Meie saidi podcast koos Paul Reediga

Meie saidi podcast koos Paul Reediga


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Meie saidi podcast koos Paul Reediga - ajalugu

TUNDMATU ISIK #1: kuulajate toetatud WNYC stuudiod.

JAD ABUMRAD: Enne kui alustame, tahan teile lihtsalt teada anda, et loos on hetk või kaks tugevat keelt.

(RADIOLAB INTRO HELI)

TUNDMATU ISIK #2: Oota. Oota. Sa kuulad (naer).

TUNDMATU ISIK #2: Hea küll.

TUNDMATU ISIK #2: Hea küll.

TUNDMATU ISIK #3: Sa kuulad.

TUNDMATU ISIK #2: kuulamine.

TUNDMATU ISIK #3:. RADIOLABile.

TUNDMATU ISIK #4: RADIOLAB.

TUNDMATUD INIMESED: pärit WNYC -st.

TUNDMATU ISIK #2: Jah.

JAD ABUMRAD: Tere. Mina olen Jad Abumrad. See on RADIOLAB. Ja täna.

JAD ABUMRAD:. Matthew Kielty.

JAD ABUMRAD: Lugu meie produtsendilt Matthew Kieltylt.

MATT KIELTY: Heather on ka siin.

JAD ABUMRAD: Tere, Radke. Kuidas läheb?

HEATHER RADKE: Hea. Kuidas sul läheb?

JAD ABUMRAD: Ja reporter Heather Radke.

Kust poisid soovite alustada?

(PODCASTI HELI, "PÄEVANE")

MICHAEL BARBARO: The New York Timesist olen Michael Barbaro. See on "The Daily".

HEATHER RADKE: kerige tagasi pandeemia algusaegadesse.

(PODCASTI HELI, "PÄEVANE")

(PODCASTI HELI, "PÄEVANE")

MICHAEL BARBARO:. President Trumpina.

HEATHER RADKE:. Kuulasin "The Daily". See oli üks neist episoodidest pandeemia kohta. Ja saates olid nad.

(PODCASTI HELI, "PÄEVANE")

MICHAEL BARBARO: teadusreporter Donald G. McNeil Jr.

HEATHER RADKE: Don McNeil Jr. Mäletan nendel pandeemia algusaegadel, kui Don McNeil tuli ajalehele The Daily, et sa teadsid, et saad halbu uudiseid ja et ta lihtsalt ütleb sulle kui tõsine see asi oli.

JAD ABUMRAD: Kas nad ei kutsu teda näiteks Doomsday Doniks või nii?

HEATHER RADKE: Tähendab, ma pole seda kunagi kuulnud, aga ei tahaks - ma pole üllatunud. Sest näiteks veebruaris.

(PODCASTI HELI, "PÄEVANE")

MICHAEL BARBARO: Tulevikuportreed, mille olete meile maalinud, on olnud hämmastavalt täpsed.

HEATHER RADKE: Ta rääkis meile, et koolid suletakse, et me kõik jääme nädalateks või kuudeks oma majadesse kinni.

(PODCASTI HELI, "PÄEVANE")

MICHAEL BARBARO: Need juhtusid.

HEATHER RADKE:. Et isikukaitsevahendeid ei jätku.

(PODCASTI HELI, "PÄEVANE")

MICHAEL BARBARO: Peaaegu kõik, mis sa ütlesid, et juhtub, on enam -vähem juhtunud.

DONALD G MCNEIL JR: No vaata. Ma pole mingi tume ingel, kes vaatab lihtsalt tulevikku.

HEATHER RADKE: Aga ta on selline (naer). Ma ei tea. Aga igatahes, nii ka selles saates.

(PODCASTI HELI, "PÄEVANE")

DONALD G MCNEIL JR: Ma räägin ekspertidega.

HEATHER RADKE:. Mis oli aprillis, nad räägivad - näiteks mängivad nad välja pandeemia tulevikku ja seda, milline võiks meie maailm välja näha.

(PODCASTI HELI, "PÄEVANE")

DONALD G MCNEIL JR: Tead, me ei saa lasta inimestel jalgpallistaadionidel üksteise kõrval istuda.

HEATHER RADKE:. Sellest, kuidas sport võiks välja näha.

(PODCASTI HELI, "PÄEVANE")

DONALD G MCNEIL JR: Laske pooled lapsed sel nädalal kooli minna.

HEATHER RADKE:. Kuidas koolid võiksid töötada.

(PODCASTI HELI, "PÄEVANE")

DONALD G MCNEIL JR: Järgmisel nädalal jõuab teine ​​pool lastest kooli.

HEATHER RADKE:. Väljas einestamine.

(PODCASTI HELI, "PÄEVANE")

DONALD G MCNEIL JR: restoranis, millel oli varem 100 klienti, on praegu umbes 10 klienti.

HEATHER RADKE: Hirmuäratav.

(PODCASTI HELI, "PÄEVANE")

MICHAEL BARBARO: Ja kui kaua.

HEATHER RADKE: Aga siis Barbaro on nagu.

(PODCASTI HELI, "PÄEVANE")

MICHAEL BARBARO: Mingil hetkel saame lihtsalt normaalseks tagasi?

HEATHER RADKE: Ja siis McNeil ütleb: vaata. See pandeemia saab otsa.

(PODCASTI HELI, "PÄEVANE")

DONALD G MCNEIL JR:. Kui meil on vaktsiin, mida me kõik saame võtta.

HEATHER RADKE: Vaktsiin lõpetab selle.

(PODCASTI HELI, "PÄEVANE")

DONALD G MCNEIL JR: Kuid rekord, mis meil kunagi vaktsiini tootmiseks on olnud, on neli aastat.

HEATHER RADKE: Kiireim vaktsiin, mille oleme kunagi teinud, oli mumpsi vaktsiin.

(PODCASTI HELI, "PÄEVANE")

DONALD G MCNEIL JR: Jah, kiireim inimvaktsiin, mis eales tehtud, oli mumpsi - neli aastat algusest lõpuni.

MATT KIELTY: Kui te olete inimene, kes tarbib teavet, siis teate ilmselt hästi, et me kavatseme selle rekordi purustada. Tõenäoliselt kustutame selle rekordi. Me saame vaktsiini palju kiiremini kui neli aastat. Ja ma mõtlen, see on sellepärast, et COVID on täielikult maailma muutv hävitav pandeemia, millele oleme pühendanud miljoneid miljoneid dollareid. Tuhanded ja tuhanded inimesed on teinud ööd ja päevad tööd vaktsiini väljamõtlemise nimel.

Aga - ja võib -olla mõtlete siinkohal, kuhu ma sellega lähen. Aga kui Heather seda "The Daily" episoodi kuulis, hakkasime temaga rääkima. Ja me hakkasime uurima seda lugu mumpsi kohta, sellest, mis saab varsti olema teine ​​kiireim vaktsiin, mille oleme kunagi teinud. Ja see, mis me leidsime, seisab selle keskel, on kummalisel kombel just see üks tüüp.

MATT KIELTY:. Teadlane nimega Maurice Hilleman, kutt, kes kehastas kuidagi kõike seda, mida haigusest vabanemine meilt nõuab. Aga enne kui jõuame Maurice'i.

HEATHER RADKE: Mis on mumps?

PAUL OFFIT: Ma kuulen sind, jah.

MATT KIELTY: Nii et me rääkisime selle tüübi Paul Offitiga.

HEATHER RADKE:. Vaktsiinihariduskeskuse direktor.

PAUL OFFIT: Ja pediaatriaprofessor Pennsylvania ülikooli meditsiinikoolis.

MATT KIELTY: Kuidas teie maailmas praegu läheb?

PAUL OFFIT: Nad on üsna hõivatud. Ma pole tegelikult kunagi elus rohkem hõivatud olnud. Ja ma olen vanem, teate?

HEATHER RADKE: Paul on FDA COVID -vaktsiinide nõuandekomitees.

PAUL OFFIT: Meil ​​oli eelmisel neljapäeval koosolek, mis oli üheksatunnine koosolek. Seda näidati C-SPAN-il.

HEATHER RADKE: See on pikk kohtumine.

MATT KIELTY: Aga igal juhul küsisime Paulilt.

HEATHER RADKE: Mis on mumpsi ja kuidas see on nakkav?

PAUL OFFIT: Samamoodi, nagu SARS-CoV-2 on nakkav, levib see väikeste hingamisteede tilkade kaudu, mis väljuvad suust ja ninast.

MATT KIELTY: Nii nagu köhimine, aevastamine, rääkimine, suudlemine.

PAUL OFFIT: Ja enamasti nakatasid viirusega lapsed.

HEATHER RADKE: Ja mumpsi peamine sümptom on see, et teie nägu paisub üles.

MATT KIELTY: Teie põsed paisuvad üles ja ümber lõualuu.

PAUL OFFIT: Nii et teil on selline mardikas sarnane välimus.

(Telesaate heli, "BRADY BUNCH")

FLORENCE HENDERSON: (Nagu Carol Brady, laulab) Ma tahan, et sa oleksid armastatud.

PAUL OFFIT: Nii et lapsed, kes said mumpsi, nägid välja just sellised, nagu armsad väikesed kiibid.

HEATHER RADKE:. Mis tähendas, et mumps oli suurepärane selliste asjade jaoks nagu "The Brady Bunchi" süžee.

(Telesaate heli, "BRADY BUNCH")

MELISSA SUE ANDERSON: (Millicentina) Arst arvab, et mul võib olla mumps.

(Telesaate heli, "BRADY BUNCH")

MIKE LOOKINLAND: (Nagu Bobby Brady) Mumps?

(Telesaate heli, "HEA AEG")

TUNDMATUD LAULJAD: (Laulab) Head aega.

HEATHER RADKE:. "Head ajad."

(Telesaate heli, "HEA AEG")

Tundmatu näitleja #1: Hei, hei, hei.

TUNDMATU NÄITLEJA #2: (räägib saksa keelt).

MATT KIELTY:. Mingi vana saksa multikas.

TUNDMATU NÄITLEJA #3: (räägib saksa keelt).

PAUL OFFIT: Seal on Coastersi laul.

(RANNAKLAASIDE LAUL, "MÜRG IVY")

PAUL OFFIT:. Nimega "Poison Ivy".

(LAULU HELI, "MÜRG IVY")

RANNASTAJAD: (Laulavad) Leetrid muudavad teid mumpsi ja mumpsi tükkideks.

PAUL OFFIT: Küsige seda oma vanematelt.

Leidsin selle vana vaudeville'i laulu, mis rääkis lapsest, kes sai mumpsi.

(FLUTE MÄNGIMISE HELI)

HEATHER RADKE:. Minu flöödil testitud.

(FLUTE MÄNGIMISE HELI)

JAD ABUMRAD: Ei näinud flööti tulemas.

MATT KIELTY: Mumps on nagu kõige armsam haigus, mis teil võib olla.

PAUL OFFIT: Ma mõtlen, see põhjustab - see võib nakatada aju ja seljaaju limaskesta.

HEATHER RADKE: Mis võib põhjustada kurtust.

PAUL OFFIT: Aga see ei tapa sind tegelikult, ei.

MATT KIELTY: Nii et see pole tegelikult.

HEATHER RADKE: Tead, Matt, ma pean ütlema, et üks asi, mida ma soovin, et ma siin oleksin, oli tõeline mumpsi probleem, see tähendab, et mehed kaotavad oma mehelikkuse. Mulle tundub, et te väldite sellist (naeru).

MATT KIELTY: Ma ei väldi seda, Heather.

HEATHER RADKE: Ma lihtsalt ütlen, et mumpsi suur probleem on see, et meeste munandid muutuvad tohutuks ja nad ei saa kõndida ja siis ei saa nad mõnikord lapsi. Ja see hirmutas kõiki sõjaväes. Ja sellepärast oli mumps suur asi.

HEATHER RADKE: Lisage see sisse.

JAD ABUMRAD: Aga oota. Kas sa ütled tõsiselt, et suur tõuge, näiteks miks see konkreetne vaktsiin nii kiiresti juhtus, on see, et see oli väga meestekeskne ja muretses paljusid armee poisse?

MATT KIELTY: Ei. Sest tegelikult jõuame siia tagasi oma ühe mehe Maurice Hillemani juurde.

PAUL OFFIT: Maurice Hilleman on minu arvates kaasaegsete vaktsiinide isa.

HEATHER RADKE: Ma mõtlen, et ta on üks sellistest meestest.

PAUL OFFIT: Ta on vaktsiinimeister.

HEATHER RADKE:. Kõigis tema biograafiates ja nekroloogides loete midagi sellist, et ta võib olla 20. sajandi suurim bioloog.

PAUL OFFIT: Õige. Tema hinnangul päästa tema töö hinnanguliselt umbes 8 miljonit elu aastas.

HEATHER RADKE: Siis loete midagi sellist, nagu ta oli 20. sajandi suurim teadlane.

PAUL OFFIT: Me elame tema tõttu kauem. Me elame 30 aastat kauem kui 100 aastat tagasi, peamiselt Maurice Hillemani jõupingutuste tõttu.

HEATHER RADKE: Ja siis kohtad midagi, mis ütleb, et ta võib olla suurim teadlane, kes eales on elanud.

PAUL OFFIT: Ma soovin, et ta oleks täna elus.

MATT KIELTY: Nii suri Maurice Hilleman 2005. aastal 85 -aastaselt vähki. Kuid vaid mõni kuu enne surma küsitles Paul teda tegelikult.

PAUL OFFIT: Ma tahtsin lihtsalt tema lugusid maha võtta.

HEATHER RADKE: Nad tundsid üksteist päris hästi.

PAUL OFFIT: Ja ta oli piisavalt tore, et lubas mul tema viimase kuue kuu jooksul küsitleda teda umbes 60 või 70 tundi.

(ARHIIVSALVESTUSE HELI)

TUNDMATU ISIK #5: Nii et pöörduge tagasi.

MATT KIELTY:. Filmimeeskond küsitles Maurice'i enne tema surma ja nad olid piisavalt helded, et anda meile osa sellest lindist.

(ARHIIVSALVESTUSE HELI)

MAURICE HILLEMAN: Noh, ma olen Maurice Hilleman ja mul oli pikk teaduskarjäär - umbes 60 aastat - tegelenud alusuuringute ja suure hulga uute vaktsiinide väljatöötamisega.

TUNDMATU ISIK #5: Nii et andke mulle natuke oma isiklikust ajaloost.

MAURICE HILLEMAN: Noh, võite küsida, kuidas sa said kunagi montanlaseks?

MATT KIELTY: Nii et mine tagasi - 1800ndate lõpp. Hillemani vanaonu, armee skaut, asub selles väikeses linnas Montanas elama.

(ARHIIVSALVESTUSE HELI)

MAURICE HILLEMAN:. Nimeks Miles Town.

MATT KIELTY:. Nüüd nimetatakse Miles Cityks.

(ARHIIVSALVESTUSE HELI)

MAURICE HILLEMAN:. Tegeleb ebaseaduslike äridega. Ma arvan, et see oli suuresti prostitutsioon (naer).

MATT KIELTY: Lõpuks tuli rohkem perekonda üles, asus tema kõrvale elama.

(ARHIIVSALVESTUSE HELI)

MAURICE HILLEMAN: Seal on rikas põllumaa.

MATT KIELTY: suured ja laiad ruumid.

HEATHER RADKE: Tema ema ja isa töötasid talus. Neil oli seitse last. Ja siis sündis Maurice.

PAUL OFFIT: Suure gripipandeemia ajal.

JAD ABUMRAD: Nii sündis ta keset teise laine grippi.

HEATHER RADKE: Mmm hmm. Ja tema ema haigestus kohe pärast tema sündi. Ja tal oli kaksikõde. Ja nii kaksikõde kui ka ema surid tegelikult ja ta oli ainus sünnitusest ellujäänu.

MATT KIELTY: Ja Maurice'i isa kinkis Maurice'i oma tädile ja onule, kes elasid kõrvalmajas. Nii et tal oli selline imelik lapsepõlv, kus ta töötas koos oma õdede -vendade ja bioloogilise isaga. Nad läheksid samasse kirikusse, kõik koos. Aga siis läks ta päeva lõpuks oma tädi ja onu juurde üksi.

PAUL OFFIT: Ja ma arvan, et ta tahtis alati näha. Ta mainiks seda, et ta tahtis, et isa teda näeks.

MATT KIELTY: Offit ütles, et see oli tema elus liikumapanev jõud.

HEATHER RADKE: Nii et Montanas on 20ndad.

(ARHIIVSALVESTUSE HELI)

MAURICE HILLEMAN: Sinust sai tõesti töönarkomaan, et ellu jääda.

MATT KIELTY: 4 -aastaselt läheb ta linna, et turul maasikaid müüa.

HEATHER RADKE: Tagasi farmi.

(ARHIIVSALVESTUSE HELI)

MAURICE HILLEMAN: Meil ​​oli sepikoda. Meil oli masinatöökoda.

(VASARA VASARA HELI)

HEATHER RADKE: Loomi oli igasuguseid.

(ARHIIVSALVESTUSE HELI)

HEATHER RADKE: Vanemaks saades.

(ARHIIVSALVESTUSE HELI)

MAURICE HILLEMAN:. Üks minu töö oli kanade eest hoolitsemine.

(KANADE KLÕPPIMISE HELI)

HEATHER RADKE: Ta toitis neid ja ajas neid ning kogus nende mune.

(ARHIIVSALVESTUSE HELI)

MAURICE HILLEMAN: Ma sain kanadega tuttavaks.

HEATHER RADKE: Ja siis olid need lood sellest, kuidas ta enne 10 -aastaseks saamist oli.

(RONGI MÕÕTMISE HELI)

HEATHER RADKE:. Peaaegu tabas kaubarong.

PAUL OFFIT: Sõna otseses mõttes tuli rong teises suunas.

HEATHER RADKE: Ta lämbub peaaegu difteeriast. Tema, nagu.

HEATHER RADKE:. Mingil moel järgib hobo juga, kuid ta ei oska ujuda ja peaaegu upub.

JAD ABUMRAD: See laps on neetud.

HEATHER RADKE: Jah. Elu Montanas oli raske.

PAUL OFFIT: Ja nii nägi ta end tähelepanuväärse ellujääjana.

HEATHER RADKE: Ja temast saab seetõttu päris karm inimene. Kuid ta tunneb ka suurt huvi teaduse vastu. Niisiis, Hillemani bioloogiline isa - ta oli superluterlane, tõesti, väga pühendunud.

MATT KIELTY: Ta oli innukas palve. Ta uskus usu paranemisse, et Jumal võib ravida haigusi.

HEATHER RADKE: Ja Paul ütles, et võib -olla omamoodi reaktsioon sellele.

PAUL OFFIT:. Või selle tagasilükkamisest.

(ARHIIVSALVESTUSE HELI)

TUNDMATU ISIK #6: (lugemine) HMS Beagle'i pardal loodusteadlasena.

HEATHER RADKE: Hilleman armus Darwini.

(ARHIIVSALVESTUSE HELI)

TUNDMATU ISIK #6: (Loeb). Mind hämmastasid teatud faktid.

JAD ABUMRAD: Ta sõna otseses mõttes - nagu Darwin on see, mis tõmbas ta varjuküljele?

PAUL OFFIT: Tähendab, ta rääkis mulle rõõmsalt loo sellest, kuidas ta kirikus istuks ja.

(ARHIIVSALVESTUSE HELI)

TUNDMATU ISIK #6: (Loeb). Mulle tundus, et heidan veidi valgust liikide päritolule.

PAUL OFFIT:. Lugege Darwini "Liikide päritolu kohta".

(ARHIIVSALVESTUSE HELI)

TUNDMATU ISIK #6: (Loeb). See saladuste saladus.

MATT KIELTY: Erinevalt isa religioonist, mis seisnes salapärasuses ja usus.

PAUL OFFIT: See oli loogiline, tellitud ja põhjendatud ning põhines asjadel, mida nägite.

HEATHER RADKE: Ja ta vaimustub sellest teist tüüpi Piiblist.

MATT KIELTY: Ja ta läheb Darwini lugemisest edasi.

(ARHIIVSALVESTUSE HELI)

MAURICE HILLEMAN:. Paul Ehrlich ja von Behring ja Pasteur.

MATT KIELTY:. Need suurepärased mikrobioloogid.

MATT KIELTY:. Kes oli teinud selles veel uues arenevas valdkonnas murrangulisi uuringuid.

(ARHIIVSALVESTUSE HELI)

MAURICE HILLEMAN: Viroloogia.

MATT KIELTY: viirusteadus.

(ARHIIVSALVESTUSE HELI)

MAURICE HILLEMAN: Kogu äritegevus viiruste kui haru vahel elavate ja surnute vahel - ma olin sellest tõesti huvitatud.

MATT KIELTY: Nüüd, kui ta keskkooli lõpetas, ei plaaninud ta tegelikult ülikooli minna. Tema vend pidi seminarikoolist naasma, et teda haridusega jätkata.

(ARHIIVSALVESTUSE HELI)

MAURICE HILLEMAN: Nii et ma läksin Montana osariiki.

HEATHER RADKE: Ta õpib mikrobioloogiat.

(ARHIIVSALVESTUSE HELI)

MAURICE HILLEMAN: Töötas päris kõvasti.

MATT KIELTY: On lugusid selle kohta, kuidas ta oma nädalavahetusi laboris veedaks.

HEATHER RADKE: Sellest, kuidas tal oli neli katset korraga käimas.

MATT KIELTY: Ja 1941. aastal lõpetab ta kooli.

HEATHER RADKE: Läheb Chicago ülikooli.

(ARHIIVSALVESTUSE HELI)

MAURICE HILLEMAN: Oma aja intellektuaalne keskus.

MATT KIELTY: alustab doktorikraadi. tööd.

(ARHIIVSALVESTUSE HELI)

MAURICE HILLEMAN: Klamüüdia kohta.

MATT KIELTY: Inimesed on aastaid otsinud vaktsiini klamüüdia vastu, mida kõik arvasid viiruseks.

HEATHER RADKE: Ja aasta pärast avastab Hilleman, et see pole tegelikult viirus.

MATT KIELTY: See oli bakter.

PAUL OFFIT: Ja seda saab ravida antibiootikumidega. Seda ta tegi oma doktorikraadina. väitekirja, kui ta oli 25 -aastane.

HEATHER RADKE: Suur saavutus. Siis.

(ARHIIVSALVESTUSE HELI)

HEATHER RADKE: Ta lõpetab.

(ARHIIVSALVESTUSE HELI)

MAURICE HILLEMAN: Päris kuradima heast koolist ja teda köitis akadeemiline ringkond.

MATT KIELTY: Saada professoriks.

HEATHER RADKE: Milliseks temast oodati.

PAUL OFFIT: Seda sa tegid.

MATT KIELTY: Läksite ja järgisite nende inimeste teed, kes tulid teie ette teadmisi otsima nendes auhinnatud avalikes asutustes, kuhu te süveneksite ja avalikkuse hüvanguks uuriksite.

MATT KIELTY: Ja Hilleman oli nagu, ei.

(ARHIIVSALVESTUSE HELI)

MAURICE HILLEMAN: Ma tahtsin välja minna ja näha, kuidas suur maailm toimib, praktiline suur maailm.

PAUL OFFIT: Ta tahtis teha asju, nagu ta oli neid talus teinud. Ta tahtis asju toota.

MATT KIELTY: Nii läheb ta tööle sellesse väikesesse ravimifirmasse New Jerseys. Siis ta kutsutakse.

HEATHER RADKE: Noh, aga kõigepealt ma mõtlen, et ärge magage Jaapani entsefaliidi peal.

HEATHER RADKE: Nii et ta loob selle vaktsiini Jaapani entsefaliidi vastu, mis on see kohutav haigus, mis põhjustab aju turset ja on Aasias inimesi tapnud tõesti pikka aega. Ja siis palub armee tal välja töötada vaktsiin, et sõdurid ei sureks seal olles ja ei mõjutaks seda. Ja ta teeb seda.

MATT KIELTY: Ja see on esimene vaktsiin, mille ta teeb.

HEATHER RADKE: Kas ta teeb armees olles Hongkongi asja? Ma arvan, et ta teeb seda.

MATT KIELTY: Doot-do-doo (ph). 40ndate lõpus, institutsioonid (ph) - kaasaegsed gripitüved. Jah, 1948. aastal läheb ta Walter Reedi juurde.

(ARHIIVSALVESTUSE HELI)

MAURICE HILLEMAN: Jah. Kui ma läksin Walter Reedi juurde, oli see nii - minu ülesanne oli väga lihtsalt õppida kõike gripi kohta, mida saate.

HEATHER RADKE: Tead, 1919 pole 40ndate keskpaigast nii kaugel. Pandeemia on tõesti kõigi mälestuses.

(ARHIIVSALVESTUSE HELI)

MAURICE HILLEMAN: Nii et minu ülesanne oli vältida järgmist pandeemiat.

HEATHER RADKE: Et välja mõelda, kuidas teist ära hoida.

(ARHIIVSALVESTUSE HELI)

MAURICE HILLEMAN: Mida ma siis tegin.

HEATHER RADKE: Põhimõtteliselt läheb ta läbi - vaadates läbi kõik need gripiproovid, mis neil Walter Reedi juures on, ja ta avastab, et gripiviirus muutub igal aastal. Ja ta mõtleb välja, kuidas see seda teeb ja miks ning siis aitab.

HEATHER RADKE:. Looge süsteem uue vaktsiini valmistamiseks igal aastal.

JAD ABUMRAD: Nii et tema on põhjus, miks peame igal aastal uue gripivaktsiini saama?

MATT KIELTY: Ta on ka esimene, kes avastas, kuidas viirused nihkuvad edasi -tagasi hüpates inimeste ja nagu lindude või nahkhiirte vahel.

MATT KIELTY: See võimaldab tal 1957. aastal saada esimeseks inimeseks, kes on pandeemia ära hoidnud, sest ta näeb selle tulekut. See tuli Hongkongist. Ta suudab gripivaktsiini kohandada. Inimesed inokuleeritakse. Ta suudab Ameerikas päästa vähemalt miljoni inimese elu.

MATT KIELTY: Talle anti teaduse eest presidendi medal.

JAD ABUMRAD: See tüüp on lihtsalt nagu - ta on üsna jooksus.

JAD ABUMRAD: Pärast oma viletsat lapsepõlve.

HEATHER RADKE: Ma tean. Ma mõtlen, sa oled tõesti.

HEATHER RADKE: Oh, mine edasi.

JAD ABUMRAD: OK, vabandust. Ei ei ei. Tahtsin esitada küsimuse, kuid arvan, et see tuleb. Nii et võib -olla ma - võib -olla ei vasta, kui kavatsete. Kuidas see õnnestub - ma otsin mingit viisi, kuidas mõista, miks ta selles konkreetses teadusnurgas nii andekas oli. Aga võib -olla on loos, mida sa mulle rääkida tahad, midagi, mis sellest kuidagi välja tuleb.

MATT KIELTY: Jah, Jad. See on mumpsi lugu.

MATT KIELTY: Kogu põhjus, miks me siin oleme.

JAD ABUMRAD: Oh, oota. Kas ma saan - kas te suudate ühe sekundi vastu pidada? Pean võib -olla jooksma ja ukse saama.

JAD ABUMRAD: Ma tulen kohe tagasi.

HEATHER RADKE: Ma võtan natuke vett.

MATT KIELTY: See on hea koht puhkamiseks.

MATT KIELTY: Ma ei leia rakendust kunagi üles. Sisestage see, sisestage see, sisestage see.

HEATHER RADKE: (Naer) Teil on tõsi - palju inimesi, kes teiega koostööd teevad. Lõppkokkuvõttes on siin lõbus väike pere. Kõik käed tekil.

MATT KIELTY: Kõik käed tekil.

HEATHER RADKE: Nagu paneksime näitemängu.

JAD ABUMRAD: Jad - RADIOLAB. Tagasi Heather Radke ja Matt Kielty juurde ning nende lugu Maurice Hillemanist, ehk kaasaegsete vaktsiinide isast ehk vaktsiinimeistrist.

PAUL OFFIT: Üks teine ​​asi - ta oli ka profaan.

MAURICE HILLEMAN: Nii palju kuradima asju võib juhtuda.

Nad armastasid seda meest. No ma arvasin, et ta on nõme.

Seal peatus kuradi jäätiseauto.

MATT KIELTY: Muide, need on Offiti salvestused, mis on tehtud Hillemaniga, et temast raamat kirjutada.

PAUL OFFIT: Kuid raamatu kirjutamine oli raske, sest sageli oleks mul olnud F -sõna samas lauses nagu polümeraasi ahelreaktsioon, mis on ilmselt ainus kord, kui see kunagi juhtus.

MATT KIELTY: Niisiis liitus Hilleman 1957. aastal ravimifirmaga Merck, et juhtida nende vaktsiinidivisjoni. Ja kui ta sinna jõudis, viis ettevõte üsna kiiresti juhtimiskoolituse läbi.

(ARHIIVSALVESTUSE HELI)

MAURICE HILLEMAN: Võlukool.

MATT KIELTY: Või mida ta nimetas võlukooliks.

(ARHIIVSALVESTUSE HELI)

MAURICE HILLEMAN: Me ei saaks nii palju tülitseda, eks? Nii et see on jama.

MATT KIELTY: Mingil hetkel loeti talle loengut oma töötajatele rahuldustpakkuvama töökeskkonna loomise kohta.

(ARHIIVSALVESTUSE HELI)

MAURICE HILLEMAN: Nauding oli teie töö. Ma ütlesin, et see on palju (ph) jama, teate?

PAUL OFFIT: Ta oli kõva mees.

(ARHIIVSALVESTUSE HELI)

MAURICE HILLEMAN: Ettevõte peaks tegema tagumikku.

PAUL OFFIT: Ja ta kannatas lolle halvasti.

(ARHIIVSALVESTUSE HELI)

MAURICE HILLEMAN: Ma ütlen teile, kuradi nõu, mille sain ülemustelt.

MATT KIELTY: Suurel osal on see sellepärast, et kui Hilleman Merckile kohale ilmus, oli tal selline suur nägemus.

(ARHIIVSALVESTUSE HELI)

MAURICE HILLEMAN: Ja minu nägemus oli, et ma tahan laste lastehaigusi vallutada.

PAUL OFFIT: Tema eesmärk oli kõrvaldada kõik viirus- või bakteriaalsed infektsioonid, mis nakatasid lapsi.

(ARHIIVSALVESTUSE HELI)

MAURICE HILLEMAN: Leetrid, mumps, punetised, tuulerõuged.

PAUL OFFIT: See oli naeruväärne eesmärk. Kuid ta jõudis kohtumisele üsna lähedale.

MATT KIELTY: OK, nii et lähme lõpuks tegelikult.

(ARHIIVSALVESTUSE HELI)

PAUL OFFIT: Jah, lähme mumpsi juurde. Kas olete valmis minema mumpsi?

HEATHER RADKE: Hea küll. Jah, lähme tagasi algusesse.

JERYL LYNN HILLEMAN: Oh, absoluutselt.

HEATHER RADKE: See on muide Maurice Hillemani tütar Jeryl Lynn Hilleman.

Kui vana sa mumpsiga alla tulid?

JERYL LYNN HILLEMAN: Ma usun, et olin 5.

HEATHER RADKE: Philadelphia, kas see on õige?

JERYL LYNN HILLEMAN: Väljaspool Philadelphiat, äärelinnas väljaspool Philadelphiat.

MATT KIELTY: OK, nii et see oli 23. märts 1963.

JERYL LYNN HILLEMAN: See oli ilmselt keset ööd, väga hilja õhtul. Ma läksin magama. Ma ärkasin üles. Ma ei tundnud end hästi.

MATT KIELTY: Nii et ta tõuseb voodist, läheb üle koridori.

(ARHIIVSALVESTUSE HELI)

PAUL OFFIT: Nii et ta tuleb sinu juurde kell 1 hommikul?

MATT KIELTY: Ärkab isa üles.

(ARHIIVSALVESTUSE HELI)

MAURICE HILLEMAN: Ja ta ütleb, et mu kurk valutab.

MATT KIELTY: Nii et esimene asi, mida ta tegi, oli see, et ta selle raamatu välja võttis.

JERYL LYNN HILLEMAN: Väga paks raamat, võib -olla 3 või 4 tolli paks, kõvakaaneline.

HEATHER RADKE: Omamoodi diagnostikaraamat.

MATT KIELTY: Ta pöidlad läbi, vaatab tütart.

(ARHIIVSALVESTUSE HELI)

MAURICE HILLEMAN: Ma ütlesin, püha pask. Sul on mumps.

PAUL OFFIT: Aga näe-ma ei saa lasta teda sõimata 5-aastase tütre ees. Nii et ma ei teinud seda. Ma arvan, et ma ütlesin, oh, jumal - või midagi sellist.

PAUL OFFIT: Ja siis tegi ta seda, mida isa ei tee. Ta pani ta voodisse tagasi. Nüüd oli - tema naine oli hiljuti surnud. Ja nii oli tal majahoidja, kes ka õhtul koju jäi. Niisiis.

HEATHER RADKE: Kell 1 öösel pani ta riidesse, istus autosse ja sõitis alla laborisse.

PAUL OFFIT: Sain tampooni, tuli tagasi, äratas õrnalt oma tütre.

HEATHER RADKE: pühkis ta suu sisemuse ja tõmbas natuke välja tema mumpsi viirust.

MATT KIELTY: Ja ta ütles selles intervjuus, et tegi seda Offitiga.

(ARHIIVSALVESTUSE HELI)

MAURICE HILLEMAN: See on aeg saada mumpsi viiruse tüvi. Kes teab?

MATT KIELTY: Sel hetkel ei olnud tal Merckis head mumpsi viiruse tüve. Ja nii on ta just selline, kui avaneb võimalus.

(ARHIIVSALVESTUSE HELI)

MAURICE HILLEMAN: Kasutage kõiki võimalusi.

MATT KIELTY: Hankige endale viirus.

HEATHER RADKE: OK, nii et nüüd on tal viiruseproov ja ta proovib vaktsiini valmistamiseks kasutada Jeryl Lynni viirust.

HEATHER RADKE: Vaatame. Niisiis.

MATT KIELTY: See on nagu - see on hull. Tuleb välja, et vaktsiini tegemine on hullumeelne.

JAD ABUMRAD: Jah, see on see osa, kus ma olen nagu, OK, demüstifitseeri see. Mida ta siis teeb?

MATT KIELTY: Nii et esimene asi, mida ta teeb, on see, et ta paneb sellesse laborikolbi koos hunniku kanaembrüo rakkudega Jeryl Lynni mumpsi viiruse.

MATT KIELTY: Õiglane küsimus. Nii et põhimõtteliselt kasutab ta neid tiburakke viiruse muundamiseks. Nii et ta teeb seda, et tal on viirus nende tiburakkudega laborikolvis ja ta hakkab põhimõtteliselt lihtsalt jälgima, kuidas viirus nendes rakkudes kasvab. Ja kui see kasvab, tapab ta rakke. Seda teeb viirus, kui see kasvab. Ja ta otsib surnud rakkude tükke. Ja kui ta näeb kolbi, milles on palju surnud rakke, on ta nagu oi, see üks. Ta võtab viiruse sealt välja, kitkub selle välja, paneb teise tiburakkudega kolbi ja vaatab, kas see tapab seekord veelgi rohkem rakke. Ja kui on, võtab ta selle välja, paneb uuesti kolbi. Ja ta on lihtsalt - ta põhimõtteliselt üritab seda asja paremini ja paremini tappa kanarakke. Ja idee on siin.

JAD ABUMRAD: Ja miks - mis - ja miks on - oh, jah. Vabandust. Sa vastad mu küsimusele, ma arvan. Jätka.

MATT KIELTY: Noh, idee on selles, et lastes seda loomarakkudest, nendest kanarakkudest, ikka ja jälle, teete - sisuliselt nõrgendate viiruse mõju inimesele. See on endiselt viirus ja see on ikkagi viirus, mille saate tegelikult inimese kätte võtta ja sisse panna. Asi on selles, et see lihtsalt ei põhjusta samasugust haigust nagu see, kui see oleks tõesti virulentne ja väga tugev. See on sisuliselt nõrgenenud. Seda nimetatakse sumbumiseks.

MATT KIELTY: Te keerate selle viiruse helitugevust kanade kaudu, keerates nupu alla või midagi.

HEATHER RADKE: Jah, justkui keeraksite selle tagasi.

JAD ABUMRAD: Oh, see on nii huvitav.

HEATHER RADKE:. Inimese viiruse nupp ja kanaviiruse nupp üles.

JAD ABUMRAD: Ja mida ta siis täpselt otsib? Kas ta otsib viirust, mis on ülihea kanarakkudesse sattumisel ja seega inimrakkudele kohutav? Või otsib ta midagi muud?

HEATHER RADKE: Ma arvan, et see on omamoodi kunst.

(ARHIIVSALVESTUSE HELI)

MAURICE HILLEMAN: See on kohtuotsus.

HEATHER RADKE: Hilleman kirjeldas seda kui kohtuotsust.

PAUL OFFIT: See on sisikond ja otsustusvõime. See on lihtsalt absoluutne katse ja eksitus. Ma mõtlen, et selle jaoks pole valemit. Seda pole kuskil kirjas. Sa lihtsalt proovi.

HEATHER RADKE: Ja Offit rääkis meile.

PAUL OFFIT: Tal oli tõesti kuues meel, kuidas seda teha.

HEATHER RADKE: Tead, erinevad inimesed teeksid selles osas erinevaid valikuid ja ta oskab teha õigeid valikuid. Nii et te ei taha, et see oleks nii tibakas, et inimesed seda ei teeks - nagu teate, inimkeha ei tunne seda üldse ära. Aga sa ei taha, et see oleks inimlik (ph) nii kaugele, et keegi hakkab haigeks jääma. Ja see on tõeline hirm vaktsiini valmistamisel.

HEATHER RADKE:. Kas inimesed saavad selle haiguse, teate. Niisiis.

JAD ABUMRAD: Ma näen. Oh, nii et panete lihtsalt sõrme selle peale. Nii et ta otsib - ta üritab - või nõrgendab seda nii, et see oleks täpselt sellel täiuslikul veapiiril, mis on piisavalt kana, et see ei kahjustaks inimest, kuid on siiski piisavalt inimene, et inimese immuunsüsteem saaks ära tunda ja näha seda ohuna.

MATT KIELTY: Ja Paul selgitas meile, et seda protsessi tehes - kuna teil tekib tegelik elusviirus, mis on vaktsiin, mille te inimestele sisse lasete - see protsess toob kaasa tugevaima immuunvastuse, mida vaktsiin suudab luua.

PAUL OFFIT: See on vaktsiinide kuldstandard. Ja sama strateegiat kasutatakse ka COVID-19 vaktsiini valmistamiseks.

MATT KIELTY: Oh, tõesti? Kas me ikka teeme seda?

PAUL OFFIT: Me teeme seda ikka, jah.

HEATHER RADKE: Mõnikord küsivad nad teilt, kas olete vaktsiini saamisel munade suhtes allergiline. Sellepärast.

MATT KIELTY: Oh. Enne kui me sellest protsessiosast lahkume, kiiresti, näiteks, kui kaua kulus tal selle kana-rakkude läbimise asja tegemiseks?

PAUL OFFIT: Selle tegemiseks kulus ilmselt umbes kaks aastat.

MATT KIELTY: See kõlab aeglaselt, kuid on kiire.

HEATHER RADKE: Kuna COVIDiga on meil sadu teadlasi üle kogu maailma, kõik ressursid, mida nad võiksid ette kujutada. Ja see võtab meil vähemalt aasta. See on üks tüüp, kellel on paar laboriassistenti ja hunnik kanamune. Nii et kaks aastat on tegelikult üsna kiire.

JAD ABUMRAD: Hea küll. Mis siis?

HEATHER RADKE: Nii et see on alles algus. Nii et kui tal on korralik vaktsiin, peab ta inimeste peal katseid tegema.

MATT KIELTY: Ja see osa protsessist - see on teine ​​asi kui laboris asjade kasvatamine. Seal on näiteks hoopis teine ​​maastik küsimusi ja otsuseid ning riske. Nagu vaktsiin, kui see pole õige, võib see teile lihtsalt mumpsi tekitada.

HEATHER RADKE: Ja kui me vaktsiine testime, siis me ei kontrolli mitte ainult, et veenduda nende toimimises ja selles, et nad teile haigust ei anna. Samuti katsetame, et veenduda, et pole muid tundmatuid kõrvaltoimeid.

MATT KIELTY: Kas võiksite meile lihtsalt teada anda, mida Hilleman selles prooviprotsessis täpselt teeb?

PAUL OFFIT: Muidugi. Nii et ta alustab täiskasvanutega. Seejärel töötate laste juurde.

MATT KIELTY: Ja mida ta teeb, on ta lihtsalt - ta süstib oma vaktsiini ja on lihtsalt selline, et kas sa sured või oled terve?

PAUL OFFIT: Jah. No jah. Mitte päris nii sünge.

PAUL OFFIT: Aga jah, see on lihtsalt - kas see on ohutu ja kutsub esile immuunvastuse, mis tõenäoliselt kaitseb?

HEATHER RADKE: Nii et annate neile vaktsiini. Sa registreerud tagasi. Sa võtad nende verd. Ja siis otsite antikehi.

MATT KIELTY: Ja asi on selles, et toona võis seda teha suure kiirusega.

HEATHER RADKE: Sest need on omamoodi metsiku lääne vaktsiinide tegemise ja uurimise päevad.

PAUL OFFIT: Näiteks proovitöö tegemiseks.

MATT KIELTY: Offit selgitas meile, et praegu vaktsiiniproovi tegemiseks peate allkirjastama 15-leheküljelise üherealise nõusoleku vormi.

PAUL OFFIT: Siis oli see 3x5 kaart, mis ütles: "Ma luban oma lapsel osaleda tühja vaktsiini uuringus. Ja sa täitsid lihtsalt, tead, mumpsi, leetrit, saksa leetrit. Ja siis kirjutasid sellele alla.

PAUL OFFIT: See oli nõusoleku vorm.

HEATHER RADKE: Hilleman ja tema meeskond tegid siis äärelinna.

(ARHIIVSALVESTUSE HELI)

MAURICE HILLEMAN:. Seadistage õpingud ja Havertown, mis on Lääne -Philadelphia.

MATT KIELTY: Neil olid põhimõtteliselt need kogukonna koosolekud.

(ARHIIVSALVESTUSE HELI)

MAURICE HILLEMAN:. Läbi kirikute, mõned koolid.

MATT KIELTY: Need oleksid vaimulikud, õpetajad, vanemad, kes olid enamasti valged, keskklass. Hilleman ja tema meeskond kohtuksid nende inimestega ja eriti vanematega, selgitaksid neile, mis vaktsiin on, mida nad loodavad, et vaktsiin suudab, ning andsid neile siis 3x5 suuruse märkmiku ja küsisid.

(ARHIIVSALVESTUSE HELI)

MAURICE HILLEMAN:. Vabatahtlikuks oma lastele.

HEATHER RADKE: Ja paljud neist tegid vabatahtlikku tööd.

(ARHIIVSALVESTUSE HELI)

MAURICE HILLEMAN: Tuhanded lapsed.

PAUL OFFIT: Umbes 5000 last.

(ARHIIVSALVESTUSE HELI)

TUNDMATU ISIK #7: Noh, ma arvan, et see on imeline, et neil see on. Ja ma olen tänulik, et mu laps selles osaleb.

MATT KIELTY: I actually found this old documentary from when these tests were being done. And it's just a room full of these kids getting a vaccine shot, crying, and then these mothers.

(ARHIIVSALVESTUSE HELI)

UNIDENTIFIED PERSON #8: I'm here because I feel that if this will help children, this will be a wonderful thing.

MATT KIELTY: . Explaining why they decided to participate.

(ARHIIVSALVESTUSE HELI)

UNIDENTIFIED PERSON #9: Oh, I hate to see any child suffering. I'm a mother of six, and I'm for anything that can help any child in the world. I'm a mother through and through.

(ARHIIVSALVESTUSE HELI)

MAURICE HILLEMAN: We owe such a huge debt to the people of that West Philadelphia area. The parents - they had to keep their records at home for what their children - take their temperatures, come in and go through all of this annoying business, bled. They had to be inoculated to participate in what was regarded as a humanitarian quest. Boy, I will never forget that.

HEATHER RADKE: Now, as Hilleman was conducting these tests on children who had been volunteered by their parents, he was actually also testing the mumps vaccine on another group of children - children who were living in state homes and had intellectual disabilities.

MATT KIELTY: They were essentially volunteered by the state.

HEATHER RADKE: So until the law changed in the early '70s, this is how a lot of drugs and particularly vaccines were tested.

MATT KIELTY: And this is actually something that comes up in Offit's interviews with Hilleman.

(ARHIIVSALVESTUSE HELI)

MAURICE HILLEMAN: It was a big ethical issue. I worried about that like, you know, hell, you know? I think we have a hell of a responsibility. And what are the ethical standards that we're using and following?

MATT KIELTY: And Hilleman says at the time, the two sort of guiding ideas were.

(ARHIIVSALVESTUSE HELI)

MAURICE HILLEMAN: Do no harm.

(ARHIIVSALVESTUSE HELI)

MAURICE HILLEMAN: And do good.

PAUL OFFIT: In those days, in the 1960s, the thinking at the time - when you were in these chronic care, long-term facilities, the level of hygiene and sanitation in those areas was terrible.

MATT KIELTY: It was crowded. Haigus oli ohjeldamatu.

(ARHIIVSALVESTUSE HELI)

MAURICE HILLEMAN: Yeah, well, they all developed epidemic disease, these institutionalized kids.

MATT KIELTY: So the justification at the time was that because these kids were the most likely to get these diseases, they were also the most likely to benefit from the vaccine.

(ARHIIVSALVESTUSE HELI)

MAURICE HILLEMAN: But I'm telling you, these were judgment calls, scientifically and ethically. There is no question about it.

HEATHER RADKE: What Hilleman was doing - testing his vaccine on children with intellectual disabilities in state homes - was part of a bigger thing that was happening all over the place across the country. And a lot of kids got sick, and some even died. There was a situation in Staten Island where a group of kids were given live hepatitis. Another situation in Massachusetts were a group of children at a state home were given radiation, were just exposed to tons of radiation. And although what Hilleman was doing wasn't that, he was part of a system where children who were under the care of the state were used for scientific experimentation.

JAD ABUMRAD: Right. Well, did - before we leave this point, did anyone protest to or about Hilleman in the moment? Or was it just so commonplace that people didn't think anything of it?

HEATHER RADKE: No, they didn't. And it was very commonplace. And nobody got sick because the vaccine worked.

So in 1967, four years after he'd swabbed Jeryl Lynn's throat, Hilleman had made his mumps vaccine. It was the fastest anyone had ever made a vaccine from start to finish.

MATT KIELTY: And we'll say quick that Hilleman seemed pretty tickled that.

(ARHIIVSALVESTUSE HELI)

PAUL OFFIT: This was her virus.

MAURICE HILLEMAN: Oh, yeah. My God, that's your virus.

MATT KIELTY: . He got to name it after his daughter.

(ARHIIVSALVESTUSE HELI)

MAURICE HILLEMAN: Can you imagine that?

HEATHER RADKE: Called the Jeryl Lynn strain. It still is.

JERYL LYNN HILLEMAN: And he thought that was a nice thing. But it wasn't. Something that is just one of those facts of life (laughter).

MATT KIELTY: Jeryl Lynn told us, after he was done with mumps, he was just off to the next thing.

JERYL LYNN HILLEMAN: And, you know, he carried around a list at times.

MATT KIELTY: This list he kept in his pocket.

JERYL LYNN HILLEMAN: List of diseases that still had yet to be conquered. And I think it was a reminder that, you know, for him, his work would never be done.

PAUL OFFIT: And what - he would say this. He would say it was like putting up a fence. And, you know, then you take a break and, you know, everybody gathers around, and they drink from - you know, from this bucket of water, and they pass the ladle around. And then you're done, and then you go back to doing it again. He was never, ever satisfied.

MATT KIELTY: Well, so after mumps, it was measles.

HEATHER RADKE: And with measles, there's actually already a vaccine in existence.

PAUL OFFIT: And, I mean, that vaccine worked. But it wasn't quite attenuated enough.

HEATHER RADKE: Like, it wasn't weak enough, so you would have to get another shot at the same time in your other arm so you didn't get sick.

PAUL OFFIT: Maurice then just took that virus and very quickly attenuated it so that it was perfect. That virus bounces off you. It's a remarkable vaccine. And so we eliminated measles, the most contagious of the vaccine-preventable diseases, because it was so incredibly effective.

HEATHER RADKE: Yeah. So here's - so this is a.

JAD ABUMRAD: Yeah, you got a list?

HEATHER RADKE: Yeah, it's a - this is vaccines that Hilleman developed.

HEATHER RADKE: OK, so chicken pox.

HEATHER RADKE: Yeah, chicken pox was a late latecomer.

HEATHER RADKE: So chicken pox, adenovirus, measles, mumps, rubella - which he combined into the MMR vaccine that we all get - Japanese encephalitis, meningococcus, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, pneumococcus, Haemophilus influenzae type B and then others.

MATT KIELTY: By the end of his career, he developed over 40 vaccines.

HEATHER RADKE: Including eight of the 14 that we all get as children.

(ARHIIVSALVESTUSE HELI)

MAURICE HILLEMAN: Well, looking back on one's lifetime, you'll say, gee, what have I done? Have I done enough for the world to justify having been here, you know? That's a big worry to people from Montana, at least. And I would say I'm kind of pleased about all this. I'm not smug about it, but I'm pleased because there's a great joy in being useful. And that's the satisfaction that you get out of it.

MATT KIELTY: And just to, quick, give you, like, context to Hilleman's work, Paul actually helped to create one of the 14 vaccines we get as kids.

MATT KIELTY: Yeah. And it took him 26 years. So he says when he first learned about Hilleman and what all he had accomplished.

PAUL OFFIT: It was like trying to imagine another universe.

PAUL OFFIT: But he was humble. As rough as he was and as crude as he could be (laughter) and how - as profane as he could be, he was a humble man. He never promoted himself. So he just always flew below the radar, remarkably enough, given his accomplishments. I honestly think he was the single most-accomplished scientist in history. And when he died, I was at a - I gave a talk at the University of Pittsburgh. His son-in-law called me to say that he had passed away. And then after I heard that news, I walked in among a group of 35 to 50 pediatricians and say, you know, here's this man, Maurice Hilleman, who just passed away. No one heard of him. No one - zero. And these are pediatricians who give his vaccines.

MATT KIELTY: Did that surprise you in that moment?

PAUL OFFIT: Yeah. Yes, it did.

MATT KIELTY: Did it sadden you?

HEATHER RADKE: Do you think his humility, which is - you're saying is part of the reason we don't remember him, is also part of what made him good at his job?

PAUL OFFIT: In some ways, I think - he was never stopping to take a bow. But to be honest, I think it's all wrong. I mean, I think no one should be taking bows. I mean, I really - every time a CEO opens his mouth, I really shudder to hear what they say because they're always beating their chest about how quickly they're doing this and how well it's going.

HEATHER RADKE: Paul was talking about some of the CEOs who are at the companies who are at the forefront of manufacturing the COVID vaccine. And when he says he shudders, it's not just because of all the ways the development of the vaccine could go wrong, but also because it seems like they're not really recognizing the cost even when it goes right.

PAUL OFFIT: Because there has never been a medical breakthrough in history that has not been associated with a price. When Thomas Francis did the polio field trial in the mid-1950s, Jonas Salk had made his vaccine, but he didn't know whether it worked or not. So they chose to do a big field trial. Four hundred and twenty thousand children were given his vaccine over a year period funded by the March of Dimes. Two hundred thousand were given placebo - first- and second-graders throughout the country. And then after it was over, Thomas Francis stood up on the podium at Rackham Hall at the University of Michigan and said, safe, potent and effective. That's what he said. Those three words were the headline of every major newspaper in this country. I mean, church bells rang. Synagogues and churches held special prayer meetings. Department stores stopped. Trials stopped, you know, so the judges could hear that announcement. It was announced over the Voice of America.

Well, the question is, how do we know that it worked? We knew that it worked because 16 children in that study died from polio, all in the placebo group. Thirty-six children were permanently paralyzed, 34 in the placebo group. But for the flip of a coin, those children could have been alive and well today. Those were first- and second-graders in the 1950s. I was a first- and second-grader in the 1950s. I mean, those people suffered or died because they just happened to be in the control group. That's what knowledge takes. And that was - that statistic never really rang. I mean, we were so busy celebrating that that I think we didn't really stop and take a look at just how one comes to acquire knowledge.

MATT KIELTY: Yeah, I just came across this quote from Jonas Salk, who sent a letter to a man named O'Connor, who - I don't know who O'Connor is or was.

PAUL OFFIT: He headed the March of Dimes program.

MATT KIELTY: OK. And Salk wrote, I would feel that every child who is injected with a placebo and becomes paralyzed will do so at my hands.

PAUL OFFIT: That's right. That's what I was alluding to.

MATT KIELTY: And that those who argued - those demanding a placebo-controlled trial, he argued, took the position in order to reach a statistical endpoint because, quote, "values in which the worship of science involves the sacrifice of humanitarian principles on the altar of rigid methodology," end quote.

PAUL OFFIT: Yeah, that's good. Jah. No, I think Jonas Salk was always heartbroken when that trial was done because he knew that there would be children who would intentionally not be given the vaccine. I mean, the one thing is to say, as you roll out a vaccine - like the Ebola vaccine, when it rolled out into West Africa, not everybody got it at once. And so some people got it, some people didn't, and some of the people who didn't get it obviously weren't saved.

But it's different than when you actually purposefully don't give a vaccine for a period of a year. You're making the choice. You're asking a child to participate in something, and you know that half of them, half of those children, aren't going to be getting the vaccine. It just feels different. You're actually doing a trial where you know there are children who may die and be paralyzed in that other half because they haven't gotten the vaccine. And the truth be told, that's the only way you're going to know that.

HEATHER RADKE: And Paul told us that this is actually what's happening with COVID now. A while back - I don't know if you remember this - but there was a guy in Brazil who was part of a COVID trial who died.

PAUL OFFIT: You know, we all held our breath to see whether the person was in the placebo group or the vaccine group. And everybody breathed a sigh of relief when the person was in the placebo group because now you know that the vaccine didn't kill them.

HEATHER RADKE: But now what you know is that COVID killed him.

PAUL OFFIT: And had he been in the other group, he probably wouldn't have died. I'm just saying you're constructing an experiment where, by definition, you're not going to learn unless people suffer or hospitalize or die. That's the experiment you're conducting.

MATT KIELTY: There seemingly always is some sort of cost, and someone gets sacrificed to progress. And there's a question of who bears the burden of that sacrifice, and I think oftentimes it's marginalized communities. But yet, inevitably, there - like, blood is sort of shed, is what it feels like.

JAD ABUMRAD: Reporters Heather Radke and Matt Kielty.

(SOUNDBITE OF SONG, "I'VE GOT THE MUMPS")

UNIDENTIFIED SINGER: (Singing) I ain't been to school now for almost a week, I got a big lump on my left-hand cheek. Teacher said not to come back again till the doctor made it better. Ma said, oh, what ails my child? His face is full of lumps. And Pa looked at me and said, oh, bejebs (ph), our angel has the mumps. I've got the mumps. I've got the mumps. Ma gave me.

MATT KIELTY: (Singing) And don't tell Pa.

OK, special thanks to - well, a huge special thanks to Donald Mitchell, the filmmaker who passed us a lot of this audio of Maurice Hilleman. His movie is called "Hilleman: A Perilous Quest To Save The World's Children." You can watch the film online or parts of it at The Vaccine Makers Project. Also to Elaine Icanus (ph) and to Anna Vichuk (ph) and Andrew Backer (ph), who performed this lovely rendition.

(SOUNDBITE OF SONG, "I'VE GOT THE MUMPS")

UNIDENTIFIED SINGER: (Singing) I said I've got the mumps.

MATT KIELTY: . Of the "Mumps" sheet music Heather found.

(SOUNDBITE OF SONG, "I'VE GOT THE MUMPS")

UNIDENTIFIED SINGER: (Singing) Don't get up for breakfast till it's nearly 10. For a nickel, I'll rub up again you, and then you have the mumps.

MATT KIELTY: All right. That's it for me. Jad?

JAD ABUMRAD: OK. I'm Jad Abumrad. Thank you all for listening.

STEPHEN: Hi. This is Stephen (ph) phoning from Calgary, Alberta, Canada. RADIOLAB was created by Jad Abumrad and is edited by Soren Wheeler. Lulu Miller and Latif Nasser are our co-hosts. Dylan Keefe is our director of sound design. And Suzie Lechtenberg is our executive producer. Our staff includes Simon Adler, Jeremy Bloom, Becca Bressler, Rachael Cusick, David Gebel, Matt Kielty, Tobin Low, Annie McEwen, Sarah Qari, Arianne Wack, Pat Walters and Molly Webster, with help from Shima Oliaee, Sarah Sandbach and Jonny Moens. Our fact-checker is Michelle Harris.

Copyright © 2020 New York Public Radio. Kõik õigused kaitstud. Visit our website terms of use kl www.wnyc.org for further information.

New York Public Radio transcripts are created on a rush deadline, often by contractors. See tekst ei pruugi olla lõplikul kujul ning seda võidakse tulevikus ajakohastada või muuta. Täpsus ja saadavus võivad erineda. The authoritative record of New York Public Radio&rsquos programming is the audio record.


Jaga

S-Town is a podcast from Seriaal ja See Ameerika elu, hosted by Brian Reed, about a man named John who despises his Alabama town and decides to do something about it. He asks Brian to investigate the son of a wealthy family who’s allegedly been bragging that he got away with murder. But then someone else ends up dead, and the search for the truth leads to a nasty feud, a hunt for hidden treasure, and an unearthing of the mysteries of one man’s life.

Brian, a longtime See Ameerika elu producer, started reporting this story more than three years before it aired, when he got an email from John with the subject line “John B McLemore lives in Shittown Alabama.”


Hoosick History

The Hoosick Township Historical Society and the Louis Miller Museum are located within the beautiful village of Hoosick Falls. Steeped in history, this region has played host to exploration, revolution, and industry. Our mission is to preserve the historic narratives and artifacts specific to our region while also inspiring a love of history in the next generation.

The Louis Miller Museum and historical society archives are open Monday through Friday 11am to 2pm.

Armed Forces Day & NYS Historic Marker Unveiling May 15th Noon

Following the ceremony at Liberty Park, we will be unveiling the Harris Hawthorne Medal of Honor NYS Historic Marker In Lower Maple Grove.

Photographer Erwin Hambright Open Air Gallery May 27th 4-8pm

Featured will be a multitude of photographs taken by photographer Erwin Hambright. Hambright’s work of contemporary scenes of Hoosick and the surrounding region will be for sale with proceeds to benefit the Historical Society.

Enjoy live entertainment with the Bennington Traditional Jazz Band and light refreshments.

Proceeds from the sale of items and the auction at this event will support the Historical Society’s Genealogy Preservation Project, our ongoing program to digitize death certificates and funeral records from the 1880s.

Who was the legendary Natty Bumppo?

Listen to the recent WAMC podcast featuring our own director, Joyce Brewer.

Preserve our future and our past with your membership.

Please consider offering a gift in support of the Hoosick Township Historical Society and the Louis Miller Museum. Your contribution helps further ongoing research and preservation of materials. Our staff receives multiple requests each week for information on area families, individuals, and locations. These requests require the efforts and time of our staff. Your support makes this individual attention possible! Aitäh.

Click the “Donate” button to make a secure donation via PayPal.


Jaga All sharing options for: Diving deep into the mud with Paul Reed

Photo by Chris Schwegler/NBAE via Getty Images

When the Sixers first drafted Paul Reed 58th overall in the 2020 NBA Draft, it was met with a general reaction of simply not knowing much about his play. He wasn’t a big name on many draft boards, commonly being found in the mid to late second round (if listed at all). Reed was a very under-the-radar prospect heading into the draft, after putting up 3 seasons with the DePaul Blue Demons.

Fast forward to now, people understand a lot more of what Paul Reed can really do on the basketball court. While his 55 minutes of playing time at the NBA level offer us a minuscule glimpse, we’ve seen him flat out dominate at the G-League level with the Delaware Blue Coats.

Paul Reed has put together an impressive case through 15 G-League games which is the complete regular season for this year. He not only has a chance to win the G-League’s rookie of the year award, he has a strong case for MVP.

Final WARP for the G League regular season. Note that unlike the WARP ratings I calculate for NBA players, these are not position-adjusted, so the top of the leaderboard tends to be heavy on bigs. pic.twitter.com/hZaDhul0w7

— Kevin Pelton (@kpelton) March 8, 2021

Paul Reed has been a joy to watch on both ends while leading the Blue Coats to their first playoff berth in franchise history at a record of 10-5. He’s filled up the stat sheet across the board while contributing to a winning team.

You can’t help but be impressed while looking at Paul Reed’s stats in the G-League Bubble. He’s contributed on every major stat and then some. Through 15 games he’s averaged: 31.5 minutes per game, 22.3 points per game, 11.8 rebounds per game, 2.3 assists per game, 1.9 steals per game, and 1.8 blocks per game. Not only is Paul Reed filling up the stat sheet, he’s doing so on incredible efficiency: averaging an impressive 58.8 field goal percentage, 44.4 three point percentage, and a 65.9 true shooting percentage.

One of the most impressive areas of Reed’s play would be his shooting. He’s looking comfortable and confident in taking midrange or three point jumpshots. While the G-League defense is certainly a tier below the NBA’s, his average of over 44% from three is very promising. Not only has he shot efficiently, but he’s averaged an impressive percentage on a decent sample, averaging over 3.6 attempts from beyond the arc per game.

Will his unorthodox form translate to the NBA as well as it has in the G-League? I do have some concerns. It’s a longer release than most and NBA defenses could close out on him quickly. However, Reed’s game isn’t just shooting jumpers. He’ll only be called upon to use it in a NBA setting when he’s wide open for a catch shoot or pick and pop. In limited uses, I’m optimistic about Reed’s jumper.

In addition to Reed’s three point shooting as an area of growth and promise, there’s been many other areas where he’s excelled. Defense was Reed’s calling card coming out of DePaul: he was everywhere on defense, could handle his own on switches, and wreak havoc on the boards. The G-League has proven no different for Reed as he’s been one of the best defenders in the entire league.

Reed has an impressive defensive skill set that can range from blocking shots around the rim to successfully switching onto quicker guards with ease. He plays with an incredibly high motor and never gives up on plays.

Reed has tremendous defensive instincts that could be huge for the Sixers in the coming future. However, his defensive discipline will need to be improved before getting consistent NBA playing time. He got into some foul trouble during the G-League regular season: averaging a team-high of over 4 fouls per game. But if Reed can play in control, he has all of the physical and intangible skills to become a great switchable NBA defender.

The Delaware Blue Coats used Reed almost exclusively as a center in the G-League Bubble — a notable trend. We’ve seen the Sixers and Blue Coats often mirror each other in terms of systems implementation to ease to transition for players between teams. Reed played both the power forward and center position in college, but it’s very possible that the Sixers see him as a center going forward. His fit alongside Ben Simmons would be almost seemless, as Reed is capable of hitting perimeter shots and running the floor in transition.

The last area I’ll touch on will be in regards to Reed’s scoring around the rim, which is quite impressive. Reed has shown flashes of impressive foot work and acitivty around the rim. As stated before, Reed plays with a very high motor which he uses to his advantage. Reed would often be found putting back shot attempts from himself or teammates. Ranging from a spin-move to euro-steps, Reed has a lot of tricks within his bag.

Paul Reed has all of the makings to be a quality player at the NBA level. Coming into this season he was viewed as a project player who possessed a lot of skills but was in need of some polishing and development. I think it’s safe to say that Reed is ahead of schedule in terms of his development and we may be seeing him sooner rather than later if he can maintain this type of play. The Sixers found a legitimate prospect at the end of the 2020 draft in Reed.

While everyone is campaigning for Joel Embiid to win MVP, we should also be doing the same for Paul Reed at the G-League level. His play on both ends of the court has shown the basketball world that he belongs and may be contributing to the team quicker than anticipated. It may be just time for Paul Reed to get out of the mud.


Our Site Podcast with Paul Reed - History

The Tor Project, Inc, became a 501(c)(3) nonprofit in 2006, but the idea of "onion routing" began in the mid 1990s.

Just like Tor users, the developers, researchers, and founders who've made Tor possible are a diverse group of people. But all of the people who have been involved in Tor are united by a common belief: internet users should have private access to an uncensored web.

In the 1990s, the lack of security on the internet and its ability to be used for tracking and surveillance was becoming clear, and in 1995, David Goldschlag, Mike Reed, and Paul Syverson at the U.S. Naval Research Lab (NRL) asked themselves if there was a way to create internet connections that don't reveal who is talking to whom, even to someone monitoring the network. Their answer was to create and deploy the first research designs and prototypes of onion routing.

The goal of onion routing was to have a way to use the internet with as much privacy as possible, and the idea was to route traffic through multiple servers and encrypt it each step of the way. This is still a simple explanation for how Tor works today.

In the early 2000s, Roger Dingledine, a recent Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) graduate, began working on an NRL onion routing project with Paul Syverson. To distinguish this original work at NRL from other onion routing efforts that were starting to pop up elsewhere, Roger called the project Tor, which stood for The Onion Routing. Nick Mathewson, a classmate of Roger's at MIT, joined the project soon after.

From its inception in the 1990s, onion routing was conceived to rely on a decentralized network. The network needed to be operated by entities with diverse interests and trust assumptions, and the software needed to be free and open to maximize transparency and decentralization. That's why in October 2002 when the Tor network was initially deployed, its code was released under a free and open software license. By the end of 2003, the network had about a dozen volunteer nodes, mostly in the U.S., plus one in Germany.

Recognizing the benefit of Tor to digital rights, the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) began funding Roger's and Nick's work on Tor in 2004. In 2006, the Tor Project, Inc., a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization, was founded to maintain Tor's development.

In 2007, the organization began developing bridges to the Tor network to address censorship, such as the need to get around government firewalls, in order for its users to access the open web.

Tor began gaining popularity among activists and tech-savvy users interested in privacy, but it was still difficult for less-technically savvy people to use, so starting in 2005, development of tools beyond just the Tor proxy began. Development of Tor Browser began in 2008.

With Tor Browser having made Tor more accessible to everyday internet users and activists, Tor was an instrumental tool during the Arab Spring beginning in late 2010. It not only protected people's identity online but also allowed them to access critical resources, social media, and websites which were blocked.

The need for tools safeguarding against mass surveillance became a mainstream concern thanks to the Snowden revelations in 2013. Not only was Tor instrumental to Snowden's whistleblowing, but content of the documents also upheld assurances that, at that time, Tor could not be cracked.

People's awareness of tracking, surveillance, and censorship may have increased, but so has the prevalence of these hindrances to internet freedom. Today, the network has thousands of relays run by volunteers and millions of users worldwide. And it is this diversity that keeps Tor users safe.

We, at the Tor Project, fight every day for everyone to have private access to an uncensored internet, and Tor has become the world's strongest tool for privacy and freedom online.

But Tor is more than just software. It is a labor of love produced by an international community of people devoted to human rights. The Tor Project is deeply committed to transparency and the safety of its users.


HSBC has developed a number of traditions over its years in business and employed people who would later find fame in other fields. Näiteks:

  • The bank’s name is derived from the initials of The Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation Limited, the founding member of HSBC
  • HSBC’s red and white hexagon symbol was developed from the bank’s original house flag which was in turn based on the cross of St Andrew
  • The HSBC lions are nicknamed Stephen and Stitt after senior managers from the 1920s
  • The comic author P G Wodehouse, creator of Jeeves and Wooster, spent two years working at HSBC’s London office. He was recorded as being late for work 20 times in his first year


Mysteries and Monsters: Episode 126 On the Search For Dragons with Richard Freeman

This week, our good friend Richard Freeman re-joins us to discuss the history of Dragons, a creature that has haunted humanity's dreams since time began.

From Asia to Australia, Europe to the America's, tales of Dragons go back centuries, yet even in this modern era, people are incrdibly still claiming to see Dragons.

Richard takes us through the history of Dragons, the different types and the stories that have stood the test of time as well diving in to some of the more modern sightings from China, Russia, Iceland and the USA.

A big thank you to Richard for joining me again.

Richard can be contacted via [email protected]


Palestine Will Be Free

Palestine is the moral barometer of Indigenous North America. While there is widespread agreement among Native people that European colonialism and Indigenous genocide is criminal and immoral, there are a surprisingly high number of Native politicians, elites, and public figures who don’t extend the same sympathies to Palestinians, Arabs, and Muslims. They range from outright Zionists who support Palestinian ethnic cleansing to liberal centrists who don’t support Palestinian rights of protest and resistance. We, The Red Nation, pledge to fulfill our commitment to Palestinian liberation. Read in full.


Tõmba otsad kokku

While there are several other great business podcasts the team here at Time Doctor can recommend, these are some of the best.

It’s difficult to find time to listen to all podcasts, but if you write down your most pressing business questions, read through the podcast topic descriptions, and listen to some sample episodes, you’ll be able to find the podcast that’s the perfect fit for you and your team.

Leading a remote business can be difficult, but if you use the tools and mentorship that you have at your hand, you’ll gather the knowledge you need to succeed.

At Time Doctor, we also aim to provide business leaders with tools to increase productivity. Check out our time tracking software today.


Vaata videot: Pora Kaip Tvora #07 su Berta ir Vaidotu Šiožiniais