Tiridates I Armeenia

Tiridates I Armeenia


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Tiridates I (Trdat I) valitses Armeenia kuningana aastatel 63–75 või 88 m.a.j). Arsacidite dünastia rajajaks peeti tema valitsemisaega kiviseks, kui ta tungis Roomasse ja Partiasse, kuid armeenia kuningas valitseb suhteliselt rahumeelse ja väga jõuka riigi eest, kui see kroonitakse Roomas toimunud rikkalikul tseremoonial. kaks aastakümmet. Millal täpselt tema valitsemisaeg lõppes, on vastuoluliste iidsete allikate tõttu vaieldud, kuid talle järgnes (tõenäoliselt) tema poeg Sanatruk II, kes jätkas oma isa eduga Armeenia tasakaalustamisel diplomaatilisel köiel, mis tundus olevat määratud jääma piirkonna kahe suurriigi vahele.

Pärimine

Armeenia Tiridates I oli Partia kuninga Vologases I (teise nimega Vagharsh, r. C. 51–80. Aastani, vaidlustatud kuupäevad) vend, kes tungis 52. aastal Armeeniasse, et eristada Tiridaate troonile. Rooma impeerium ei olnud siiski rahul sellega, et lubas Parthiat passiivselt nende kahe suurriigi vahelisse puhvertsooni. Lisaks saabus Rooma saatkond, mis esindas Armeenia pro-roomlaste fraktsiooni, ja palusid otsest abi. Sellest tulenevalt saatis Rooma keiser Nero (r. 54-68 m.a.j.) armee oma parima kindrali Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo juhtimisel aastal 54. aastal, et taastada Rooma mõju piirkonnas.

Tiridatesi toetas enamik armeenlasi, kes olid ajaloolistel ja kultuurilistel põhjustel rohkem sümpaatsed Parthia kui Rooma suhtes.

Esiteks anti Corbulole ülesanne kindlustada nii Süüria kui ka väike Sophene kuningriik (Dsopk), et tugevdada Rooma kohalolekut selles piirkonnas ja meenutada Parthiale, kellele nad vastu tulid. Siis, kui Parthia kuulutas 58. aastal Armeenia vasallriigiks, liikus Corbulo põhja poole ja ründas Armeeniat ennast. Selleks ajaks, kui roomlased Tiridatese kuningriiki jõudsid, oli Vologases sunnitud Parthias siseprobleemide lahendamiseks taanduma, kuid Tiridates jäi Armeenia pealinna Artaxata (Artashat). Tiridaate toetas tegelikult enamik armeenlasi, kes olid ajaloolistel ja kultuurilistel põhjustel rohkem sümpaatsed Parthia kui Rooma suhtes.

Corbulo osutus taas väga võimsaks välikomandöriks ning Rooma laevade logistilise toega Musta mere ääres võttis ja hävitas kaks kõige olulisemat tsitaati - Artaxata ja Tigranocerta. 60. aastaks sai ta väita, et valitseb kogu Armeenia kuningriiki ja Tiridates oli sunnitud põgenema oma venna juurde Partiasse. Samal aastal pandi troonile Tigranes V, kellel olid muljetavaldavad kuninglikud sidemed Heroodes Suure pojapojana, troonile pro-roomlaste monarhina, kuid ta kestis vaid seni, kuni partlased saatsid armee teda piirama. vasakul Tigranocerta. Pärast seda kaob Tigranes ajaloo lehtedelt pärast lühimat kamee esinemist Armeenia kuningate nimekirjades.

62. aastal võitis Parthia võidu Rooma armee vastu (võib -olla ei juhtinud seda enam tõenäoliselt Corbulo), kuid 63. aastal läksid roomlased ja Corbulo tagasi ning nende ähvardusest piisas Rhandia lepingu (saidi järgi) koostamiseks. Lääne -Armeenias). Nüüd lepiti kokku, et Parthial on õigus nimetada Armeenia kuningaid, Roomas õigus neid kroonida ja mõlemad võimud valitsevad Armeenia üle võrdselt, kui kuningas on nende esindaja. Seega anti Nerole privileeg kroonida Roomas Tiridates rikkalikus vaatemängus, mis näitas palju Rooma impeeriumi võimu ja ülemaailmset ulatust.

Armastuse ajalugu?

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Tiridaatide kroonimine

Aastal esitles Tiridates sümboolselt oma krooni Nero pildile ja sõitis seejärel suurde Rooma linna, et see uuesti keisri käest tagasi saada. Valides maismaateed, oli muljetavaldav saatjaskond, kuhu kuulusid peagi saabuv kuninga naine (kandes loori asemel kuldset kiivrit ja näomaski), tema lapsed, laiendatud pere ja 3000 Armeeniast pärit õukonda, aadlikku, preestrit ja ihukaitsjat, Parthia ja Rooma, kaldusid läände. Kui Nero oli pakkunud reisikulude katmist, polnud ta võib -olla isegi sellist külaliste nimekirja ette kujutanud. Ka polnud üllatus, et kui kogu trupp pärast üheksa kuud teel oldut Napolisse jõudis, jäid nad hiljaks. Gladiaatorite voor ja sportlikud mängud avasid pidustused enne tegelikku kroonimist Rooma foorumis. Seal pidi keisri ees põlvili olles Tiridates ette lugema, millest saab tuttav idapoolne allumisvalem:

Õpetaja ... Ma olen tulnud sinu juurde, mu jumal, sind kummardama nagu ma teen Mithrast. Saatus, mille sa mulle keerutasid, on minu oma, sest sina oled mu õnn ja saatus. (Payaslian, 29)

Nero vastas:

Te olete hästi hakkama saanud, kui tulite siia minu isiklikku kohalolekut nautima. Mida teie isa pole teile jätnud ja mida teie vennad teile ei säilitanud, nõustun teiega ja teen teid Armeenia kuningaks, et teie ja ka nemad teaksid, et mul on õigus võtta ära ja anda kuningriike. (Kurkjian, 78)

Seejärel krooniti kuningas ja tal lubati troonile istuda Nero kõrval, ehkki veidi madalamal kui Rooma keiser. Seejärel jätkusid pidustused Pompeyuse teatris, mille Nero oli oma tõelisele vormile särava kulla ja Tüüria lillade varikatustega uhke keiserliku boonusena kaetud. Roomlased armastasid vaatemängu ja Tiridatesi kroonimine andis neile kindlasti ühe; tõepoolest, hiljem kandis pidupäev epiteeti “kuldne”. Kui pidu oli lõppenud, kinkis Nero Tiridatesele lahkumiskingituseks 2 miljonit sesteri ja saatis ta teele Armeenia ülesehitamiseks.

Jõukas valitsemisaeg

Kuna Tiridatesi kroonimise ajal voolab selline vanade allikate tuhin, on üsna pettumus, et me teame tema ülejäänud valitsemisajast nii vähe. Me teame, et järgnevalt paigutasid roomlased sellesse piirkonda käputäie garnisone, et tagada Rhandia lepingust kinnipidamine, kuid üldiselt oli kõigi kolme poole plaanide kohaselt püsiv rahuaeg.

Garni pealdis näitab, et Tiridates nimetas end nüüd Päikeseks ja Armeenia kõrgeimaks valitsejaks.

Kuningriigi õitseng, mis põhines loodusressurssidel, põllumajandusel ja kaubandusel, võimaldas Tiridatesel ehitada uue suveresidentsi Garni. Suurepärane kindlustatud kompleks, mis on ehitatud valgest lubjakivist, oli uhke kõigi mugavustega mis tahes palees klassikalises maailmas. Seal olid Rooma vannid, aiad, sisehoovid, mosaiikpõrandaga toad ja isegi täismõõdus Rooma tempel kuningale elamise ajal (mis seisab tänaseni). Garni pealdis näitab, et Tiridates nimetas end nüüd Päikeseks ja Armeenia kõrgeimaks valitsejaks. Teised selle perioodi märkimisväärsed projektid hõlmasid Artaxata ülesehitust pärast selle hävitamist Corbulo poolt ja mille Rooma kirjanike rekord nimetati kuninga suure heategija auks ümber Neroniaks. Sellest linnast põhja pool asuv tempel oli pühendatud jumalale Tir. Lõpuks eraldas kuningas palveränduritele hulga mõisaid, et avaldada austust mõnele oma sugulasele, lõppude lõpuks oli ta nüüd päikesejumal Helios. Põllumajandustootmine ja sellest tulenev austusavaldus nendelt aladelt andis ka kuninglikule riigikassale käepärase tõuke.

Hoolimata headest aegadest meenub peagi Armeenia kliendiriigi staatus. Rooma keiser Vespasianus (u. 69-79 m.a.j) veendus täielikult, et selles piirkonnas ei jää enam ühtegi territooriumi Partia valitseva dünastia kätte, annekteerides 72. aastal Commagene'i ja Väike-Armeenia kuningriigid. Samal (või võib -olla järgmisel) aastal tungisid rändavad alanilased ajutiselt Armeeniasse, kuid Tiridates jäi vigastamata. Võib -olla toimus ka armeenlaste sissetung Ibeeriale (tänapäeva Gruusia), kuid praegu vaikivas ajaloolises dokumendis puuduvad üksikasjad.

Järeltulija ja Arsacidi dünastia

Tiridates I-d peetakse kauaaegse Arsacidi dünastia (Arshakuni) rajajaks, mis kestaks kuni aastani 428 m.a.j. Dünastial oli tegelikult esimene kuningas aastal 12 eKr Vononi (Vonones) järgemööda, kuid Armeenia trooni ja paljude lühiajaliste monarhide ebastabiilsus pärast Vononit on toonud kaasa selle, et mõned ajaloolased on võtnud Tiridaadi koos tema ja tema stabiilsema režiimiga. tema järeltulijad kui dünastia tõeline rajaja. Kui Tiridates suri, järgnes talle (tõenäoliselt) tema poeg Sanatruk II, kes valitses kuni 109 CE.

See artikkel sai võimalikuks Armeenia uuringute ja teadusuuringute riikliku assotsiatsiooni ning Vartani rüütlite armeeniauuringute fondi heldel toel.


Tiridates I

Valitud kirjandus

… Ma tahtsin, et tema teine ​​vend Tiridates oleks Armeenia kuningas - pannes ta katkestama Roomaga, kes oli talle sõjaliselt vastu. Nero käsul kindlustas Rooma kindral Corbulo Armeenia, kuid tema tegevuse katkestas suursaadikute vahetus. Lõpuks jõuti kokkuleppele: aastal 66…

Kui Armeenia Tiridates tunnistas Rooma keisrit Nerot oma kõrgeimaks isandaks, viis ta läbi Mithraic tseremoonia, mis näitas, et lepingu ja sõpruse jumal lõi head suhted armeenlaste ja võimsate roomlaste vahel. Commagene'i (Türgi kaguosa) kuningad austasid Mithrat.…

Seos

... võimud usuvad, et vend Tiridates I järgnes Arsacesele umbes 248 aastal ja valitses seni, kuni 211 ametiasutust peavad Arsaces I ja Tiridates I sama isikuks.)

… Aastaid oli partilaste prints Tiridates end rahva toel Armeenia kuningaks teinud. Sellele reageerides asus Nero uus valitsus jõuliselt tegutsema, nimetades juhtkonnaks võimsa kindrali Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo. Corbulo pikaajalised sõjalised operatsioonid viisid aastal 66 uude asulasse Tiridates ...


Ülestõusmine

53. aastal tungis Kapadokia Rooma kuberner Paelignus Armeeniasse ja laastas riigi, seejärel Pürenee usurpaatori kuninga Radamisto ajal. Süüria kuberner Quadratus saatis väed nende pahameelt parandama, kuid ta kutsuti tagasi, et mitte esile kutsuda sõda Parthiaga. Parthia kuningas Vologases I kasutas juhust ja tungis Armeeniasse, vallutades Artaxata ja kuulutades kuningaks oma venna Tiridatese. Talvine epideemia sundis teda oma väed Armeeniast välja viima, võimaldades Radamistol naasta ja karistada kohalikke kui reetureid, kes lõpuks mässasid ja asendasid ta Partia vürstiga Tiridates 55. alguses. Radamisto põgenes koos oma naise Zenobiaga. Zenobia tabati, kuid Tiridates kohtles teda nagu kuninglikku kuningannat. Radamisto ise naasis Ibeeriasse ja tema isa Parasmanes I Ibeeriast suri peagi kuningliku võimu vastu vandenõu eest.


Armeenia Tiridates I sarnased või sarnased monarhid

Monarhia Vana -Lähis -Idas, mis eksisteeris 321 eKr kuni 428 pKr. Selle ajaloo jagavad järjestikusteks valitsemisaegadeks kolm kuninglikku dünastiat: Orontid (321 eKr – 200 eKr), Artaxiad (189 eKr – 12 pKr) ja Arsacid (52–428). Moodustati Ararati kuningriigi territooriumilt (860 eKr - 590 eKr) pärast seda, kui Meedia impeerium selle vallutas 590 eKr. Satrapiast sai kuningriik 321. aastal eKr Orontidide dünastia valitsemisajal pärast Pärsia vallutamist Aleksander Suure poolt, mis seejärel inkorporeeriti üheks Seleukiidide impeeriumi hellenistlikuks kuningriigiks. Vikipeedia

Suur Iraani poliitiline ja kultuuriline jõud muistses Iraanis 247 eKr kuni 224 pKr. Selle viimane nimi pärineb selle asutajalt Arsaces I -lt, kes juhtis Parni hõimu Iraani kirdes Parthia piirkonna vallutamisel, seejärel satraapiat Andragorase ajal mässul Seleukiidide impeeriumi vastu. Mithridates I (r. Vikipeedia

Pürenee kuningriigi Pharnavazid dünastia kuninglik prints, kes valitses Armeenia kuningriigi üle aastatel 51–53 ja 54–55. Peeti usurpaatoriks ja türanniks, kes kukutati ümber Partei impeeriumi toetatud mässus. Vikipeedia

Võitles Rooma impeeriumi ja Partia impeeriumi vahel Armeenia kontrolli all, mis on oluline puhverriik kahe valdkonna vahel. Armeenia oli Rooma kliendiriik juba keiser Augustuse päevilt, kuid aastatel 52/53 õnnestus partelastel Armeenia troonile oma kandidaat Tiridates. Vikipeedia

Partia impeeriumi kuningate kuningas 51–78. Vonones II poeg ja järeltulija (r. Wikipedia

Armeenia ajalugu hõlmab teemasid, mis on seotud Armeenia Vabariigi ajalooga, aga ka Armeenia rahva, armeenia keele ning ajalooliselt ja geograafiliselt armeenlasteks peetud piirkondadega. Armeenia asub Piibli Ararati mägesid ümbritseval mägismaal. Vikipeedia

Armeenia monarhide nimekiri, iidse Armeenia ja armeenlaste kohta lisateabe saamiseks vaadake Armeenia ajalugu. Teavet keskaegse Armeenia kuningriigi kohta Kiliikias leiate Kileikia Armeenia kuningriigi eraldi lehelt. Vikipeedia

Arsacidi prints, kes valitses Parthia impeeriumi kuningate kuningana 8–12 ja seejärel Armeenia kuningana 12–18. Phraates IV vanim poeg ((r. Wikipedia

Partia impeeriumi kuningas 40-51. Artabanus II lapsendatud poeg. Vikipeedia

Armeenia Arsacidi dünastia Armeenia prints, kes elas 4. sajandi teisel poolel ja võib -olla ka 5. sajandi esimesel poolel. Poeg sündis Armeenia monarhidel Khosrov IV ja Zruanduxt, samal ajal kui tema vend oli Tigranes. Vikipeedia

Prints, kes oli Armeenia Arsacidi Rooma kliendikuningas. Vologases oli 378–386 koos venna Arsaces III kaaskuningana. Wikipedia


Sisu

Tiridates I oli üks poegadest, kes sündis meedia Atropatene kuninga ja hiljem Parthia kuninga Vonones II kreeka liignaise poolt. [8] Tiridatese noorusest, mille ta veetis Media Atropatene'is, pole praktiliselt midagi teada. "Tiridaadid" tähendab "Tiri antud". Tir oli Armeenia-Partia kirjanduse, teaduse ja kunsti jumal, mis põhineb Avestan Tishtryal ja sulandus Kreeka Apolloga. [9]

Aastal 51 pKr tungis Kapadokia Rooma prokuraator Julius Paelignus Armeeniasse ja laastas riigi, seejärel Pürenee usurpaatori Rhadamistuse ajal. Rhadamistus oli tapnud oma onu Mithridatese, Armeenia seadusliku kuninga, meelitades teda väljaspool Gornea kindlust kaitsnud Rooma garnisoni. [10] Ilma juhendamiseta tegutsedes tunnistas Paelignus Rhadamistuse Armeenia uueks kuningaks. Süüria kuberner Ummidius Quadratus saatis Helvidius Priscuse koos leegioniga neid pahandusi parandama, kuid ta kutsuti tagasi, et mitte esile kutsuda sõda Parthiaga. [10]

Aastal 52 pKr kasutas Parthia kuningas Vologases I võimalust tungida Armeeniasse, vallutades Artaxata (Artashat Armeenias) ja kuulutas kuningaks oma noorema venna Tiridates I. [11] See tegevus rikkus Rooma keisri Augusti ja Partia kuninga Phraates IV allkirjastatud lepingut, mis andis roomlastele selgesõnalise õiguse nimetada ja kroonida Armeenia kuningaid. [12] Vologaasid Ma pidasin Armeenia trooni kunagi tema esivanemate omandiks, nüüd kuriteo tõttu võõra monarhi poolt anastatud. [13] Talvine epideemia ja poja Vardanese algatatud ülestõus sundis teda oma väed Armeeniast välja viima, võimaldades Rhadamistusel tagasi tulla ja karistada kohalikke kui reetureid, kes lõpuks mässasid ja asendasid ta 55. aasta alguses prints Tiridates I -ga. [14] Rhadamistus põgenes koos oma naise Zenobiaga, kes oli rase. Kuna ta ei suutnud enam põgeneda, palus ta mehel oma elu lõpetada, mitte tabada. Rhadamistus pussitas teda Median pistodaga ja viskas tema keha Araxese jõkke. Zenobia ei saanud surmavalt vigastada ja teda taastasid karjased, kes saatsid ta Tiridatesesse. Tiridates võtsin ta lahkelt vastu ja kohtlesin teda monarhia liikmena. [15] Rhadamistus ise naasis Ibeeriasse ja tema isa Parasmanes I Ibeeriast suri peagi kuningliku võimu vastu vandenõu eest. [10]


Tiridates I Armeenia

Tiridates I (armeenia: Տ ր դ ա տ Ա, Trdat A Parthian:, T īrid āt Kreeka: Τ ι ρ ι ι x03c2, Tirid átes) oli Armeenia kuningas alates 53 pKr ja Armeenia Arsacidi dünastia rajaja. Tema sünni ja surma kuupäevad pole teada. Tema varajast valitsemist iseloomustas lühike katkestus aasta lõpus 54 ja palju pikem periood aastatel 58–63 pKr. Kokkuleppes Rooma-Partia konflikti lahendamiseks Armeenias ja selle üle krooniti Tiridates I (üks Parthia Vologases I vendadest) Rooma keiser Nero Armeenia kuningaks aastal 66 pKr, Armeenia kuningas. parteide vürstiks, kuid tema ametisse nimetamiseks oli vaja roomlaste heakskiitu. Kuigi see tegi Armeeniast kliendiriigi, arvasid mitmed kaasaegsed Rooma allikad, et Nero on de facto loovutanud Armeenia Partia impeeriumile.

Lisaks sellele, et Tiridates I oli kuningas, oli ta ka zoroastria preester ja teda saatsid teised mustkunstnikud teekonnal Rooma 66. aastal pKr. 20. sajandi alguses spekuleeris Franz Cumont, et Tiridatesel oli oluline roll mitraismi arengus, millest sai Rooma armee peamine religioon ja mis levis üle kogu impeeriumi. Lisaks alustas ta oma valitsemisajal Armeenia haldusstruktuuri reformimist, reformi, mida jätkasid tema järeltulijad ja mis tõi sinna palju Iraani tolli ja ameteid.

Tiridates I on George Frideric Händeli ooperi Radamisto ja Reinhard Keiseri ooperi Octavia üks peategelasi.

Tiridates I oli üks poegadest, kes sündis meedia Atropatene kuninga ja hiljem Parthia kuninga Vonones II kreeka liignaise poolt. Tiridatese noorusest, mille ta veetis Media Atropatene'is, pole praktiliselt midagi teada. "Tiridaadid" tähendab "Tir". Tir oli Armeenia-Partia kirjanduse, teaduse ja kunsti jumal, mis põhineb Avestan Tishtryal ja sulandus Kreeka Apolloga.

Aastal 51 pKr tungis Kapadokia Rooma prokuraator Julius Paelignus Armeeniasse ja laastas riigi, seejärel Pürenee usurpaatori Rhadamistuse ajal. Rhadamistus oli tapnud oma onu Mithridatese, Armeenia seadusliku kuninga, meelitades teda väljaspool Gornea kindlust kaitsnud Rooma garnisoni. Ilma juhendamiseta tegutsedes tunnistas Paelignus Rhadamistuse Armeenia uueks kuningaks. Süüria kuberner Ummidius Quadratus saatis Helvidius Priscuse koos leegioniga neid pahandusi parandama, kuid ta kutsuti tagasi, et mitte esile kutsuda sõda Parthiaga.

52. aastal kasutas Parthia kuningas Vologases I võimalust tungida Armeeniasse, vallutades Artaxata (Artašat Armeenias) ja kuulutades kuningaks oma noorema venna Tiridates I. See tegevus rikkus Rooma keisri Augusti ja Partia kuninga Phraates IV allkirjastatud lepingut, mis andis roomlastele selgesõnalise õiguse nimetada ja kroonida Armeenia kuningaid. Vologaas I pidas Armeenia trooni kunagi tema esivanemate omandiks, nüüd kuriteo tõttu võõra monarhi poolt anastatud. Talvine epideemia ja poja Vardanese algatatud ülestõus sundis teda oma väed Armeeniast välja viima, võimaldades Rhadamistusel tagasi tulla ja karistada kohalikke kui reetureid, kes lõpuks mässasid ja asendasid ta 55. aasta alguses prints Tiridates I -ga. Rhadamistus põgenes mööda koos oma naise Zenobiaga, kes oli rase. Kuna ta ei suutnud enam põgeneda, palus ta mehel oma elu lõpetada, mitte tabada. Rhadamistus pussitas teda Median pistodaga ja viskas tema keha Araxese jõkke. Zenobia ei saanud surmavalt vigastada ja teda taastasid karjased, kes saatsid ta Tiridatesesse. Tiridates võtsin ta lahkelt vastu ja kohtlesin teda monarhia liikmena. Rhadamistus ise naasis Ibeeriasse ja tema isa Parasmanes I Ibeeriast suri peagi kuningliku võimu vastu vandenõu eest.

Sõda Roomaga

Rooma keiser Nero, kes polnud rahul parteide kasvava mõjuga nende lävel, saatis kindral Corbulo koos suure armeega itta, et taastada Rooma kliendikuningad. Hasmonelasele nimega Aristobulus anti Väike -Armeenia (Nicopolis ja Satala) ning Emesa Sohaemusele Armeenia Sophene. 58. aasta kevadel sisenes Corbulo Kapadokiast Suur -Armeeniasse ja liikus edasi Artaxata poole, samal ajal kui Iberia Parasmanes I ründas põhjast ja Comtiogeni Antiochos IV ründas edelast. Tema venna toetusel saatis Tiridates I lendavaid kolonne, et rüüstata roomlasi kaugele. Corbulo maksis kätte, kasutades sama taktikat ja Moschoi hõimude kasutamist, kes ründasid Armeenia äärealasid. Tiridaadid I põgenesid pealinnast ja Corbulo põletas Artaxata maha. Suvel hakkas Corbulo liikuma mööda rasket maastikku Tigranocerta poole ja läbima Taronitida (Taron), kus mitmed tema komandörid surid Armeenia vastupanu tõttu varitsuses, kuid linn avas uksed, välja arvatud üks tsitadell. , mis järgnenud rünnakus hävitati. Selleks ajaks oli enamik armeenlasi loobunud vastupanust ja võtnud vastu Rooma soositud vürsti.

Nero andis krooni viimasele Kapadokia kuningate kuninglikule järeltulijale, Glaphyra lapselapsele (Kapadokia Arhelaose tütar) ja Juudamaa Aleksanderile (Heroodes Archelaose vend ja Herodes Suure poeg), kes võttis endale armeenia nime Tigranes (tema onu oli Tigranes V). Tema poeg, nimega Gaius Julius Alexander, abiellus Commagene'i Antiochus IV tütre Iotapaga ja temast sai Kiliikia kuningas. Nerot tervitati selle avaliku võidu eest jõuliselt avalikkuse ees ja Corbulo määrati preemiaks Süüria kuberneriks. Riigi kaitsmiseks eraldati Tigranesile 1000 leegionärist koosnev valvur, kolm abikohtorit ja kaks hobuste tiiba. Piiripiirkonnad anti Rooma liitlastele, kes abistasid Corbulot, sealhulgas Polemon, Parasmanes, Aristobolus ja Antiochus.

Vologaasi I vihastas tõsiasi, et välismaalane istus nüüd Armeenia troonil, kuid kõhkles oma venna ennistamisest, kuna ta oli konfliktis mässavate herkaanlastega. Tigranes tungis Adiabene kuningriiki ja kukutas 61. aastal selle kuninga Monobazesi, kes oli partelaste vasall.

Vologaas Ma pidasin seda Rooma agressiooniks ja alustasin kampaaniat Tiridates I taastamiseks Armeenia troonile. Ta andis spahbod Monesese juhtimise alla hästi distsiplineeritud katafraktide jõu koos Adiabenia abimeestega ja käskis tal Tigranes Armeeniast välja saata. Olles maha surunud Hürkaania mässu, kogus Vologases I tema võimupiirkondade tugevuse ja asus Armeenia poole. Corbulo, keda oli eelseisvast rünnakust teavitatud, saatis kaks leegioni Verulanus Severuse ja Vettius Bolanuse juhtimisel Tigranes'i abile salajaste juhistega, et nad peaksid tegutsema pigem ettevaatlikult kui jõuliselt. Samuti saatis ta Nerole sõnumi, milles kutsus teda üles saatma teist ülemat, kelle selgesõnaline eesmärk on kaitsta Armeeniat, kuna Süüria on nüüd samuti ohus. Corbulo paigutas ülejäänud leegionid Eufrati kaldale ja relvastas lähedal asuvate provintside ebaregulaarseid vägesid. Kuna piirkonnas oli veepuudus, püstitas ta purskkaevude kohale kindlused ja varjas need, liiva kuhjates nende peale.

Moneses marssis Tigranocerta poole, kuid ei suutnud murda linnamüüride kaitset, kuna tema väed ei sobinud pikaks piiramiseks. Corbulo, kuigi silmapaistvalt edukas, pidas mõistlikuks kasutada oma õnne mõõdukalt. Ta saatis Casperiuse nimelise Rooma sajandiku Nisibisesse Vologases I laagrisse, mis asub Tigranocerta'st 37 miili (60 km) kaugusel, ja nõudis piiramist. Hiljutise jaanitormi ja tema hobuste Vologasese sööda nappuse tõttu nõustusin tõstma Tigranocerta piiramisrõnga ja palusin kindla rahu saavutamiseks Armeeniat. Vologaas I nõudis, et nii Rooma kui ka Partia väed evakueeriksid Armeenia, Tigranese troonilt alandataks ja tunnustataks Tiridaatide I positsiooni. Rooma valitsus keeldus nende kokkulepetega ühinemast ja saatis Kappadokia kuberneri Lucius Caesennius Paetuse küsimuse lahendama, viies Armeenia otse Rooma valitsemise alla.

Paetus oli võimetu ülem ja sai 62. aastal Rhandeia lahingus alandava kaotuse, kaotades XII Fulminata leegionid, mida juhtis Calvisius Sabinus ja IIII Scythica, mida juhtis Funisulanus Vettonianus. Vägede juhtimine tagastati Corbulole, kes juhtis järgmisel aastal tugeva armee Melitene'i ja sealt edasi Armeeniasse, kõrvaldades kõik piirkondlikud kubernerid, keda ta kahtlustas parteide poolt. Lõpuks kohtusin Rhandeias, Corbulos ja Tiridates, et sõlmida rahuleping. Rhandeia asukoht sobis nii Tiridaatidele I kui ka Corbulole. See meeldis Tiridates I -le, sest see oli koht, kus tema armee oli roomlasi peksnud ja teiselt poolt kapituleerumise all ära saatnud, kuid see meeldis Corbulole, sest ta kavatseb hävitada varem samas kohas teenitud halva maine. Kui Tiridates I Rooma laagrisse jõudis, võttis ta maha oma kuningliku diadeemi ja asetas selle Nero kuju lähedale maapinnale, nõustudes selle tagasi saama ainult Roomas asuvalt Nerolt. Tiridates I tunnistati Armeenia vasallikuningaks, kuid Rooma garnison jääb riiki alaliselt Sophene'i, Artaxata aga rekonstrueeritakse. Corbulo jättis oma väimehe Annius Vinicianuse Tiridates I-ga Rooma saatma, et tõestada oma truudust Nerole.

Rooma külastamine

Enne Rooma minekut külastas Tiridates I oma ema ja kahte venda Media Atropatene'is ja Parthias. Pikal rännakul olid temaga kaasas naine ja lapsed ning kaks venda. Tema saatjaks oli imposantne saatjaskond, kuhu kuulusid paljud feodaalid, mitu tarka, 3000 partia ratsanikku ja ka suur hulk roomlasi. Tema teekond kulges üle Traakia, läbi Illyria, Aadria mere ja Picenumi idakaldal, Kirde -Itaalias. Reis kestis üheksa kuud ja Tiridates I sõitis hobusega, tema lapsed ja kuninganna tema kõrval. Tiridates I -ga olid kaasas ka Vologaasi, Monobazese ja Pacoruse lapsed.

Teise sajandi Rooma ajaloolane Cassius Dio kirjeldas saabumise ajal Tiridates I-d positiivselt: "Tiridates ise oli oma elu tippajal, tähelepanuväärne tegelane oma nooruse, ilu, perekonna ja intelligentsuse tõttu." Nero tervitas Tiridates I oktoobris Neapolises (Napoli), saates riigivankri, mis viib külastajat viimastel kilomeetritel. Keegi ei tohtinud relvastatud keisrile läheneda, kuid Tiridates I säilitas oma väärikuse, keeldudes Rooma keisririigi valitsejale lähenedes mõõka eemaldamast (kuigi kompromissina nõustus ta oma mõõga kindlalt tuppe kinnitama, nii et et seda ei saanud joonistada). Puteolis (tänapäevane Pozzuoli, Napoli lähedal) käskis Nero korraldada oma külalise auks sportmängud. Armeenia kuningal endal oli võimalus näidata oma laskurivõimet, tulistades noolt läbi kahe pühvli keha. Üritus Puteolis tähistas ka nais gladiaatorite esimest tõestatud esinemist:

Nero imetles teda selle tegevuse eest [(Tiridates keeldus mõõka eemaldamast)] ja lõbustas teda mitmel viisil, eriti andes gladiaatorinäituse Puteolis. Selle juhtis Patrobius, üks tema vabadustest, kes suutis selle muuta kõige säravamaks ja kulukamaks, nagu võib näha tõsiasjast, et ühel päeval ei olnud mitte inimene, vaid etiooplased, naised ja lapsed ning #x2014 ilmus teatrisse.

Tseremooniate haripunkt oli reserveeritud pealinnale. Rooma oli rikkalikult kaunistatud lippude, tõrvikute, vanikute ja pungadega ning öösel oli see suurepäraselt valgustatud ja kõikjal oli näha palju rahvamasse.

Päeval pärast Tiridates I saabumist tuli Nero foorumisse triumfiriietes riietatuna ning kõrgete auväärsete isikute ja sõduritega ümbritsetuna, kõik särasid kallistes riietes ja säravates soomustes. Sel ajal, kui Nero istus keiserlikul troonil, liikusid Tiridates I ja tema kaaskond kahe sõdurivi vahele. Jõuakarva ette jõudes põlvitas Tiridates I, käed rinnale haaratud. Pärast seda, kui sellest vaatemängust erutatud kõmisevad hüüded ja tunnustused olid vaibunud, pöördus Tiridates I keisri poole:

Mu isand, ma olen Arsakese järeltulija ning kuningate Vologaasi ja Pacoruse vend. Ma olen tulnud teie juurde, kes on minu jumal. Ma olen teid kummardanud [päikesena], ma olen see, kelleks te mind käsite, sest teie olete minu saatus ja õnn.

Te olete hästi hakkama saanud, kui tulite siia minu isiklikku kohalolekut nautima. Mida teie isa pole teile jätnud ja mida teie vennad teile ei säilitanud, nõustun teiega ja teen teid Armeenia kuningaks, et teie ja ka nemad teaksid, et mul on õigus võtta ära ja anda kuningriike.

Tiridaadid I paigaldasid seejärel platvormi astmed ja põlvitasid, samal ajal kui Nero pani kuningliku diadeemi pähe. Kui noor kuningas oli juba teist korda põlvili laskmas, tõstis Nero ta parema käe käest ja pärast suudlemist pani ta enda kõrvale pisut madalamale toolile istuma. Vahepeal jagas rahvas mõlemale valitsejale tormilisi aplausi. Publiku ees kõnelev preetor tõlgendas ja selgitas kreeka keeles rääkinud Tiridatese sõnu. Plinius vanema sõnul tutvustas Tiridates I seejärel Nerot võlupidudele (magicis cenis). Tacitus väitis, et ka Tiridates I oli huvitatud kõigist Rooma asjadest.

Avalikud pidustused jätkusid veel mõnda aega pärast kroonimistseremooniat. Sel põhjusel oli Pompeyuse teatri interjöör ja kõik selle mööbliesemed kullatud, meenutas Rooma seda kuupäeva kui & quotthe kuldset päeva. lillad varikatused, mis olid venitatud kaitseks päikese kuumuse eest. Rohelisega riietatud ja vankrijuhi peakatet kandev Nero osales vankrivõistlusel. Õhtustel banketitel laulis ja mängis kandle saatel lüürat kuldset tikitud riietuses Nero. Tiridates Ma olin Nero ekstravagantsusest hämmastunud ja vastik, kuid ta oli Corbulo kohta ainult kiitnud ja väljendas Corbulole üllatust, kui ta sellist isandat teenis. [38] Ta ei varjanud oma vaateid Nero näole ja ütles talle sarkastiliselt: "Härra, teil on suurepärane sulane Corbulo näol."

Nende sündmuste mälestuseks austas Senat Nerot loorberipärja ja Imperaatori ehk armeede ülemjuhataja tiitliga. Rooma ajaloos pole selle suuruse ja hiilgusega võrreldavat vastuvõttu registreeritud. Lisaks pidustustele kulutatud tohutule summale kandis Rooma valitsus kogu Tiridates I ja tema saatkonna reisi kulud nii kodumaalt kui ka kodumaale. Nero tegi Tiridates I -le kingituse ka viiekümnest miljonist sestertsiast.

Oma teekonnal tagasi Armeeniasse vaatas Tiridates I pankrotinäitust. Nähes, et üks võistlejatest kukkus selili ja vastased peksid teda, hüüatas Tiridates I: "See on ebaõiglane võistlus. Pole õiglane, et kukkunud meest pekstakse. & Quot

Later, Nero summoned the Parthian King Vologases I to Rome several times, but when the invitations became burdensome to Vologases I, he sent back a dispatch to this effect: "It is far easier for you than for me to traverse so great a body of water. Therefore, if you will come to Asia, we can then arrange to meet each other."

It has been suggested that the visit of Tiridates I, an event that greatly impressed contemporaries, was adapted by Christians to become the story of the adoration of the Christ Child by the Three Magi. The Christian legend changed Rome into Bethlehem, the birthplace of the Ruler of the coming Kingdom of God, and replaced Tiridates I with that contemporary king who was already connected with Christianity through the Acts of St. Thomas: Gondophares, otherwise known as Kaspar.

Fragile Peace

Peace prevailed at this time throughout the Roman Empire. Nero therefore closed the gates of the Temple of Janus, which were never shut save in times of universal peace. When Tiridates I returned to Armenia, he took with him a great number of skilled artisans for the reconstruction of Artaxata. He renamed the capital Neronia in honor of the emperor he embellished the royal residence at Garni, nearby, with colonnades and monuments of dazzling richness and also the addition of a new temple. Trade between the two continents also grew, allowing Armenia to secure its independence from Rome. Rome now counted upon Armenia as a loyal ally, even after Nero's death and through the entire duration of Vespasian's rule in the East. Peace was a considerable victory for Nero politically.

The immediate dividend of the peace was Rome's ability to turn its full attention to the mounting problems at Judea, which broke into open warfare culminating in the First Jewish-Roman War just one year after Tiridates' coronation. Large numbers of legions were diverted to Judea from Syria, which would otherwise have been impossible. Nero became very popular in the eastern provinces of Rome and with the Armenians and Parthians. The name of Legio XII Fulminata discovered carved on a mountain in Gobustan (in modern Azerbaijan), attests to the presence of Roman soldiers by the shores of the Caspian Sea in 89 AD, farther east than any previously known Roman inscription. The peace between Parthia and Rome lasted 50 years, until emperor Trajan invaded Armenia in 114.

War with Alans and Aftermath

In 72 the Alans, a warlike nomadic Sarmatian tribe, made an incursion into Media Atropatene as well as various districts of northern Armenia. Tiridates I and his brother Pacorus, King of Media Atropatene, faced them at a number of battles, during one of which Tiridates I was briefly captured, narrowly escaping being taken alive. He was lassoed from a distance and caught, but he quickly managed to whip out his sword and slash the rope in time. The Alans withdrew with a lot of booty after plundering Armenia and Media Atropatene. The King of Iberia asked for protection against the Alans from Vespasian, who helped reconstruct the fortress of Harmozica around the Iberian capital Mtskheta, near modern Tbilisi. An Aramaic inscription found near Tbilisi indicates that Tiridates I also warred with Iberia during his final years. The exact date of the end of Tiridates I's reign is unknown various sources name Sanatruces as his successor. It is known that Tiridates' nephew, Axidares, the son of Pacorus II of Parthia, was King of Armenia by 110.

Franz Cumont in Les Réligions Orientales dans le Paganisme Romain ("The Oriental Religions in Roman Paganism") pointed out that Tiridates I was instrumental in the development of Mithraism in Rome, which ultimately became the most dominant Roman religion throughout the empire.

Tiridates I is one of the principal characters in George Frideric Handel's opera Radamisto and Reinhard Keiser's opera Octavia.


Tiridates II of Armenia

Tiridates II (Armenian: Տրդատ Բ , flourished second half of the 2nd century - died ca. 256), known in Armenian sources as Khosrov, [1] was an Armenian Parthian Prince who served as a Roman Client King of Armenia.

Tiridates II was the son and heir of the Armenian King Khosrov I, [2] by an unnamed mother. Tiridates II was the namesake of his ancestor, Tiridates I of Armenia and of his Parthian ancestors who ruled with this name as King. As a part of the Armenian Arsacid period, [3] he was also known as Khosrov. [4]

During the last years of his father's reign in 214-216, Tiridates II with his family where under Roman detention for unknown reasons which provoked a major uprising in Armenia against Rome. [5] In 215, the Roman emperor Caracalla with the Roman army had invaded Armenia [6] to end the uprising.

In 217 Khosrov I had died and Tiridates II succeeded his father as King of Armenia. [7] Tiridates II was granted the Armenian Crown [8] by Caracalla. [9] He was declared King of Armenia upon Caracalla's assassination [10] which was on April 8, 217.

Tiridates II ruled as King of Armenia from 217 until his death in 252. [11] After the death of Caracalla, Macrinus became the new Roman emperor and not so long after Tiridates II received his Armenian Kingship, Macrinus agreed to release Tiridates II's mother from Roman captivity. [12] After the Battle of Nisibis in 217 and the treaty that occurred after between Rome and Parthia, Tiridates II was officially restored to his Armenian throne [13] and his rule over Armenia was officially recognised.

At an unknown date during his reign, there's the possibility that the Mamikonian family immigrated from Bactria to Armenia. [14] Tiridates II was first the King in Armenia to persecute Christians in the country which continued with his predecessors. [15]

Partly due to his long reign, Tiridates II became one of the most powerful and most influential monarchs from the Arsacid dynasty. [16] In 224, the Parthian Empire was destroyed the last King who was Tiridates II's paternal uncle, Artabanus V of Parthia was killed by Ardashir I, the first king of the Sassanid Empire. [17]

In 226-228, Ardashir I after annexing Parthia wanted to expand his Empire which including conquering Armenia. Into two years of the conflict, the armies of the Romans, Scythians and the Kushans withdrew. [18] Tiridates II with his army was left in the end alone to continue fighting against Ardashir I. [19]

Tiridates II put up a stubborn resistance against Ardashir I [20] and wasn't defeated after no less than ten years of fighting. [21] After twelve years of fighting with Tiridates II, Ardashir I withdrew his army and left Armenia. [22] Tiridates II's military conflict with Ardashir I highlights the strength of Armenia in the time of Tiridates II. [23] Tiridates II died in 256 and was succeeded by his son, Khosrov II of Armenia. [24]


A Brief History Of Armenia

There are several theories about the history of Armenia. Legends opine that the descendants of bisbisnipote (great great grandson) of Noah, Hayk are known as the Armenians. It is said that after the floods, Noah’s Ark ran aground on Mount Ararat. Since then to mark this tradition, the Armenians call it their country and the place came to be known as Hayastan.

However, historians have spoken differently about the history of Armenia. Historians have linked the origin of Armenians to the birth of a tribal group in Hayasa-Azzi between 1500 BC-1200 BC. The tribals lived to the west of the Armenian plateau.

As the Hayasa-Azzi lived close to the Hittite empire, violent confrontations often broke out between the two. The clashes continued till the end of the Bronze age when the Hayasa-Azzi was finally defeated by the Hittites.

The rise of Urartu Kingdom

According to the history of Armenia, the Armenian empire fell under a group of kingdoms, referred to as Nairi (land of rivers) by the Assyrians between 1200 and 800 BC. These kingdoms finally assimilated with the kingdom of Urartu.

The kingdom of Urartu is a civilization that developed in between 800 and 600 BC is the East Asia minor and the Caucasus. The kingdom was known as the first Armenian empire.

King Aramu was the first to unite the empire as per the history of Armenia. The empire stretched from the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea and also spread across the majority of Eastern Turkey.

The Urartu kingdom enjoyed its maximum prosperity under King Sardui II. He extended the borders of the kingdom beyond River Tigris and river Euphrates, much similar to Lake Aleppo and Urmia.

Urartu was also known as the ‘kingdom of Ararat.’ Through the various manuscripts about the history of Armenia, it is learned that Urartu and Armenia were often referred to as the same country.

The Behistun’s inscription, carved in three languages in 520 BC is a prime example. Built under the orders of Persia’s Darius the great, the inscription refers to the kingdom as Harminuia in Elamite, Armenia in Old Persian, and Urartu in Babylon.

Between the end of the seventh century and early sixth century, the Urartu kingdom was substituted by the Armenian kingdom. Orontid, the Armenian dynasty ruled over this empire.

The Rule of the Orontid dynasty, the Birth of Armenian Kingdom

The dynasty of Orontid established their rule over the empire of Armenia after the fall of the Urartu kingdom in 600 BC. The Orontids had captured the Armenian empire during the invasion of the Medes and the Scythians. Around this period, the Armenians took to Iranians traditions and names.

The Orontids acted as provincial governors or satraps to the Persian kings. However, after the death of Persia’s Cambyses II, the Armenians led a revolution that was disrupted by Persia’s Darius the I.

Soon after the changes in the Persian Empire, the Armenian empire too was divided into many satrapies. In 480 BC, the satrapies had assigned troops for the Xerxes invasion. The proximity of the Persians and the Armenians were broken by the Macedonian conquest.

After the invasion of Alexander the Great, the Persian empire crumbled, and just like other regions, the Armenian empire was soon divided into two parts.

One region, Sophene or great Armenia was located between the Tigris headwaters Euphrates’s middle course. Later it was bifurcated into Sophene and Armenia.

The other region, Armenia Pontica or little Armenia was located between the headwaters of Ali and Lico and the Euphrates.

According to the history of Armenia, the different regions were subjected to different fates. Little Armenia came under the rule of the very powerful king Pontus in the second century BC.

Meanwhile, Sophene lost its independence and survived under the rule of king Cappadocia for a brief period.

A different Armenian history says that Great Armenia established itself as a state by escaping the rule of the Seleucids. The Seleucids could not capture the region because of its mountainous region which acted as a barrier against Greek invasions. The other reason was the Persian characteristics ingrained in the Armenians that involuntarily opposed Greek influence.

Armenia’s Second Kingdom

As per Strabo, during this time the Armenians started speaking one language, the Armenian language. Soon the Armenians announced their independence with the defeat of the Seleucides by the Roman empire.

Between 95 to 66 BC, under the leadership of Tigranes II the Great, the empire spread from the Caucasus to the present eastern region of Turkey, from Syria to Lebanon and across the ‘kingdom of three seas’- the Caspian Sea, the Black Sea, and the Mediterranean sea.

The capital of the second Armenian empire which was born cannot be located to date. However, Tigranes II succumbed in the hands of the Roman troops, and the Armenian major was ruled by the Romans.

The Advent of Rome

In 37 AD the Armenians were forced to surrender under the Parthians soon to be taken over by the Roman after 10 years. The Romans lost the empire shortly after.

Under Nero’s rule between 55-63 AD, the Romans again fought against the Parthians ruling over Armenia. Capturing the Armenian empire in 60 AD and losing it in 62 AD, the Romans finally captured the region in 63 AD. However, In the battle of Rhandeia, the Parthians lost. The Parthian king forcibly signed a treaty assigning his brother Tiridates the throne of Armenia. The crowning of the king took place under Nero’s rule. Thus rose Armenia’s Arcadis dynasty.

Armenia Christianized

The Armenian history records the Armenians as the first to officially be termed as Christians after its conversion in 301 AD, long before the Romans adapted to it.

According to the King Tiridates’ historic Agatangelo, the Christianization took place due to a clash between king Tiridates III and Son of Anak, Gregory.

The Armenian history says that Gregory was instructed to make sacrifices to goddess Anahit which he refused in the name of his faith for Christianity. Upon his refusal, he was subjected to severe torture which didn’t deter him from his opinion. Finally, he was ordered to be thrown into a deep well filled with snakes, a place where none had been before. But Gregory survived his time in the well with the blessings of a widow.

Meanwhile, several attempts were made by Diocletian, a Roman emperor, to seduce Hripsime. Smelling the danger, Hripsime had escaped to Armenia to seek protection.

Amidst this, Tiridates fell in love with Hripsime and wanted to be with her. After several rejections from Hripsime, Tiridates tortured and killed her.

As a traditional punishment marked in the history of Armenia, the king was transformed into a wild boar. He came back to his human form after rescuing Gregory from the pit after thirteen years.

Witnessing the miracle of being transformed into the human form, Tiridates decided to take to Christianity. He also baptized the Armenians and the official religion of the Armenians came into being.

Soon Gregory and Tiridates started destroying the Pegan’s worship places and started building churches.

The Armenian history also speaks about a vision of Jesus Christ that Gregory saw. Following the vision, Gregory built a church in Vagarshapat. The place came to be known as the Etchmiadzin meaning a place where the only-begotten descended.

Soon the Pegan priests were taught about Christianity. They became ministers of the new religion. Pegan children went on to priests in churches. Thereafter, Gregory left the kingdom and settled as a hermit. His son became a bishop and head of the church.

Despite several historical theories about Armenians, the period of 301 AD- the Christianization of Armenians and 404 AD- the initiation of the Armenian alphabets by Mesrop Mashtots will remain evidence of the Armenian history.

The clash of the Three-Byzantine, Arab, and Seljuk

In 591, the Persians were crushed by the Emperor Maurice of Byzantine. The emperor captured a vast part of Armenian territory. In 629 AD, Emperor Heraclius completed the capture only to lose it to Muslim Arabs in 645 AD. Following this, the Armenians came under the Caliph rule.

Being ruled by a prince, the region soon came under the pressure of being converted to Islam. However, a treaty was signed which allowed the Armenians to practice Christianity.

The Armenians went through an economic, political, and cultural renaissance between 884-1045 AD until captured by Byzantium.

Ani, a new capital was founded which had a population of 200,000 people and 1001 churches. Armenian history says that at this time the population of European capitals had not reached 20,000.

Armenia gained prosperity after Ani came into the picture. It is said that Armenia was said to have a political impact on neighboring countries after Ani was built. However, the country’s loyalty faded as the feudal system became powerful in the region,

The greater Armenia was finally conquered by the Seljuk Turks In 1071 AD. Fearing slavery and death, several families fled from Armenia to settled places like Poland, Cilicia, etc.

It is mention-worthy that among the escapists was Ani’s last king, Rupen, Gagik II’s relative who settled in Cilicia.

The Death of the Armenian Independence

In 1080, Rupen founded the Cilician kingdom also known as Little Armenia or Armenia Minor after arriving on the Mediterranean Sea’s Gulf of Alexandretta.

Thus the Rupenid dynasty was found which was a part of the Bagratid dynasty. Sis Sis became the capital of the kingdom. Although being squeezed between several Muslim states, the Christian kingdom was able to establish a powerful relationship with important Italian maritime cities that have been prospering for three hundred years. Colonies were built by Genoa, Venice, and Pisa on the kingdom’s coast.

The Mamelukes invaded Cilicia in the latter part of the fourteenth century. In 1375 the capital of Sis was captured by them which brought an end to the ongoing reign.

The last independent king of the Armenian kingdom, Leo VI escaped for exile in Paris where he breathed his last is 1393.

In the Armenian history, Armenia lost its sovereignty during this period for atleast the next six centuries and was ruled by several foreign kings.

The Dominating Rule of the Ottoman and Persian

The Armenian culture lost itself in the period between the fall of the Cilician empire and the end of the seventeenth century.

Tamerlane forced his rule in Eastern Europe and Central Anatolia at the end of the fourteenth century but soon his kingdom was crushed.

The Ottoman Empire and the Safavids dynasty in Central Iran rose during the middle of the fifteenth century. The two dynasties battled against each other for about a hundred years for capturing Caucasus areas and Eastern Anatolia.

The fight came to an end with the victory of the Ottomans. In 1585, the Ottomans successfully conquered Armenia’s eastern part.

At the onset of the seventeenth century, the Ottomans were forced to leave the Armenian territory by Shah Abbas I who failed in his repeated attempts.

While he was withdrawing from the kingdom, he demanded the Armenians migrate from Julfa city.

Following the incident, the city of New Julfa was founded by the migrants in Esfahan where they had settled. The region prospered commercially and culturally throughout the 17th century and early 18th century. The economic activities took place from India to Britain and Italy.

In 1736, the enmity between Persians and Ottomans settled with the defeat of the Ottomans by the Persians. The Persians established rule over the southern part of Transcaucasia which included Armenia.

As portrayed in the history of Armenia, the Persian Armenia soon feel into the hands of Russia and became a part of the USSR due to the Treaties of Gulistan and Turkmanchay,1813 and 1828, respectively.

The Armenian region which was still under the Ottomans aimed at getting independence. Revolution started in the latter part of the 19th century with the formation of revolutionary committees based on a model by the nihilists of Russia.

Sultan Abdul-Hamid struck back fiercely and the first mass killing of the Armenians took place in 1894, August-September.

The second Armenian massacre happened in 1895-1896 during which thousands of Armenians were slaughtered by Hamidiés.

Thus started the Armenian massacre which was to continue for the next thirty years under the regime of various Turks.

The Massacre

As the ‘Union and Progress’ party rose, the Armenians living in Turkey continued to suffer. The ‘young Turks’ tried to establish the supremacy of the Turks in the Ottoman region.

As the Turks had lost the Ottoman region in Europe, hey decided that the only way to expand was to reunite the Turks of Central Asia namely Tatars, Uzbeks, Kazakhs etc.

The idea of Pan-Turkism in the history of Armenia originated from two main cultures. The first ideology was that of Marxism which taught the Young Turks about equality which said that all Ottomans must be equal, if so then all Ottomans must be Turks and in turn Muslims.

The second ideology focused on the Turks of the steppes of Central Asia and their reunion as the expansion of the European region was getting out of hand.

The idea of Pan Turkism was opposed by Christians, Armenians, Indo-Europeans, and Kurdish minorities. The Kurds being Muslims had no problem in getting along with the Turks. But the Christians and Armenians being of completely different origins posed a problem in accepting the Turks. Thus, they had to be removed.

In a view to eliminating the Armenians, in 1909 the massacre of Adana was led by the Turks who grabbed the opportunity at the eruption of the first world war.

During this period, the young Turks started eliminating the Armenians referred to as “Metz Yeghèrn,’ the Great Crime, the Armenian Genocide.

The initial genocide of the 20th century took place between 1915 to 1923. The history of Armenia recorded the massacre of nearly 1.5 people. The Armenian genocide let to the deportation and death of people in the Syrian desert.

The survivors of the Armenian Genocide sought refuge in the Republic of Armenia.

The Republic of Armenia was born after the battle of Sardaraparat in which the Armenians defeated the Turks. Many people also took refuge in Syria, Israel, Europe, the United States, Egypt, and Lebanon.

In 1920, after the war, the Treaty of Sèvres forced the Turks to free the Armenians and hand over Armenia’s Ottoman territories.

The Turkish national movement rejected the treaty. The leader of the movement, Mustafa Kemal toppled the Ottoman sultanate and announced a national secular republic.

On 24th September, the Turks with the help of the Russians waged the Armenian-Turkish war. The war ended with the Treaty of Alexandropol signed on 2nd December 1920. The treaty marked the victory of the Turks.

However, on December 4th, Yerevan of Armenia was occupied by the Soviet Eleventh Army. This marked the end of the independent Democratic Republic.

Armenia became a part of the Soviet Union on 4th March 4th, 1922.

On 11 September 1922 the Treaty of Kars was signed which made Turkey give up the Batumi port in exchange for cities like Iğdır, Kars, and Ardahan.

The communist economic system-aided Soviet Armenia. It became an industrial economy from an agricultural one. Several villages transformed into cities. The Transcaucasian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic broke down in 1936.

Thereafter, Armenia, Georgia, and Azerbaijan gained the title of independent republics of the USSR.

During the fifteenth anniversary of the Armenian genocide, the Armenians protested on the streets for the incident to be recognized by the Russian government. However, the order was restored by the Soviet troops.

To steer clear of further protests, a monument was built honoring the ones who died in the Armenian genocide.

In Yerevan, a memorial was constructed in 1967 which consisted of a 44-meter stele. This symbolized the rebirth of the Armenians. The monument also had twelve monoliths in a circle which signified the twelve provinces which now belonged to the Turkish territories.

A flame burning in the center of the circle represents the memory of the deceased in the Armenian genocide. A 100-meters long memorial hall leading to the monument displays the names of the villages where the Armenian genocide took place.

Nagorno-Karabakh War

Armenia announced its independence on 23 August 1990 which was a year prior to the downfall of the Soviet Union. But Armenia’s independence wasn’t acknowledged officially until 21 September 1991. On this day the new Republic of Armenia was declared.

The history of Armenia mentions that the rivalry between Armenia and Azerbaijan regarding the Nagorno-Karabakh territory kept growing and resulted in war. The war continued even after a cease-fire notice in 1994 and is still unresolved.

Present Armenia

Since Armenia’s independence, it has gone through several developments even after blocked borders with Azerbaijan and Turkey. It has been referred to as “the Tiger of the Caucasus” since then and is appreciated for its high growth rate.

The region receives funds worth $1.5 billion every year which accounts for about 20% of the GDP. Although poverty exists, the government involves the export of powerful technology and human capital for development.

However, after the violent history of Armenia, it has been able to establish itself as a country that promises growth and has successfully maintained friendly relations with neighboring countries like Russia, Iran, and Georgia.

The development is funded by the international network of expats of the diaspora, who pay $ 1.5 billion each year: about 20% of GDP. Poverty is still widespread: to fight it the government supports exports focused on high technology and human capital and, although in the last five years the economic boom has been resized, Armenia is still a country with a strong growth thanks to the friendly relations maintained with the other neighboring Countries: Russia, Georgia, and Iran.


How Armenia &ldquoInvented&rdquo Christendom

ONLY A WEEK PRIOR TO HIS ATTACK on Poland in September, 1939, Adolf Hitler reportedly delivered a secret talk to members of his General Staff, urging them to wipe out the Polish race. “After all,” he argued, “who remembers today the extermination of the Armenians?”

Hitler was referring to the genocide of nearly 1.5 million Armenian Christians at the hands of Ottoman Turks from 1915 to 1923 in what is now eastern Turkey. Turkish authorities deny the atrocities ever took place, but the story of bloodbath in Armenia is one of the well-documented tragedies of our time.

Still, it’s unfortunate that Armenia (today located directly east of Turkey and west of the Caspian Sea) is now known for this story above any other. It says nothing about the people of Armenia, or the part they have played in global Christianity. For contribute they did, in a manner that might surprise even a seasoned church historian.

Tortured for Christ

No man has more stature in the Armenian church today than Gregory the Illuminator. While not the first to bring Christianity to Armenia, Gregory is, at least in the minds of Armenians, the nation’s spiritual father and the people’s patron saint.

Born into a wealthy family around 257, Gregory nevertheless had a rough beginning—his biographer, Agathangelos, tells us Gregory’s father murdered the Armenian king and paid for it with his life. But the boy was rescued from the chaos following the murder, and his new guardians raised him as a Christian in Cappadocia (east-central Turkey). There, according to Agathangelos, Gregory “became acquainted with the Scriptures of God, and drew near to the fear of the Lord.”

When Gregory’s tutors told him of his father’s wickedness, Gregory approached the murdered king’s son, Tiridates, to offer his service (all the while concealing his identity). Tiridates accepted Gregory’s offer, but when Gregory refused to worship Anahit, an idol the king had raised in gratitude for military successes, Tiridates became furious: “You have come and joined us as a stranger and foreigner. How then are you able to worship that God whom I do not worship?”

Tiridates tortured Gregory, hanging him upside-down and flogging him, then fastening blocks of wood to his legs and tightening them. When these tactics failed, he tried even more gruesome measures. Still the saint refused to bow the knee. Tiridates then learned that Gregory was the son of his father’s murderer, and he ordered that the missionary be thrown into a “bottommost pit” filled with dead bodies and other filth. There Gregory sat for 13 years, surviving only on bread a widow threw down each day after receiving instruction to do so in a dream.

Converting the King

At about this time a beautiful woman named Rhipsime arrived in Armenia, fleeing an enforced marriage to the Roman emperor Diocletian. Tiridates took a liking to her too, and took her forcibly when she refused to come to him. But “strengthened by the Holy Spirit,” she fought off his advances and escaped. Furious, Tiridates ordered her execution, and that night Rhipsime burned at the stake. Her abbess Gaiane soon followed her in death, along with 35 other companions.

The king, still lusting after Rhipsime, mourned her death for six days, then prepared to go hunting. But God visited on him a horrible punishment—Agathangelos calls it demon possession—reducing him to insanity and throwing his court into chaos. Tiridates’ sister had a vision to send for Gregory, imprisoned so long ago. People laughed at the idea Gregory might still be alive, but recurrent visions finally convinced a nobleman, Awtay, to visit his pit. Astonished to find the missionary living, Awtay brought him to meet the king, who was feeding with swine outside the city.

Tiridates, along with other possessed members of his court, rushed at Gregory. But Gregory “immediately knelt in prayer, and they returned to sobriety.” Tiridates then pleaded for Gregory’s forgiveness, and the king and his whole court repented of their sin and confessed faith in Christ.

Assessing Gregory’s Legacy

Scholars disagree over how much Agathangelos’s history can be taken at face-value. After all, he wrote his book in 460 (Tiridates is believed by Armenians to have converted in 301), and much of his story has elements of hagiography that lead one to wonder whether the events ever happened. But even skeptics acknowledge that Gregory was a real person with considerable ecclesiastical influence in Armenia—the signature of his son and successor Aristakes can be found among those ratifying the Council of Nicaea in 325. And even if we can document little about the man, his pre-eminence among Armenia’s heroes of the faith is unassailable.

Miks? First, Gregory persuaded the king to build a string of churches across Armenia, beginning with Holy Etchmiadzin— according to some scholars the oldest cathedral site in the world and an important pilgrimage site for all Armenians. The seat of the Armenian church would pass to other cities, but Gregory “established” Christianity in Armenia via this church.

Gregory also introduced Christian liturgy to Armenia. These rites consisted of psalmody, scriptural readings, and prayers recited in Greek or Syriac. After Mesrop Mashtots invented an Armenian alphabet at the beginning of the fifth century, both the Bible and the liturgy were translated into the Armenian language.

Most importantly, Gregory set in motion the mass conversion of Armenia to Christianity. According to Agathangelos, the king ordered all pagan shrines to be torn down, and Gregory proceeded to baptize more than 190,000 people into the new faith. Whether the nation converted as quickly as Agathangelos implies is difficult to discern. Certainly by the fifth century, Armenia was well on its way to becoming a “Christian” nation.

Armenia is an ancient—if not the oldest—model for what we now call Christendom. Church historian Kenneth Scott Latourette notes that the Armenian church “was an instance of what was to be seen again and again, a group adoption of the Christian faith engineered by the accepted leaders and issuing in an ecclesiastical structure which became identified with a particular people, state, or nation.”

Certainly the Roman Empire is a prime example of this, but Armenia is at least as old, and perhaps a more impressive example given the invasions and persecution it endured at the hands of the Turks (and before them, Arabs and Persians). Indeed even Byzantium attempted to bring Armenia within its orbit, but the nation resisted, arguing that its apostolic origins were on par with Rome.

So lest you assume Rome is our first example of Christendom, think again. Long may Armenia’s church endure. CH

By Steven Gertz

[Christian History originally published this article in Christian History Issue #85 in 2005]


Vaata videot: Tiridates III and Arsacid Armenia