed building or structure), and the name Oualili was eventually replaced by the name Moulay Idriss. [1] [4] Some anti-Idrisid rulers in 10th-century Fes claimed that Idris II was also buried here (instead of in his alleged tomb in Fes itself), though he is widely believed to be buried in Fes, where his mausoleum and mosque is still a site of major importance today. [8]

Although the town became a site of pilgrimage early on, after Idris II it was quickly overshadowed by Fes, which became the most important city of the region. [4] The popularity of Idris I and his son as Muslim "saints" and figures of national importance was not constant throughout Morocco's history, with their status declining significantly after the end of Idrisid influence in the 10th century. [8] [3] The Almoravids, the next major Moroccan dynasty after them, were hostile to the cult of saints and other practices judged less orthodox under their stricter views of Islam. [2] It was only during the Marinid period, from the 14th century onward, that the Idrisid founders became celebrated again and that their religious importance redeveloped. [4] An early sign of this was the alleged rediscovery of Idris I's remains in 1318, at Moulay Idris Zerhoun, which apparently caused something of a sensation among the local population and attracted attention from the Marinid authorities. [9] [3] : 180 During this time, the annual moussem (religious festival) in August, celebrating Moulay Idris I, was instituted and began to take shape. [4] : 100

The mausoleum itself apparently remained little changed for many centuries. [1] Under the sharifian dynasties of Morocco, the Saadians and (especially) the Alaouites, who also claimed descent from the Prophet Muhammad, the status of Idris I and II as foundational figures in Moroccan history was further elevated in order to enhance the new dynasties' own legitimacy. [8] Moulay Ismail, the powerful and long-reigning Alaouite sultan between 1672 and 1727, ordered the existing mausoleum to be demolished and rebuilt on a grander scale. Adjoining properties were purchased for the purpose. Construction lasted from 1719 to 1721. [1] Once finished, Moulay Ismail ordered that the khutba (Friday sermon) be performed regularly in the mausoleum's mosque, which established it as the main Friday mosque of the city. [1] In 1822, the Alaouite sultan Moulay Abderrahman (Abd al-Rahman), purchased another property adjoining the mausoleum in order to rebuild the mosque on an even bigger and more lavish scale. [1] Under Sultan Sidi Mohammed (Mohammed IV ruled 1859-1873), some expert ceramic tilework decoration was added by the Meknesi artisan Ibn Makhlouf. [1]

Following Moroccan independence in 1956, the mausoleum was redecorated and the mosque expanded yet again by King Mohammed V and his son Hassan II. [1] To this day, Idris's tomb is a pilgrimage site and the center of a popular moussem (religious festival) every August. [1] [7] The gold-embroidered covering over his tomb is replaced regularly every one or two years during its own ritual attended by religious and political figures. [1] Due to its status as a holy city and sanctuary, the town was off-limits to non-Muslims until 1912, and non-Muslims were not able to stay overnight until 2005. [7]

Since 1995, Moulay Idriss Zerhoun has been on UNESCO's Tentative list of World Heritage Sites. [10]

The town is currently in the Fès-Meknès region. From 1997 to 2015 it was in Meknès-Tafilalet. [ tsiteerimine vajalik ] The ruins of the Berber and Roman city of Volubilis are located just five kilometers away. [7] Idris I took many materials from here in order to build his town. Further away are the cities of Meknes (about 28 km away by road [1] ) and Fez (about 50 km away).

The town is located on two adjacent foothills of the Zerhoun mountains, the Khiber and the Tasga, which form the town's two main districts. [6] Between these is the mausoleum and religious complex of Moulay Idris. The Khiber is the taller of the two hills and its summit offers views over the religious complex and the rest of town. [6] The Sentissi Mosque and the Mausoleum-mosque of Sidi Abdallah el Hajjam are also located near the top of the Khiber hill. [6]

Zawiya of Moulay Idris I Edit

The zawiya (a religious complex including a mausoleum, mosque, and other amenities also spelled zaouia) of Moulay Idris is located at the center of town, with its entrance just off the main town square. [7] It is reached then reached via a long passage that leads to the main building. This includes the mausoleum chamber, recognizable from afar by its huge green-tiled pyramidal roof, and a mosque area. [1] [6] [7] It also has a tall minaret with a square shaft, typical of Moroccan architecture. The decoration is rich and dates from the Alaouite period, including from the 20th century. [1] The zawiya is off limits to non-Muslims. [7]

Cylindrical Minaret Edit

The Sentissi Mosque, built in 1939 by a local man after his return from the hajj in Mecca. [6] [11] It allegedly has the only cylindrical minaret in Morocco. [6] [12] The minaret is covered in a background of green tiles with white Kufic-style Arabic letters spelling out a surah from the Qur'an. [6] The mosque is now a Qur'anic school (madrasa), and is also referred to as the Medersa Idriss. [6]


The Opulent Mausoleum of Moulay Ismail in Morocco

The Mausoleum of Moulay Ismail, Meknès, Morocco. Moulay Ismaïl Ibn Sharif, also known as the “Warrior King”, was the ruler of Moroccan Alaouite dynasty. During his reign he built Meknès and made it Morocco’s capital. The 18th century’s Mausoleum is the resting place of the most famous and notorious sultans of the country, including Ibn Sharif.

Today it is believed that coming to the site will bring a divine blessing to the visitor. The building is also a fine example of Islamic architecture and opulent design. Non-Muslims are partly allowed to view the site, but not all of it – however, it is the only one building of the kind in Morocco, which would be open for the tourists at all.

Why to go there?

One of the most highly regarded architectural sites by the Moroccans themselves. Definitely one of the most popular and best attractions in Meknès.

When to go there?

The site is open daily at 9:00-18:00 except Friday.

How to get there?

It is located in the city center, a short walk from the Royal Palace. Get to Meknès by train or bus from various Moroccan cities. The best way to get around is by taxi.


Courtyard of the Mausoleum of Moulay Ismail. - stock photo

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Agdal basin

The stone-lined lake of Agdal was both a reservoir and a pleasant lake. It was fed by irrigation canals 25 km long.
The basin still very much serves the function of being a local retreat, and families come out here frequently for picnics.

The medina of Meknes is just about big enough, and a lively place. The traditional organization of putting similar type of shops and professions in the same quarter very much lives on here.

Meknes has large areas known as qissariya, which are covered markets.
Quality of work here is generally of the better you will find in Morocco, and prices can be among the more affordable. Visitors to Meknes, who have good skills in haggling, should definitely consider picking up their souvenirs here.

Meknes has a very nice olive market — Morocco has some of the finest olives in the world — where olives from the region around the city, as well as other parts of Morocco, are sold.

Even if the quality is great, look out for high prices. This guy was reasonable, with 10 dh per kilo for most olives, and 12 DH for spiced olives. But just a few meters from him, prices were hiked up, and 30- 40 DH per kilo was the going price.

The Dar Jamaļ was built in 1882 to the vizier family Jamaļ. However, after the mansion’s completion, there were only 12 years more before they fell into disgrace. The mansion was lost in the same debacle.

Since 1920, it has served as a museum, and it now ranks among Morocco’s best. Its exhibits vary from time to time but focus on traditional items, ceramics, textiles, jewelry, and more.

To the mansion is also what is called the Andalucian Garden, where cypress and fruit trees dominate.
Admission is 20dh, open only 3 days a week, Monday-Wednesday, 9.00-12.00 and 15-18.30.

This Muslim school was completed in 1358 and named after Sultan Abu Inan. It has very nice examples of zellij mosaics and wood carvings. Look out for the ribbed dome over the entrance hall, which is the building’s most unique asset.

From its roof, there are nice views over the Great Mosque.
Typically Moroccan, non-Muslims are not permitted into large sections of the madrasa.


Kasbah of Moulay Ismail

The Kasbah of Moulay Ismail is a vast palace complex and royal kasbah (citadel) built by the Moroccan sultan Moulay Isma'il ibn Sharif (also spelled "Ismail") in Meknes, Morocco. It is also known, among other names, as the Imperial City (Prantsuse keeles: Ville Impériale) or Palace of Moulay Ismailvõi Kasbah of Meknes. [1] [2] [3] It was built by Moulay Isma'il over the many decades of his reign between 1672 and 1727, when he made Meknes the capital of Morocco, and received occasional additions under later sultans.

In addition to Moulay Isma'il's own importance in the history of Morocco, his imperial palace in Meknes was notable for its vast scale and its complex infrastructure. The area covered by the kasbah was significantly larger than the old city of Meknes itself and operated as its own city with its own fortifications, water supply, food stockpiles, and troops. Historians later nicknamed it the "Moroccan Versailles". [4] [3] [5] Today, many of the buildings from Moulay Isma'il's era have disappeared or fallen into ruin, but some notable monumental structures remain. A part of the area, the Dar al-Makhzen, is still in use as an occasional royal residence of the King of Morocco, while other sections of the complex have been converted to other functions or replaced with general residential neighbourhoods. [4]


Volubilis

A striking sight, visible for miles on the bends of the approach roads, the Roman ruins of VOLUBILIS occupy the ledge of a long, high plateau, 25km north of Meknes. Below their walls, towards Moulay Idriss, stretches a rich river valley beyond lie the dark, outlying ridges of the Zerhoun mountains. The drama of this scene – and the scope of the ruins themselves – are undeniably impressive, so much so that the site was a key location for Martin Scorsese’s film The Last Temptation of Christ.

Brief history of Volubilis

Except for a small trading post on an island off Essaouira, Volubilis was the Roman Empire’s most remote and far-flung base. It represented – and was, literally – the end of the imperial road, having reached across France and Spain and then down from Tangier, and despite successive emperors’ dreams of “penetrating the Atlas”, the southern Berber tribes were never effectively subdued.

In fact, direct Roman rule here lasted little over two centuries – the garrison withdrew early, in 285 AD, to ease pressure elsewhere. But the town must have taken much of its present form well before the official annexation of the Kingdom of Mauretania by Emperor Claudius in 40 AD. Tablets found on the site, inscribed in Punic, show a significant Carthaginian trading presence in the third century BC, and prior to colonization it was the western capital of a heavily Romanized, but semi-autonomous, Berber kingdom that reached into northern Algeria and Tunisia. After the Romans left, Volubilis experienced very gradual change. Latin was still spoken in the seventh century by the local population of Berbers, Greeks, Syrians and Jews Christian churches survived until the coming of Islam and the city itself remained active well into the seventeenth century, when its marble was carried away by slaves for the building of Moulay Ismail’s Meknes.

What you see today, well excavated and maintained, are largely the ruins of second- and third-century AD buildings – impressive and affluent creations from its period as a colonial provincial capital. The land around here is some of the most fertile in North Africa, and the city exported wheat and olives in considerable quantities to Rome, as it did wild animals from the surrounding hills. Roman games, memorable for the sheer scale of their slaughter (nine thousand beasts were killed for the dedication of Rome’s Colosseum alone), could not have happened without the African provinces, and Volubilis was a chief source of their lions – within just two hundred years, along with Barbary bears and elephants, they became extinct.

The site

The entrance to the site is through a minor gate in the city wall – or through a break in the wall further down, depending on construction work – built along with a number of outer camps in 168 AD, following a prolonged series of Berber insurrections. The best of the finds, which include a superb collection of bronzes, have been taken to the Archeological Mueseum in Rabat, though Volubilis has retained in situ the great majority of its mosaics, some thirty or so, which are starting to show the effects of being exposed to the elements. The finest mosaics line the Decumanus Maximus, the main thoroughfare through Volubilis, but aside from those subjected to heavy-handed restoration, the once brightly coloured tiles have faded to a subtle palette of ochres and greys. Similarly, the site requires a bit of imagination to reconstruct a town (or, at least, half a town, for the original settlement was twice the size of what remains today) from the jumble of low walls and stumpy columns. Nevertheless, you leave with a real sense of Roman city life and its provincial prosperity, while it is not hard to recognize the essentials of a medieval Arab town in the layout.


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