15. august 1943

15. august 1943



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15. august 1943

Sõda õhus

Kaheksas õhujõudude raskepommitaja missioon nr 82: 327 lennukit saadeti ründama Luftwaffe lennuvälju Vlissingenis (Flushing), Poixis, Amiensis, Vitry, Merville'is ja Lille/ Vendeville'is. Kaks lennukit kaotasid.

Itaalia

Itaalia uus juht marssal Badoglio saadab Madridi rahusaadiku

Vaikse ookeani piirkond

Ameerika ja Kanada väed maanduvad Kiskal (Aleuudi saared), et leida jaapanlasi

Jaapani pommitajad ründasid esimest korda Tsili Tsilit (Uus -Guinea)

USA vägede põhijõud maanduvad New Georgia saarte läänepoolses otsas Vella Lavellal, möödudes Jaapani peamisest baasist Kolombangaras.

Idarinne

Jalaväe kindral dr Lothar Rendulic võtab üle teise pansionaarväe

Raamatud



Teine maailmasõda: Schweinfurt-Regensburgi haarang

Esimene Schweinfurt-Regensburgi haarang toimus II maailmasõja ajal (1939-1945).

Ameerika lennukid tabasid sihtmärke Schweinfurtis ja Regensburgis 17. augustil 1943.

Väed ja ülemad:

Schweinfurt-Regensburgi kokkuvõte:

1943. aasta suvel laienesid USA pommitusjõud Inglismaal, kui lennukid hakkasid Põhja -Aafrikast tagasi tulema ja Ameerika Ühendriikidest saabusid uued lennukid. See tugevuse kasv langes kokku operatsiooni Pointblank algusega. Õhumarssal Arthur "Bomber" Harrise ja kindralmajor Carl Spaatzi välja töötatud Pointblank oli mõeldud Luftwaffe ja selle infrastruktuuri hävitamiseks enne Euroopasse tungimist. See pidi toimuma kombineeritud pommitusrünnakuga Saksa lennukitehaste, kuullaagritehaste, kütusehoidlate ja muude sellega seotud sihtmärkide vastu.

Varased Pointblank missioonid viisid läbi USAAFi 1. ja 4. pommitustiib (1. ja 4. BW), kes asusid vastavalt Midlandis ja Ida -Inglismaal. Need operatsioonid olid suunatud Focke-Wulf Fw 190 hävitusseadmetele Kasselis, Bremenis ja Oscherslebenis. Kuigi Ameerika pommitusjõud kannatasid nendes rünnakutes märkimisväärseid kaotusi, peeti neid piisavalt tõhusaks, et õigustada Regensburgis ja Wiener Neustadtis asuvate Messerschmitt Bf 109 tehaste pommitamist. Nende sihtmärkide hindamisel otsustati määrata Regensburg Inglismaa 8. õhujõududesse, samas kui viimast pidi tabama Põhja -Aafrika 9. õhujõud.

Regensburgi streigi kavandamisel valis kaheksas õhujõud Schweinfurti teise sihtmärgi - kuullaagritehased - eesmärgiga lisada ülekaalukas Saksa õhutõrje. Missiooni plaan nägi ette, et neljas BW tabab Regensburgi ja suundub seejärel lõunasse Põhja -Aafrika baasidesse. Esimene BW järgneks lühikese vahemaa tagant eesmärgiga tabada Saksa võitlejad kohapeal tankides. Pärast sihtmärkide tabamist naasis 1. BW Inglismaale. Nagu kõigi rünnakute puhul sügavale Saksamaale, suudaksid liitlasvägede hävitajad oma piiratud ulatuse tõttu eskorti pakkuda vaid Belgiasse Eupeni.

Schweinfurt-Regensburgi jõupingutuste toetamiseks kavandati Luftwaffe lennuväljade ja rannikul asuvate sihtmärkide vastu kaks diversioonirünnakut. Algselt 7. augustiks planeeritud reid hilines kehva ilma tõttu. Operatsiooniga Juggler dubleeritud 9. õhuvägi tabas 13. augustil Wiener Neustadti tehaseid, samal ajal kui 8. õhuvägi jäi ilmastikuprobleemide tõttu maapinnale. Lõpuks algas 17. augustil missioon, kuigi suur osa Inglismaast oli udus. Pärast lühikest viivitust alustas 4. BW oma õhusõiduki käivitamist kella 8.00 paiku.

Kuigi missiooniplaan nõudis nii Regensburgi kui ka Schweinfurti kiiret löömist, et tagada minimaalsed kahjud, lubati neljas BW lahkuda, kuigi esimene BW oli udu tõttu endiselt maandatud. Selle tulemusena ületas 4. BW Hollandi rannikut, kui esimene BW oli õhus, avades löögijõudude vahel laia lõhe. Kolonel Curtis LeMay juhtimisel koosnes neljas BW 146 B-17-st. Umbes kümme minutit pärast maabumist algasid Saksa hävitajate rünnakud. Kuigi mõned hävitajate saatjad olid kohal, osutusid nad kogu väe katmiseks ebapiisavaks.

Pärast üheksakümmend minutit õhuvõitlust katkestasid sakslased tankimiseks 15 B-17 tulistamist. Sihtmärgist üle jõudes puutusid LeMay pommitajad kokku väikese helliga ja suutsid sihtmärgile paigutada umbes 300 tonni pomme. Lõuna poole pöördudes kohtusid Regensburgi väed väheste võitlejatega, kuid neil oli suures osas sündmusteta transiit Põhja -Aafrikasse. Sellegipoolest kaotati 9 täiendavat lennukit, kuna 2 rikutud B-17 olid sunnitud maanduma Šveitsis ja mitmed teised kukkusid Vahemerel kütuse puudumise tõttu alla. Kuna neljas BW lahkub piirkonnast, on Luftwaffe valmis tegelema läheneva 1. BW -ga.

Ajakava tagant ületasid rannikut 1. BW 230 B-17 ja järgisid 4. BW-le sarnast marsruuti. Isiklikult brigaadikindral Robert B. Williamsi juhtimisel ründasid Schweinfurti vägesid kohe Saksa võitlejad. Schweinfurti lennu ajal kohtudes üle 300 võitlejaga, kannatas esimene BW suuri kaotusi ja kaotas 22 B-17. Sihtmärgile lähenedes katkesid sakslased tankimiseks, valmistudes ründama pommitajaid oma reisi tagasitulekul.

Jõudes sihtmärgini kella 15.00 paiku, puutusid Williamsi lennukid linna kohal kokku tugeva helliga. Pommitamise ajal kaotati veel 3 B-17. Kodu poole pöördudes kohtas 4. BW taas Saksa võitlejaid. Jooksvas lahingus kukutas Luftwaffe veel 11 B-17. Jõudes Belgiasse, kohtas pommitajaid liitlasvägede kaanejõud, mis võimaldas neil suhteliselt vaevata oma reisi Inglismaale lõpule viia.

Kombineeritud Schweinfurt-Regensburgi haarang maksis USAAF-ile 60 B-17 ja 55 lennumeeskonda. Kaotatud meeskondi oli kokku 552 meest, kellest pooled said sõjavangideks ja kakskümmend olid šveitslased. Ohutult baasi naasnud lennukite pardal hukkus 7 lennukimeeskonda, veel 21 sai haavata. Lisaks pommitajatele kaotasid liitlased 3 P-47 Thunderbolti ja 2 Spitfiire. Kui liitlaste lennumeeskonnad nõudsid 318 Saksa lennukit, siis Luftwaffe teatas, et kadunud on vaid 27 hävitajat. Kuigi liitlaste kaotused olid tõsised, õnnestus neil nii Messerschmitti tehastel kui ka kuullaagritehastel tõsist kahju tekitada. Kui sakslased teatasid, et tootmine langes kohe 34%, kompenseerisid selle kiiresti teised Saksamaa tehased. Reidi ajal tekkinud kaotused viisid liitlaste liidrid ümber mõtlema saatjata pikamaa päevavalguse rünnakute teostatavusele Saksamaal. Seda tüüpi reidid peatatakse ajutiselt pärast seda, kui Schweinfurti teine ​​haarang põhjustas 14. oktoobril 1943 20% inimohvreid.


Keiser Hirohito teatas Jaapani alistumisest

Kuigi Tokyo oli juba mitu päeva varem liitlastele teatanud, et nõustub Potsdami konverentsi alistumistingimustega, ja Jaapani uudisteteenistus oli selle kohta teada andnud, ootasid Jaapani inimesed endiselt, et kuulda autoriteetset häält ütlemata: et Jaapan oli lüüa saanud.

See hääl oli keiser ’. 15. augustil kuulis see hääl esimest korda raadiolainete kaudu ja tunnistas, et Jaapani vaenlane on hakanud kasutama kõige julmemat pommi, mille kahju tegemise jõud on tõepoolest arvutamatu, võttes selle eest tasu. palju süütuid elusid. ” See oli põhjuseks, miks Jaapan ja#x2019 alistusid. Hirohito suusõnalised mälestused, mis avaldati ja tõlgiti pärast sõda, näitavad, et keiser kardab sel ajal, et sõja jätkudes hävitatakse Jaapani rass. ”

Jaapani alistumistingimuste kleepuv punkt oli Hirohito ’s keisri staatus. Tokyo soovis, et keisri staatus kaitseks liitlasi, kes ei soovinud eeltingimusi. Leiti kompromiss. Keiser säilitas oma tiitli kindral Douglas MacArthur uskus, et tema vähemalt tseremoniaalne kohalolek oleks sõjajärgses Jaapanis stabiliseeriv mõju. Kuid Hirohito oli sunnitud oma jumalikust staatusest loobuma. Jaapan kaotas rohkem kui sõda ja#x2014kaotas jumala.


Hampstead, NH ja#8211, 19. august 1943

Selle õnnetuse kohta pole palju teavet.

Kell 16.30. 19. augusti 1943. aasta pärastlõunal nähti USA sõjaväelast C-49J (#43-1971) New Hampshire'is Hampsteadis tiigil Island Pondil tiirutamas 1000–1500 jala kõrgusel ja rattad välja sirutatud, kui see äkki läks pöörlema ​​ja kukkus metsa alla.

Kõik viis pardal olnud meest tapeti.

Toonane ilm oli “ purustatud, 3-4000 jalga, nähtavus piiramatu.

Lennukorpuse lennuõnnetuse uurimisaruande kohaselt on piloot loetletud ühena R. T. Whidden, “kaubanduspiloot ”. Aruande “pilot ’s missiooni ” raames ja#8220Army ATTF Transition koolitus. ”

Pardal olid teenistujad:

2. leitnant Charles Appier. Ta on maetud Indiana osariigis Huntingtonis Lootuse Tähe kalmistule.

2. leitnant Robert W. Barron. Ta on maetud Michiganis Escanabas Püha Risti kalmistule.

Pfc. Robert A. Bell. Ta on maetud Lõuna -Dakota osariigis Flandreau's asuvasse Unioni kalmistule.


Kasulikud lingid masinloetavas vormingus.

Arhiivivarustuse võti (ARK)

Rahvusvaheline piltide koostalitlusvõime raamistik (IIIF)

Metaandmete vormingud

Pildid

Statistika

Brownwood Bulletin (Brownwood, Tex.), Kd. 43, nr 302, toim. 1 pühapäev, 15. august 1943, ajaleht, 15. august 1943 (https://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth1094743/: vaadatud 21. juunil 2021), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas Ajalugu, https://texashistory.unt.edu Brownwoodi avaliku raamatukogu krediteerimine.

Selle teema kohta

Otsi seest

Loe kohe

Prindi ja jaga

Viited, õigused, taaskasutamine


The Sunday Record (Mineola, Tex.), Kd. 31, nr 20, toim. 1 Pühapäev, 15. august 1943

Nädalaleht Mineolast, Texas, mis sisaldab kohalikke, osariigi ja riiklikke uudiseid koos reklaamiga.

Füüsiline kirjeldus

neli lehekülge: ill. lk 21 x 15 tolli. Digiteeritud alates 35 mm. mikrofilm.

Loomise teave

Looja: Teadmata. 15. august 1943.

Kontekst

See ajaleht on osa kogust pealkirjaga: Texas Digital Newspaper Program ja selle andis Mineola mälestusraamatukogu UNT raamatukogude majutatud digitaalsele hoidlale The Portal to Texas History. Seda on vaadatud 39 korda. Selle teema kohta leiate lisateavet allpool.

Inimesed ja organisatsioonid, kes on seotud selle ajalehe või selle sisu loomisega.

Looja

Publik

Vaadake meie ressursside õpetajatele saiti! Oleme selle tuvastanud ajaleht nagu peamine allikas meie kollektsioonides. Teadlased, õpetajad ja õpilased võivad sellest probleemist oma töös kasu leida.

Pakub

Mineola mälestusraamatukogu

Woodsi maakonnas Ida -Texase linnas Mineolas asuv Mineola mälestusraamatukogu sai teoks 1950. aastal ja on sellest ajast peale õitsenud, hõlmates üle 46 000 raamatu, digitaalse ajalehe ja palju muud materjali. Tockeri fond rahastab raamatukogu materjalide digiteerimist.


Tagajärjed

Operatsiooni Dragoon läbiviimisel kannatasid liitlased umbes 17 000 hukkunut ja haavatut ning kandsid umbes 7000 hukkunut, 10 000 haavatut ja 130 000 sakslaste kätte vangi. Varsti pärast nende vallutamist alustati tööd Touloni ja Marseille sadamarajatiste remondiks. Mõlemad olid laevanduseks avatud 20. septembriks. Kuna põhja poole kulgevad raudteed taastati, muutusid need kaks sadamat Prantsusmaa liitlasvägede jaoks olulisteks varustuskeskusteks. Kuigi selle väärtuse üle vaieldi, nägi operatsioon Dragoon, et Devers ja Patch said Lõuna -Prantsusmaa arvatust kiirema ajaga puhtaks, kuid samal ajal armeegruppi G tõhusalt.


Ruupia teekond pärast iseseisvumist: Milline oli dollari kurss INR -ile 15. augustil 1947?

New Delhi, 14. august: India iseseisvuspäeva tähistatakse igal aastal religioosselt kogu riigis. India tähistab 15. augustil 2020 oma 74. iseseisvuspäeva. 2020. aasta tähistab 74. iseseisvuspäeva, mida tähistatakse riigis jätkuva koroonaviiruse pandeemia ajal.

Kuid pärast iseseisvumist 1947. aastal on Indiat silmitsi seisnud kaks suurt finantskriisi ja kaks sellest tulenevat ruupia devalveerimist: aastatel 1966 ja 1991. Paljud geopoliitilised ja majanduslikud arengud on mõjutanud tema liikumist viimase 74 aasta jooksul.

Oli mitmeid teateid, et kui India sai 15. augustil 1947 vabaduse, oli ruupia väärtus Ameerika dollariga samal tasemel, kuid täna peame kulutama 66 INR, et osta 74,82 USD. Siiski ei ole tõelisi andmepunkte, mis viitaksid selle kehtivusele.

Aruannete kohaselt oli vahetuskurss seotud naelsterlingiga Rs. 13,33 või Rs. 4,75 dollari kohta septembris 1949. See jäi muutumatuks kuni 1966. aasta juunini, kui ruupia devalveeriti 36,5% Rs -ni. 21 naela või 1 $ = Rs. 7.10. See süsteem jätkus kuni 1971. aastani, mil Brettoni metsade süsteem varises kokku, kuna USA peatas dollari konverteeritavuse.

Siin näitab diagramm muutuvat väärtust 1 USD kuni INR:


Tuneesia 1942–1943

Tuneesia kampaania on ajalooliselt huvitav kui esimene, kus Suurbritannia ja Ameerika Ühendriikide väed koos lahingusse paigutati. See oli esimene kord Teises maailmasõjas, kui USA väed nägid tegevust Euroopa või Vahemere teatrites. Paljud selle kampaania käigus tekkinud probleemid ja pinged pidid jätkuma kampaaniate kaudu Sitsiilias, Itaalias ja Loode -Euroopas, kuid Tuneesia kampaania andis aluse liitlaste võimalikule edule telje alistamisel. Liitlaste peamised ülemad, sealhulgas EISENHOWER, BRADLEY, PATTON ja CLARK, nägid kõik oma esimest tegevteenistust Tuneesias.

Maroko, Alžeeria ja Tuneesia riigid olid kõik Prantsuse kolooniad Loode -Aafrikas. Pärast Prantsusmaa lüüasaamist 1940. aastal ühinesid nad Prantsusmaa Vichy valitsusega. 1942. aasta alguses alustati planeeringut ekspeditsioonivägede loomiseks, mis suudaksid maanduda Prantsusmaal Põhja -Aafrikas. 1942. aasta augustis toimunud Dieppe reidi kogemus tõestas väljakutset rünnata kaitstud rannajoont. Ameerika Ühendriikide sõtta astumisega oli oluline alustada suurte USA vägede lahingusse saatmist, seega oli Prantsuse Põhja -Aafrika loogiline valik.

Maandumine toimus 8. novembril 1942 kolmes kohas. Lääne töörühm koosnes USA koosseisudest, mis olid purjetanud otse Ameerika Ühendriikidest Marokosse. Keskuse töörühm koosnes USA koosseisudest, mis maandusid Oranis, ja Ida töörühm koosnes ühest Briti jalaväediviisist ja ühest USA jalaväediviisist, mis maabus Alžiiris.

Prantsuse Vichy väed nõustusid 9. novembril relvarahuga, mis jättis Tuneesiasse vaakumi ja#8217 ning Prantsuse kubernerile anti isegi käed telje- ja liitlasvägedega. Relvarahuga samal päeval alustasid Saksa väed maandumist Tuneesias. HITLER otsustas saata väed Tuneesiasse, et vältida Aafrika korpuse piiramist, säilitada mõningane kontroll Vahemere üle ja hoida Tuneesiat, et vältida sissetungi Itaaliasse. Lõppkokkuvõttes oli see telgivõimude osas töötajate ja ressursside tulemusetu pühendumine. Sakslaste jaoks toimus see samal ajal kui suur lahing Stalingradis ja see oli suur ressursside jaotus. Näiteks ei olnud meeste ja materjalide Tuneesiasse toomiseks kasutatavad õhusõidukid Stalingradis Saksa 6. armee varustamiseks kättesaadavad.

Võistlus toimus Tunise kindlustamiseks, mille sakslased just võitsid. Liitlasväed jõudsid tegelikult Tunise äärelinna, kuid maapinna hoidmiseks ebapiisava jõuga. See tõi kaasa kõva võitluse ja kibeda kampaania, mis kestis kuni 13. maini 1943. Lõpuks tapeti või vallutati umbes 250 000 Saksa ja Itaalia sõjaväelast, kes on kaotuse järel teine, kui sakslased Stalingradis kannatasid.

Kuna see oli esimene USA vägede lähetamine läänes, on teie seisukoha jaoks lisatud sissejuhatav dokument Ameerika Ühendriikide armee kohta Teises maailmasõjas.
https://www.britishmilitaryhistory.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/sites/124/2020/09/The-United-States-Army-in-the-Second-World-War.pdf

Tuneesia kampaania raamatud, mida võite kasutada, on järgmised:
ATKINSON, Rick Armee koidikul ja#8211 Sõda Põhja -Aafrikas 1942 ja#8211 1943 (New York, Henry Holt ja ettevõte, 2002) [ISBN 0-8050-6288-2]
BLAXLAND, Gregory Tavaline kokk ja suur showmees ning esimene ja kaheksas armee Põhja -Aafrikas (Abingdon, William Kimber, 1977)
ROLF, David Verine tee Tunisesse ja teljejõudude hävitamine Põhja -Aafrikas november 1942 ja#8211 mai 1943 (London, Greenhill Books, 2001) [ISBN 1-85367-445-1]


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Tahaksin jätkata kirjutamist Horace G. Adamsi, vanema ja tema naise Mabel G. (Warren) Adamsi lastest, kes on mõlemad silmapaistvad Kansase Maple Hilli ajaloos.

Horace G. Adams, II sündis 19. septembril 1897 Kansase osariigis Maple Hillist kirdes oma vanemate rantšo kodus. Horace G. Adamsil, II (mõnikord nimetatakse seda nooremaks) oli neli vanemat õde, Bessie, Mabel Rae, Helen ja Mary Adams.

Horace'i kasvatati Maple Hilli rantšos ja ta käis Maple Hilli klassikoolis läbi kuuenda klassi, pärast seda käis ta mitmetes Topeka erakoolides ja lõpetas keskkooli hariduse Country Day Schoolis Kansas Citys, Missouri osariigis.

Mul ei õnnestunud tema noorusest palju õppida, kuid õnneks salvestas tema õde Mary (Adams) Dugan Country Day Schoolis mitmeid ajaleheartikleid, mis olid seotud tema sportlike võimetega. Tema peamine talent paistis olevat jalgpallis. Õnneks päästis tema õde Mary (Adams) Dougan maapäeval kolm ajaleheartiklit, mis rääkisid tema jalgpallioskustest. Tänu Jill Dougan Dykesile, proua Dougani lapselapsele ja advokaadile Topases, Kansas, sain ajaleheartikleid kopeerida ja need on selle teabega kaasas.

„Maple Hill News Itemsis” oli palju mainitud, et H. G. Adams, vanem, võttis oma poja kaasa, et külastada Kansase osariigis Plainsil asuvat XI rantšo ja ka mitmesuguseid karjaühingu koosolekuid üle riigi. Perekond näitas väga aktiivselt veiseid Ameerika kuninglikus kuningriigis Missouri osariigis Kansas Citys.

Mul ei õnnestunud teada saada, kas Horace G. Adams, II õppis või lõpetas mõne kolledži või ülikooli. On kindel, et ta sai sideme oma isa, Horace G. Adams, Sr -ga Adams Cattle'i ettevõtetes, mille hulka kuulusid rantšo peakorter Maple Hillis, Kansas, ja ka XI rantšo, mis asub Meade'i maakonnas, Kansas ja Beaver County, Oklahoma .

Horace G. Adams, II oli 3. juulil 1919. aastal abielus Doris Evelyn Jamiesoniga Rossville'ist Kansasest. Pulmad toimusid pruudi vanemate, Arthur Bruce'i ja Susan Salome talukojas “Loma” (Wilt) Jamieson. Rossville, Kansas. Ajalehe kontol seisab, et kohal olid vaid lähimad pered. Bruce ja Loma Jamieson olid Rossville'i põllumajandus- ja äriringkondade silmapaistvad liikmed, nagu ka nende lapsed. Jamiesoni perekond oli Ohios hästi väljakujunenud ja jõukas talupere, enne kui ta 1880ndatel kolis Rossville'i kogukonda, kus neile kuulus suur talu ja hiljem avati Rossville'is mitu jaekaubandusettevõtet, sealhulgas sööda-, kuivtoote-, mööblikauplused ja ettevõte. matusebüroo.

Doris Evelyn Jamieson sündis 14. märtsil 1900 Kansase osariigis Shawnee maakonnas Rossville'is oma vanema talus. Ajalehtede artikleid lugedes sai autor teada, et Doris Jamieson käis Rossville'i kogukonna maakoolides ja lõpetas Rossville'i keskkooli. tegev mitmetes muusika- ja draamaklubides. Ma ei saanud õppida, kas ta käis mõnes ülikoolis, kuid ta tegi maakonnaeksami, et saada maakoolides õpetaja tunnistust. Ma ei õppinud, kui ta kunagi õpetas. Ma leidsin, et tema isa A. Bruce Jamieson teenis kohalikus koolivalitsuses.

Pulmakuulutusest selgus, et paar nautis mesinädalaid Colorados ja sõitis sinna uue Buicki turismiautoga, mis oli härra ja proua HG Adamsi pulmakingitus. Pärast mesinädalaid elasid nad Maple rantšo peakorteris. Hill ja neid näidatakse osana HG Adamsi leibkonnast 1920. aasta USA rahvaloendusel.

Kui 1930. aasta USA rahvaloendus loeti, elasid Horace G. ja Doris Adams Kansase osariigis Meade maakonnas XI rantšo peakorteris, kus tema ametit nimetati „peameheks”. Selleks ajaks olid Adamid saanud kahe poja, Horace G. Adamsi, III ja Bruce E. Adamsi vanemateks. Horace G. Adams, III sündis 14. juulil 1921 Kansase osariigis Maple Hillis rantšo peakorteris.

Tema noorem vend Bruce E. Adams sündis seal samuti 23. juulil 1929. Rahvaloendusel oli XI karjakasvatajaks 15 töölist, kuid mitte ühtegi teist Adamsi perekonna liiget, mis näitas, et Horace juhtis rantšo järelevalve all. tema isa.

Mingil ajal oma noorte aastate jooksul sai ta tuntuks kui “Hooly” Adams. Nime kasutasid kogu elu pere ja sõbrad.

Kolmas laps, Marilyn Melee Adams, sündis 24. oktoobril 1933. aastal Kansase haiglas Topeka haiglas. Ta lõpetas Kansase osariigi ülikooli kiitusega, kus ta oli seotud paljude tegevustega. Ta abiellus William Lee Larrabee'ga 24. novembril 1955 pärast KSU lõpetamist.
William “Bill” Larrabee sündis 15. veebruaril 1933 Robert Lee ja Rosemary (Kinney) Larrabee peres. Ta oli lõpetanud Liberaalse keskkooli ja Kansase ülikooli. Ta oli oma pere kolmas põlvkond, kes omas ja juhtis Kansasis Liberalis asuvat Star Lumber Company.

Marilyn ja Bill Larrabee olid 1957. aastal sündinud Steven Lee Larrabee ja 1964. aastal sündinud Kevin Robert Larrabee vanemad.

Marilyn M. (Adams) Larrabee suri 2. veebruaril 2001 ja William L. “Bill” Larrabee suri 16. veebruaril 2017. Nad on maetud Adamsi krundile Gracelandi kalmistule, Liberal, Kansas. Nende järeltulijad jätkavad Star Lumber Company juhtimist.

Nagu perekondades, kus on palju rikkust, viitavad ajalehekontod perekonna lahkarvamustele seoses varade jagamisega pärast Horace Adamsi surma, 5. veebruaril 1933. Hr Adams suri ilma testamendita, mis suurendas raskusi. Tema lesk Mabel G. (Warren) Adams elas 23. novembrini 1940 ja tundus, et ta „hoiab” perekonda mingil määral koos kuni tema surmani. Pärast tema surma peeti mitmeid kohtuvaidlusi, kuid lõpuks jagati H. G. Adamsi tohutu maa- ja karjafarmid kolme ellujäänud Adamsi poja vahel ostude ja kokkulepete kaudu, õdede Adamsi õigused osteti eraviisiliselt.

Horace Adams, II ja Doris Adams ja nende lapsed kolisid Lääne -Kansasesse ja elasid tuhandetel aakritel peamiselt Kansase osariigis Meade'i maakonnas, mis oli osa endisest XI rantšos, mille omanik oli Horace Adams, vanem, nafta ja gaas. avastati XI rantšos, lisades juba olulistele Adamsi pereettevõtetele.

Kaks teist H. G. ja Mabel Adamsi poega, Alexander ja Raymond E. Adams, Sr, tulid samuti XI rantšo osadeks ja jätkasid perekonna pärandit, kuid rohkem oma perekondi ja panust hiljem.

Bruce E. Adams, Horace'i ja Doris Adamsi poeg, hukkus traagilises lennuõnnetuses 4. augustil 1952. Ühe ajalehe andmetel lendas härra Adams üle pere rantšo, pihustades kariloomi, kui tema lennuk järsku seiskus ja kukkus alla. Ta abiellus Shirley Ann Demmittiga vaid kuus nädalat varem, juulis 1952. Lapsi polnud.

Horace Greeley Adams, III sündis 14. juulil 1921 Adams Ranchi peakorteris Maple Hillis Kansas. Ta veetis oma varajase elu Maple Hillis ja Meade'i maakonnas Kansases. Nooruses omandas ta hüüdnime “Buck”, mida kasutas kogu oma elu.

Ta abiellus Wynona Gardine Kelleriga 23. novembril 1943 Texases Synderis, kus tema vanematele kuulus suur mööblipood ja kinnisvaraäri. Wynona sündis 31. oktoobril 1921 Snyderis, Texases, John Marshalli ja Eula E. (Burt) Kelleri peres. Ta käis Synderi koolides, lõpetas Texase Dallases Hockaday keskkooli ja käis mitu aastat Texase tehnikaülikoolis.

Tema ja Buck Adams elasid kõigepealt Adams Ranch peakorteris Maple Hillis Kansases ja kolisid seejärel Adams Ranchisse Meade'i maakonnas Kansases, kus nad veetsid oma ülejäänud elu. Mul õnnestus leida üsna palju teavet Burti perekonna ja selle sugupuu kohta ning kuigi ma ei anna seda siin, jagan seda hea meelega pereliikmetega, kes võivad sellest huvitatud olla.

Buck ja Wynona Adams on Horace Greeley Adams IV, tuntud kui “Kell” Adams, ja tütre Karen Sue “Kiki” Adamsi vanemad. Nagu ma varem ütlesin, ei kavatse ma Adamsite perekonna praegustest põlvkondadest kirjutada, muretsedes nende privaatsuse pärast.

H. G. “Buck” Adams valiti 2004. aastal Cattlemani kuulsuste halli. Sisseastumistseremoonia teadaandega ilmus järgmine foto ja artikkel:

Horace Greely “Buck” Adams - Rancher Cattleman

"Minu isa oli looduskaitsja, enne kui keegi mõtles, mida see tähendab." - H. G. Adams IV kirjeldas oma isa pühendumust maa säilitamisele.

Horace Greely “Buck” Adams, Kansase Plainsi lähedal asuva XI rantšo omanik, sündis Topekas 1921. aastal ja elas lapsena XI rantšos. Aastaks 1923 oli Bucki vanaisa rantšos kogunud 75 000 aakrit. Kahjuks pidi Bucki lähikond 1933. aastal kolima oma farmi Ida -Kansasesse, sest tema nooremal vennal oli tolmupneumoonia. Buck abiellus Wynona Kelleriga 1943.

Kaks aastat hiljem kolis paar XI rantšosse, kus nad oma pere üles kasvatasid. Suure depressiooni ja tolmukausi ajastul üles kasvades õppis Buck, kui karm karjakasvatus võib olla. Ta meenutas aega, mil tema perekond jooksis 1934. aastaks 5000 mullikat oma 75 000 aakri suurusel alal, müüsid nad peaaegu kõik maha. Pärast kolimist XI rantšosse pühendas Buck ülejäänud elu karjakasvatusele. Ta talus paljusid samu probleeme, millega vanaisa oli enne teda tegelenud. 1950ndatel põhjustas põud Buckil 25 000 aakri peal 150 veist, mis tavaliselt pidasid 1000 looma. Hiljem, 1957. aasta kevadel murdis lumetorm põua ja tappis nende 150 peast kuuskümmend. Ometi pidas Buck vastu.

Buck uskus, et käepigistus sulges tehingu. Bucki poeg HG Adams IV ei mäletanud aega, mil tema isal oli leping veiste müümiseks. Tal oli maine, et ta ei taganenud kunagi tehingust, isegi kui veiseliha hind pärast kokkuleppe sõlmimist tõusis. Oma olemuselt looduskaitsja hoidis teda põllumajandusäris ka kõige raskematel aegadel. Ta jutlustas vajadusest maa eest hoolitseda. Buck tahtis nooruses rodeo ringiga liituda. Ta tundis oma pikkust 6’1 ”ja kaalu 200 naela. oleks roolivõistlustel olnud eeliseks. Buck vaatas alati tagasi kahetsusega, et tal polnud kunagi aega ega raha oma rodeo -unistuste täitmiseks. Horace Greely “Buck” Adams suri 1995. aastal, jättes XI rantšo oma perekonna hooleks ja eluaegseid karjakasvatusalaseid teadmisi kõigile, kellega ta kokku puutus.
Aasta: 2004 ”

H. G. “Buck” Adams suri 20. mail 1995 ja Wynona Gardine (Keller) Adams suri 2. novembril 2005.

Järgnev on Wynona G. Adamsi nekroloog: Wynona Gardine (Keller) Adams, 84, Liberal, Kansas suri teisipäeval, 2. novembril 2002 Edela meditsiinikeskuses, Liberal.
Ta sündis 31. oktoobril 1921 Snyderis, Texases, John ja Eula (Burt) Kelleri tütrena.
Ta lõpetas Texase Dallases Hockaday keskkooli ja õppis mitu aastat Texas Techis. Ta abiellus Horace G. Adamsiga, III, 23. novembril 1943 Texase osariigis Snyderis. Ta suri 20. mail 1995. Naine ja Buck Adams elasid esmakordselt Maple Hillis, Kansas, tema perekonna rantšos, enne kui kolisid 1947. aastal Kansase Plainsis asuvasse XI rantšosse. Nad loobusid aktiivsest karjakasvatusest 1984. aastal ja kolisid Kansasesse Liberalisse.
Ta osales paljudes ühiskondlikes teenustes, maalis õlidega ja nautis lugemist. Ta armastas oma perekonda. Ta oli liberaalse esimese presbüterlaste kiriku liige.
Temast jäid ilmale üks poeg, Horace Greeley & quot; Kell & quot; Adams, IV ja tema naine Wanda of Plains, üks tütar, Kiki Adams Dayton ja tema abikaasa William & quot; Bill, & quot; Tyrone, OK kaks lapselast, Horace G. Adams, V ja tema naine Regan , Kanada, Texas ja Cooper Wade Adams of Plains. Talle eelnesid surma tema vanemad ja üks õde.
Eraldi mälestusteenistused ja sissemakse viiakse läbi perekonna rantšos.
Perekond soovitab mälestusmärgid saata Wynona K. Adamsi mälestusstipendiumifondi, 1551 N. Western, Liberal, KS 67901.

Aadama tütar Karen Sue “Kiki” Adams sündis 11. jaanuaril 1952 ja elab koos abikaasa William Leroy Daytoniga Tyrone'is, Oklahomas.

H. G. “Kell” Adams, IV elab ja töötab perekondlikus rantšos Plainsi lähedal Kansases ning on partner H. G. Adamsis ja Son Cattle Company's. Ta abiellus 16. detsembril 1971. aastal Oklahomas Wanda Joanne Cookiga. Tema ja Wanda Adams on olnud aktiivsed kaitsealastes jõupingutustes. Wanda Adams oli Kansase osariigis Meade'i maakonna puhta õhu ja vee eest hoolitsevate kodanike asutajaliige ning töötas Kansase maaelukeskuse direktorina.

H. G. ja Wanda Adams on Cooper Wade Adamsi ja Horace G. Adamsi vanemad. Perekond Adams elab edasi ja tegutseb Kansase osariigis Plainsi lähedal asuvas Adamsi rantšos.
On väga huvitav, et need Horace Greeley ja Mabel G. (Warren) Adamsi järeltulijad austavad jätkuvalt edukalt oma karjatööstuse pärandit kõik need põlvkonnad ja rohkem kui 110 aastat pärast tema algset huvi XI rantšo vastu huvi ostmist 1902. aastal.

Järgmine artikkel räägib Alexander Warren “Alec” Adamsist, Horace G. ja Mabel G. (Warren) Adamsi kuuendast lapsest.

Foto 1 - Adamsite pere jõuluõhtu kokkutulek 1937 - algus vasakul keskel, LR on Jessie (Stewart) Adams, Doris (Jamieson) Adams, Raymond E. Adams, Mary (Adams) Dougan, Horace Adams, II, Rae (Adams) Tod, Mabel (Warren) Adams, Alexander Adams, Antoinette Todi sõber,
Antoinette Tod, Helen (Lewis) Adams ja Frank Dougan. See on ainus foto, millel mul on Horace ja Doris Adams.
Foto 2 - uudislõik aastast 1917 Adamsi poiste kohta Country Day Schoolis, Kansas City, MO.
Foto 3 - uudislõik aastast 1917 Adamsi poiste kohta Country Day Schoolis, Kansas City, MO.
Foto 4 - Horace Greeley Adams, III foto, mida kasutati tema kaasamisel Kauboi kuulsuste saali.
Foto 5 - See on foto, mis on tehtud Californias, laiendatud Adamsi perekonnast puhkusel 1909. aastal. Horace Adams, II on poiss, kes seisab paremast otsast kolmandana, emapoolse vanaema, proua Benjamin Warreni kõrval.

Maple Hill, Kansas: selle ajalugu, inimesed, legendid ja fotod

Maple Hilli rongiõnnetused - 1900–1902

Ted Hammarlund vaatas hiljuti läbi mõned perefotod ja sattus kahele, mis kujutavad Maple Hilli lähedal rongiõnnetusi. Leidsin hõlpsalt ajaleheartikli 12. novembri 1900. aasta rongiõnnetuse kohta, kuid pärast kõigi kohalike ajalehtede lugemist 1902. aastaks, nädalate kaupa, ei õnnestunud mul leida artiklit Maple Hilli lähedal toimunud vrakist.

Ma ei pea otsingut ajaraiskamiseks, sest see võimaldab mul saada “pildi” sellest, mis juhtus Vahtramäel 1902. aastal. See oli väga huvitav ja on kahtlemata ka vahtramäe tulevaste artiklite teema. lehel.

It was interesting to read about the vast number of train wrecks across America (and abroad) that were reported in the pages of the Alma Enterprise and the Alma Signal. During 1900 and 1902 there were hundreds of train derailments that killed hundreds of people and thousands of cattle, sheep, horses and hogs. It was obvious to me that traveling by train was not as safe as I had thought at that time. As one might expect, most of the accidents were caused by human error followed closely by mechanical and equipment failure. It was also easy to determine that riding in the engine and caboose were the two most dangerous places. Most of the deaths occurred in those two train locations.

The first photograph was taken following a wreck on November 2, 1900. Here is the article:

“Monday, November 2nd, at 8:15am while the local freight, eastbound, Train Number 32, pulled by engine 456, was switching, an eastbound extra pulled by engine 469, scheduled to run at 46 miles per hour, but running at the rate of ten miles per hour, ran into the caboose which with a flat ar and three boxcars was at a curve one-quarter mile west of Maple Hill. One of the crew of #32 had gone back the required distance and flagged the extra but the brakes of the latter would not work.

When within a short distance of #32, the engineer reversed his engine and then both he and the fireman jumped. Mrs. Lou Coleman of Maple Hill, and the conductor of #32 were the only occupants of the caboose and they escaped just in the nick of time.

When the crash came the coupling between the flat car and box cars was thrown out and the three boxcars shot down the track, while the caboose and flat car were completely demolished. The engine jumped the trace and was badly wrecked, one side of the tender remained on the ties, but after repeated efforts to set it back on the track, it had to be turned over into the ditch.

The work train from Topeka in charge of roadmaster Sullivan, arrived on the scene at noon and at 1:15pm the track was cleared and ready for traffic. At 9:00 pm the remains of the caboose and flat cars were burned by the railroad hands while the engine was hoisted onto flat cars by crane and hauled off the following day.

It is lucky indeed that no one was injured in the accident. The local freight #32 was in charge of engineer, Jack Slater, and conductor Frank Enerton, while the extra was in charge of engineer Buskirk and conductor Vanscoy.”

Ted said that on the back of the photograph was written: “West of Maple Hill toward the McClelland Farm. Joe Romick and Ed Chapman.”

The second photograph has the following written on the back:

“1902 – East of Maple Hill near Mill Creek Bridge.” From the photograph, it would appear that the wreck occurred during the summer because there are leaves on the trees. The wreck is near the bridge across Mill Creek, at or near the junction of the Maple Hill/Willard and Bouchey Roads. I wasn’t able to find any further information.

Thanks to Ted Hammarlund for providing the photos and captions.

Photo 1 - The 1900 Train Wreck

Photo 2 - The 1902 Train Wreck

Maple Hill, Kansas: Its History, People, Legends and Photographs

Remembering and Honoring Maple Hill’s Own Lt. Col. Mabel Hammarlund on Memorial Day 2021

This coming weekend will be the federal Memorial Day observance when all those who have served in the Armed Forces of the United States will be thanked and paid respect by millions of Americans. One of those who will be honored at the Old Stone Church was born at Maple Hill, Kansas, raised on a farm four miles west of town, educated at the Thayer School District #57 and Maple Hill High School, was a life-long nurse, and served in the United States Army most of her career. I am speaking of Lt. Col. (Retired) Mabel Hammarland.

Mabel was the daughter of Oscar Theodore and Lillie Belle (Miller) Hammarlund and was the sixth of eight children, born on November 2, 1910. Mabel’s siblings were Cecilia born 1901, Easter born 1902, Charles Arthur Nels born 1903, Ella Elna born in 1906, Milton Oscar born 1908, Robert Everett born 1913 and Henry Howard born 1919. Cecilia and Easter Hammarlund died as infants and are buried in the family plot at the Old Stone Church.
I will write a second article about the Hammarlund Family, but the intent of this post is to focus on Mabel and her distinguished career and life.

Mabel Hammarlund was born on November 2, 1910, on the Warren/Crouch Farm, three miles west of Maple Hill, Kansas. Her parents were Oscar Theodore and Lillie Belle (Miller) Hammarlund. At the time of her birth, the family lived in what was formerly the parsonage of the Eliot Congregational Church (Old Stone Church) which was located across the road north of the W. W. Cocks/Grant Romig stone house. The house burned in 1924, when the William Mitchell family lived there. Oscar farmed for the Warren and Crouch families and was also the road maintenance man for the Vera-Maple Hill Road. In 1921, Oscar and Lillie Hammarlund moved 1.5 miles west and rented the Albert and Ellen (Cheney) Thayer farm of 320-acres. The Hammarlund family would remain on that farm for more than four decades.

Mabel and her siblings were like other farm children, helping their parents with the chores and responsibilities that come with caring for a large farm. Her older sister Ella and Mabel helped their mother with household responsibilities, cooking, washing, ironing, cleaning, and other duties. Like her brothers and sisters, Mabel began school by walking down Vera road to the south and attending the Thayer School District #57, on the banks of Mill Creek. The school building still exists but has been extensively remodeled, enlarged, and is a part of the Imthurn Ranch. Oscar T. Hammarlund was a member of the District #57 school board from 1910 until 1925 and was chair of the board several of those years. Miss Annie Crouch, Superintendent of Wabaunsee County Schools often commended District #57 for maintaining their school building and providing a barn, two outhouses, and play equipment.
Mabel went to the town school, Maple Hill High School, where she graduated with honors in 1928. As with many rural students, Mabel boarded at the Clements Hotel on Maple Hill’s Main Street while she attended high school. According to a Maple Hill News Item in 1928, Mabel was working on Saturdays and evenings as a clerk in Frank Steven’s General Store.

I haven’t been able to learn what Mabel was doing between 1928 and 1930, but in September 1930, she enrolled in Christ’s Hospital School of Nursing in Topeka, Kansas where she took a three-year course and graduated, again with honors, as a Registered Nurse. According to her nephew, Dr. Marion Hammarlund (now 92 years old) she worked for several years in the Topeka Public Health Department after graduation. He said that the family always worried about her because she had to go out and visit families when there was illness and decide whether or not they should be quarantined. She later worked for the Genn Hospital in Wamego, Kansas. Dr. Hammarlund said that she would take him and his cousins to work with her as a special treat. He remembered that she would give them a bottle of pop in the car to keep them entertained. When they would cross a railroad track, Mabel would make them put their bottle of pop between their knees so they couldn’t chip their teeth. While Mabel worked at Genn, she paid for Dr. Hammarlund and his cousins to have their tonsils taken out. She believed that tonsils were the cause of much illness. Marion has many fond memories of his Aunt Mabel.

When WWII began, Mabel decided to enlist as a second lieutenant in the Army Nurse Corps. Anyone who had successfully completed a registered nursing course at an accredited institution was automatically enlisted as an officer. Mabel’s official record of service is over 20 pages long, but let it suffice to say that she was stationed in many locations during the war and after, serving as a nurse in various hospitals. In one article I read, it stated that when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor in 1941, there were 5,300 nurses in the Corp and when the war concluded in 1945, there were 55,000. No nurse was ever drafted into service, but all volunteered. Later on, when Mabel was an administrator in the Army Nurse Corps, she was always interested in nurse recruitment, making sure that they were paid appropriately and that Congress passed acts ensuring that nurses could be promoted to ever higher ranks as was merited. There are several newspaper and magazine articles in that regard.

After the war ended, Mabel must have decided that she was going to make Army nursing a career, because she began to structure her tenure in such a way that she became a nursing administrator rather than a clinical nurse. Mabel was assigned to several posts over the next 10 years in which she handled administrative duties and advanced in rank from a second lieutenant to a lieutenant, then captain, major, and finally Lt. Coronel. She was made a Lt. Coronel in 1958 when she was serving as Army Nurse Corp Special Force Nurse at Ft. Hood in Texas. Her next promotion brought her to the apex of her career when she was appointed Army Nurse Corp, Fourth Army Head Nurse, with responsibility for most nursing in the southern half of the United States. Her final assignment took her to Europe where she was the Army Nurse Corp, European Theater Head Nurse, in charge of all army nurses in Europe. Congress had not yet made it possible for women to hold the rank of General in the Nursing Corp, so Mabel was among 8 women that held the rank of Lt. Colonel. Mabel retired on December 31, 1963 after serving 21 years.

On September 18, 1963, President John F. Kennedy ordered and Congress approved, the awarding of the Legion of Merit to Lt. Col. Mabel Hammarlund for the performance of outstanding services to the Government of the United States from August 1955 to December 1963, reflecting her service in World War II and Korea. The Legion of Merit was at that time the highest honor that could be bestowed upon a living female service member. There were nurses who were killed in action and received the Purple Heart and the Congressional Medal of Honor.

I know of no other service person from Maple Hill, Kansas that has received a Legion of Merit award.

After Mabel retired, she returned to Topeka, Kansas where she bought a home and moved her parents there to live with her. Mabel was not finished nursing, however. In 1964, she became a member of the Topeka Unified School District’s School Nursing Corp and served until retiring in 1974, rounding out a superb career of nearly 40 years in healthcare.

I would consider myself an acquaintance of Mabel’s, but those of us who knew her will remember her as a rather quiet, unassuming, often gregarious, attentive to family, gracious, lady. Her father, Oscar Hammarlund died in 1963 after he and wife Lillie had celebrated their 60th Wedding Anniversary in 1960. Lillie Hammarlund died in 1981 at the age of 101. Both are buried in the Maple Hill Cemetery at the Old Stone Church. Mabel Hammarlund died a year before her mother, on August 8, 1980. All are buried in the Hammarland Plot at the Old Stone Church. Mabel has a plain marble military tombstone as she would have wanted.

Although Mabel has been deceased for more than 40 years, it is important on this Memorial Day that we pause to remember her contribution to nursing, to the Army Nurse Corp and to the United States of America. Thank you Mabel and Rest In Peace!!

1. The Hammarlund Family, this photo was taken on the occasion of Oscar and Lillie's 50th Wedding Anniversary in 1950. Oscar and Lillie Belle (Miller) Hammarlund are seated in front. Standing behind them L-R are Ella and Mabel Hammarlund. Standing in the third-row L-R are Oscar Milton, Charles Arthur, Robert Everett, and Howard Henry Hammarlund.

2. The Albert Thayer stone house, built-in 1874 four miles west of Maple Hill. The Hammarlunds lived in this house and rented the farm from 1921 until they moved to Topeka in 1963.

3. Christ's School of Nursing, Topeka, Kansas. This is where Mabel Hammarlund took nurses training and lived from 1930-1933.

4. Genn Hospital, Wamego, Kansas. Mabel Hammarlund worked as a registered nurse at Genn Hospital during the late 1930s.

5. - 11. These are all photographs of Mabel Hammarlund taken during her Army Nurse Corp career.

12. This photograph is of the Topeka Unified School District School Nurses. Mabel Hammarlund is in the top row, far left.

13. Mabel Hammerland, taken after retirement from the Army Nurse Corp, in her Topeka home on Saline Street.

14. Mabel Hammarlund's military headstone in the Maple Hill Cemetery at the Old Stone Church.

Many thanks to Ted Hammarlund, nephew of Lt. Col. Mabel Hammarlund, for providing the photographs for this post.

Maple Hill, Kansas: Its History, People, Legends and Photographs

Nicholas Clark ‎You Know You're From Wabaunsee County When.

I always get very upset with myself when I don't attend Memorial Day Services at the Old Stone Church. What a wonderful collection of memories I have surrounding all the years I have been able to attend. I wrote a story about my experiences a few years ago and I'll share it with you now.

Decoration Day Fifty Years Ago
By: Nick Clark – May 24, 2003

As I awoke this morning to find bright sunlight streaming through my window, I couldn’t help thinking that had it been fifty years ago, my mother would have been tugging at my toe and urging me to, “Get up. We need to get the jars in the car, pick flowers and get going to the cemeteries.” The next day, Sunday, would be Decoration Day, and we weren’t the only ones hurrying around—nearly every household in Maple Hill and the surrounding countryside would be doing the same thing.

By the time breakfast was over, my grandmother, Mildred McCauley Corbin would be in our kitchen, as well as my Aunt Bonnie Mitchell and at different times, others of our family and neighbors. My paternal grandmother, “Central” Mable Clark, was always running the telephone switchboard located in her home so she would send jars the night before to take to the cemeteries where her relatives were buried.

It was an important day for the entire community. It was a day to remember and honor the lives of all ancestors, but especially those who had served in the Armed Forces. Decoration Day began on May 5, 1868 when the Grand Army of the Republic (an organization honoring those who served in the Union Army) held a ceremony at Arlington National Cemetery. Mrs. Ulysses S. Grant, wife of the President, gave a stirring address lauding the deeds of brave soldiers who had “served in blue” during the war between the states. After the speech making had been completed, orphans of soldiers and sailors paraded into the cemetery with baskets of flowers, strewing them on the more than 20,000 newly occupied graves. As years passed the ceremony was echoed through the entire country and became a part of the fabric of our nation’s ceremonial history.

As America engaged in other wars over time, the occasion took on significance and also changed names. After World War I, the observance became known as Memorial Day and in 1971, Congress at the urging of President Lyndon Johnson, made Memorial Day an official holiday to honor those who served in America’s Armed Forces. Although I had certainly heard or read the term Memorial Day, I don’t remember my family calling it anything other than Decoration Day until I was grown.

Activity in the household would increase on those Saturday mornings, as we loaded jars into the trunk of my grandmother Corbin’s car (as I recall a 1953 Ford). We would take big gallon jars of water along and in later years, rolls of foil to wrap around the jars. Then we would proceed to the home gardens of various family members and pick fresh flowers to put in the jars placed on graves. My great grandmother, Jeanetta Reinhardt Jones, always had beautiful big boughs of spirea. The little white crowns of flowers were striking in bouquets. We would then proceed to my Aunt Bonnie Mitchell’s home and pick up the bucket or two of multi-colored iris that she had picked earlier. My Grandmother Clark would have supplied Iris of various colors from the Central Office garden. She also had big tall spikes of larkspur in pink, purple and blue. Grandmother Corbin had a beautiful climbing red rose, a “Mary Perkins,” which bloomed early and was beautiful to include as a highlight in bouquets. All these ladies furnished varieties of colored peonies. When finished, the car would look like one following a hearse to a funeral. We would then set off to the cemeteries where various relatives were buried.

We often went to the Uniontown/Greene Cemetery southeast of Willard, Kansas first. In that cemetery are buried my paternal great great grandfather Francis Marion Jones, and my great grandmother Virgia Miller Jones, and my great uncle Louis Jones. They were the grandfather, mother and brother of Mable Clark. The cemetery was small and was usually well kept by the Greene and Viergiver Families, who lived nearby. But as they aged, the cemetery fell into an unkempt condition and it was always tricky getting into the graves without the fear of SNAKES! Great great grandfather had served in the Civil War, had a Civil War headstone and also a GAR marker. It was important that we “decorate” his grave. Always mixed in with the placing of flowers was the telling of family stories and talk of their military service. It was a great time to be 10-years-old and hear those accumulated memories—a real treasure.

Then we would usually go back to Maple Hill via gravel road, trying our best not to upset the buckets of flowers or slosh water into the trunk and back seat—where I was crowded between giant sprays of iris, peonies and larkspur. Our destination was the Old Stone Church Cemetery west of Maple Hill.

There we drove up and down the avenues of eastern red cedar trees, stopping at the graves of the Clark, Corbin, Mitchell, Lemon, Jones, and McCauley Families as well as at the graves of others who might not have family members living nearby. It was always a courtesy of many families to decorate the graves of dear friends or long-gone families. The James Elmer Romick American Legion Post members would be visiting the graves of veterans and placing little metal American Legion plaques on the graves of soldiers. In each plaque was placed a tiny America Flag.

In the evening, we would usually go to Bethlehem Cemetery, south of Paxico, where we would place flowers on the graves of Clark relatives. Sometimes, not always, we would go to the Vera Community and stop at the graves of Albert and Martha Graham Phillips, who were buried in the pasture across the road from the home of Merle and Nora Lietz. They were the parents of my cousin, Mable Phillips Herron (Mrs. Jack). They were struck by lightening and killed in their carriage in the 1870s. The horses were not injured and carried their bodies home. The telling of that morbid but fascinating story would then occupy the return trip to Maple Hill.

In my high school years (1958-1962,) the Maple Hill Community Congregational Church had a very active youth group composed of junior and senior high
young folks. Although I don’t recall the exact numbers, I would estimate that there were 20 to 30 in regular attendance. During my memory, the Pilgrim Fellowship Group was led and supervised by Jack and Bill Warren—sons of William Warren, a charter member of MHCCC. The Warren brothers lived on a farm three miles west of Maple Hill and would usually bring their farm truck into town and meet PFG members at the newly constructed Parish Hall. We would load folding chairs, a huge upright piano, hymnals, the big original bible, lectern stands and sometimes we would take the old original chairs from the church alter. Warner Adams and other men were always on hand to help. This moving was necessary because most of the original Stone Church furnishings had been destroyed in a tragic fire on May 12, 1952.

Although only seven at the time, I remember the Stone Church fire because it was one of those major community events that is vividly recalled to the minds of most of those who witnessed it. Ivan Yount and Walter “Punt” Romick were trimming cedar trees at the cemetery and had piled a stack of sheared limbs at the north side of the cemetery property, a good 300 yards from the building. Limbs had been burned before in the same way and the distance was presumed to be safe. Nothing burns with more vigor than red cedar and when the pile was lighted there were only light winds from the south. Suddenly gusts of wind began, the direction changed to the north and the sparks were carried to the wooden shingles of the church before anything could be done to prevent it.

I was just completing the second grade at Maple Hill Grade School and was spending a pleasant spring day at my Grandmother Corbin’s farm home located one and one-half miles southwest of Maple Hill. We were planting beans in the garden. All of a sudden, we heard the old wall telephone in the kitchen begin to continuously ring in short bursts. That was a sign to immediately “pick up” on the eight-party line, because there was something of dire importance that needed the attention of the entire community. Grandmother hurried to the house where the voice on the phone was that of my other grandmother, Mable Clark at the Central Office. She was notifying the community that help was needed at the church fire. Punt Romick and Ivan Yount had driven one-quarter mile to the Romick home, and had phoned in the alarm.

Grandfather Corbin had taken the car at the time, and we had no way to go to the fire, but we could clearly see the cemetery from the farm and could also see the column of black smoke rising high into the sky. My grandmother just sat down on the back steps and buried her head in her big apron and wept. Pretty soon, we heard someone calling to us from the road and it was Mrs. Ella Yount, Ivan’s mother, who had walked the quarter mile to my grandmothers. They both sat on the steps and wept in each others arms while I looked on—stunned. The decades-old shingles were consumed within minutes and it was only through heroic efforts that the original pump organ, pulpit and a few other treasures were saved.

The Old Stone Church Cemetery Board had raised enough money immediately following the fire to replace the roof, floor, windows and front doors. Topeka architect, Charles Marshall, cousin of Mrs. Warner Adams, donated his time to plan the restoration. Services were held in the building’s shell until 1962, when some of Maple Hill’s older citizens joined forces with the Pilgrim Youth Group to raise funds for the restoration of the Old Stone Church interior. Emily Adams made long lists of local and distant people whose relatives had attended the Old Stone Church. From January through May, I went to the Adam’s home and typed letters on an old portable Royal typewriter. Miss Adams furnished the stationary, envelopes and stamps. The response was overwhelmingly favorable. My only regret, is that the letters that accompanied donor checks were not saved as they were a tribute to the love of the Old Stone Church, held so dearly by early church and community pioneers.

Although the outer structure of the church had been replaced, the interior plaster had never been removed from the walls and that would require tedious labor. At the urging of Jack and Bill Warren, the PFG decided to spend weekends taking the old plaster off the walls. Scaffolding was placed inside and we all brought our claw hammers and worked long hours removing plaster which had been applied directly to the stone walls. We would go home in the evening with hair stiff from plaster dust. Our mothers brought lunch to the church and we had grand times playing games and exploring the cemetery. I am going to be sorry that I ever tried to list names, and my apologies to those I have omitted because of memory loss, but I recall the following helping with plaster removal: Mary Sue Kitt, Janice Yount, Patty Holmes, Norris and Horace Hoobler, Art and Kathryn Adams, Rod and Cathy Say, Eugene and Karen Travis, Tracy and Larry Ables, Larry and Lana Schulte, Mike Turnbull, Bill, Art and Ruth Ann Raine, Linda and Terry Ungeheuer, Allen and Loren Lett, Trudi and Marcia Mee, Claudia and Kenny Arnold, Larry and Cheryl Oliver, Eula and Beulah Adams, Dean and Jean Adams, and Ronnie and Herb Crawshaw.

Ronnell Bennett, a Black plasterer from Alma, Kansas was employed to put on three good coats of plaster. Mr. Bennett had learned his trade from pioneer German plasterers and had an excellent reputation. The workmanship was superb and his work remains in good condition today. I don’t remember the exact cost of the total restoration, but I do remember that Miss Adams and I were delighted when the bank account approached $4,000.00. Special thanks is owned to Ann Gorbet Adams and her father, John Gorbet, who provided expertise in choosing colors of stain for the floor and paint for the wall. In addition, the Hammarlund Family donated a beautiful cross for the front of the sanctuary that was made from the historic timbers of the St. Marys Congregational Church, St. Marys, Kansas.

After the plastering was completed, there was about $300 or $400 left in the account. Miss Adams read in the Topeka Capital-Journal that the Jewish Synagogue was being remodeled and that they had oak pews for sale. The individual that was in charge of the remodeling was Shoal Pozez, who was just starting a brand new company we know today as, PayLess Shoes. I drove Emily Adams to Topeka where we met Mr. Pozez at the Synagogue. Emily told him the story of our efforts to restore the Old Stone Church and he said, “We want to help. These are $100 pews but we’ll let you have them at the bargin price of $20 each.” I don’t recall exactly how many we purchased but it seems there were 15 or 20. Warner Adams and Jack and Bill Warren made the trip to Topeka with their trucks where we loaded the pews and took them to Maple Hill. These were massive pews in good condition, which would today cost $500 each or more—if they could even be made. And so it is—that the Old Stone Church has pews that were in a Jewish Synagogue for the first 100 years of their existence!

One of the last events in the restoration was the placing of the bell in the tower. The original church bell had been destroyed in the church fire. As I recall, Don and Hattie McClelland had the old bell from the Maple Hill Grade School at their home and donated it to be used at the Old Stone Church. The bell was extremely heavy and it required many men and special pulleys to wrench it into place. There were smiles and cheers all around when the clear peals of that bell were once again heard across the Mill Creek Valley. Everyone took turns pulling on the long sisal rope. The tower roof was then completed and the church was ready for Decoration Day Services.

The interior of the Old Stone Church was usually decorated with flowers by Emma Jeanne and Wanda Adams, sisters-in-law. Emma Jeanne and Warner Adams had beautiful flower gardens at their home in north Maple Hill. Emma Jeanne brought large wicker baskets of peonies, iris and spirea while Wanda (Mrs. Arthur Adams) would usually go to the pastures and pick all manner of wildflowers. Each of the big windows would have containers of flowers while there were one or two baskets at the front.

Lois Hammarlund was the church pianist at the time and it was the bain of her existence to have to play the old piano that had been badly water damaged during the fire. The keys didn’t all work, some stuck together, but somehow, with God’s inspiration and her natural musical talent, she was able to make beautiful music. The choir would either go to the Old Stone Church and rehearse on Saturday or early Sunday before services.

My Grandfather, Robert Corbin, and my uncles were members of the American Legion and were a part of the Presentation of Colors Ceremony when the American flag, the American Legion Flag, and the Christian Flag where carried into the church. At my earliest memories, there were probably 25 or 30 men who wore their military uniforms and participated. Just prior to services, the Legion members would march in front of the west side of the church and fire a salute to fallen soldiers. Taps would be played and tears would be shed as memories of loved ones were recalled. Then the men would bring the flags inside the church, and the church services would begin. The church was always packed so full that many times people would either stand near the windows on the outside or would just walk through the graveyard, visiting with friends and relatives who had come from a distance to decorate family graves.

Warner Adams, who took his mother’s position on the cemetery board at her death in 1946, served in that capacity for four decades. It was always Warner’s job to walk among the families and to take an offering to help pay for cemetery upkeep. In those days, the Cemetery Association didn’t have much money and the Memorial Day contributions were important in being able to keep the cemetery mowed and the church in good repair. Warner always carried his hat and people put their contributions into his hat.

And so it is—that 50 years have passed since the days of my youth. In that half century, “times” have become quicker and less melancholy while long-held traditions have changed. My dear mother, Lucille Clark, now 82, and many of her generation still do their best to carry on but the grandeur of Decoration Day Weekend fifty years ago are now just cherished memories.

1. The Old Stone Church, Maple Hill, Kansas
2. The Avenue of Flags honoring veterans.
3. The view from the front steps of the church looking west towards Buffalo Mound.


Vaata videot: Bombardeo a Hiroshima: 6 de Agosto de 1945