Trieste ajalugu - ajalugu

Trieste ajalugu - ajalugu


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Trieste
(Bathyscaph: t. 50; l. 59'6 "; b. 11'6"; dr. 18 '(f);
cpl. 2)

Trieste-teaduslik batüshaf-oli kontseptsiooni väljatöötamine, mille esmakordselt uuris 1937. aastal Šveitsi füüsik ja õhupallur Auguste Piccard. Teine maailmasõda lõpetas järsult Piccardi töö Belgias tema süvamereuuringute allveelaeva-batüshaafi kallal-ja ta jätkas seda alles 1945. aastal. Piccard töötas hiljem koos Prantsuse valitsusega sellise käsitöö väljatöötamisel, kuni kutsuti Triestesse. , Itaalias, aastal 1952, et alustada uue batüskaafi ehitamist. Teaduslikud ja navigatsioonivahendid veesõidukite varustamiseks tulid Šveitsist, Saksamaalt ja Itaaliast. Seal, Napoli lahe lõunakaldal, Navalmeccanica juures, võttis kuju Napoli Trieste lähedal asuv tsiviillaevatehas. 1953. aasta augustis pandi batiskaf esimest korda vette. 11. augustil 1953 sukeldusid professor Piccard ja tema poeg Jacques kohtuprotsessi viie sülla sügavusele.

Aastatel 1953–1956 tegi Trieste palju sukeldumisi Vahemeres. 1955. aastal kohtus dr Robert Dietz Ameerika Ühendriikide mereväe mereväeuuringute büroost (ONR) Londonis professor Piccardiga ja arutas projekti. Nende kõneluste ajal kutsus Piccard Dietzi Itaaliasse, et näha batiskafti. Järgmisel aastal toimunud visiidi ajal kutsus Dietz Piccardi USA -sse, et arutada batiskafi tulevikku Ameerika sukeldumisena.

Rühm Ameerika okeanograafiaid ja veealuse heli spetsialiste külastasid järgmisel suvel, 1957. aastal Itaalias Castellamare'i ning katsetasid ja uurisid Triestet.

Lõpuks soovitasid nad, et käsitöö omandaks Ameerika Ühendriikide valitsus. Nad arvasid, et veealune on ideaalne veesõiduk projektis "Nekton" osalemiseks - maailmamere sügavaima koha, Challenger Deepi, kontrollimiseks Marianade lähedal.

Nii transporditi 1958. aasta sügisel Trieste oma uude kodusadamasse Californiasse San Diegosse. Alates selle aasta detsembrist tegi Trieste San Diegost mitu sukeldumist. Tugevama keraga, mille on valmistanud Saksamaa Kruppi rauatehas, viidi Trieste Guami projekti "Nekton". Kui Wandank (ATR 109) oli tugilaev, lõpetas Trieste oma osalemise projektis "Nekton" 23. jaanuaril 1960, kui leitnant Don Walsh, USN ja Jacques Piccard-professori poeg, kes olid batikafiga Ameerika Ühendriikidesse saatnud, juhendasid Merevägi laskus oma töös ja hoolduses alla seitse miili Challenger Deepi põhja. Maailma rekordiline laskumine oli võtnud üheksa tundi.

Ajavahemikus 1960–1962, pärast seda, kui Trieste pärast Guamist naasmist ja projektist "Nekton" San Diegos kapitaalremonti tehti, viis Bathyscaph San Diego piirkonnas palju sukeldumisi. 1962. aasta novembris algas uus remondiperiood. Sel ajal oli joonistuslaual uus batüshaafi ujuk ja ehitust alustati 1963. aasta alguses. Trieste muudatused toimusid kiiresti, kui allveelaev Thresher (SSN-593) uppus Massachusettsi ranniku lähedal. Trieste toodi üle riigi Bostonisse, kus ta asus peagi kadunud allveelaeva leidmiseks otsingutele. Enne Bostoni mereväe laevatehasesse remonti naasmist tegi ta viis sukeldumist. Hiljem tegi Trieste veel viis sukeldumist. Selle seeria ajal avastas ta augustis Thresheri prahi, sealhulgas allveelaeva purje, mis kandis endiselt selgelt numbrit "593." Umbes sel ajal hakkas batiskafar-siis 10-aastane-ilmnema vanuse märke.

Seega Trieste-tema otsimisülesanne-täideti tagasi San Diegosse, kus ta teenistusest kõrvaldati. Oma osa otsingutel aga olid batüskaf ja tema ülem kom. Donald A. Keach sai mereväeüksuse kiituse. Seejärel transporditi Trieste Washingtoni mereväe õue, kus ta paigutati 1980. aasta alguses mereväe mälestusmuuseumi eksponaadile.


Trieste

Rikas ja mõjukas juudi kogukond elas Triestes, suures Austria-Ungari impeeriumi sadamalinnas, mis sai itaaliaks alles pärast Esimest maailmasõda. Üheksateistkümnendal sajandil ja kahekümnenda sajandi esimestel aastakümnetel avaldas see kogukond linna majandus- ja kultuurielule sügavat mõju. 1696. aastal getosse suletud juudid nautisid 1782. aastal de facto emantsipatsiooni. Toleranzpatent keiser Joosep II. Järelikult seguneb Trieste judaismi ajalugu Austria omaga, eriti Viini judaismiga, ja jagab kogu selle hiilgust. Seda tõendavad tänapäevalgi paljud linna suured kodanlikud perekonnad, nagu Morpurgo de Nilma, Hierschel de Minerbi, Treves, Vivantes jt. See suur kaubasadam oli impeerium ja ainult juurdepääs merele. See oli ka intellektuaalne pealinn, kus juutidel oli enne ja pärast 1918. aastat olulised rollid kirjanikena (Italo Svevo, Umberto Saba, kirjastaja Roberto Bazlen, Giorgio Voghera ja maalikunstnikena (Isodoro Grünhut, Gino Parin, Vittorio Bolaffio, Arturo Nathan) , Giorgio Settala ja Arturo Rietti). Edoardo Weissi (1889-1970) kohalolek linnas muutis selle Itaalia psühhoanalüüsi hälliks. Kahekümnenda sajandi esimesel poolel oli Trieste ka üks juutide lahkumissadamaid emigreerudes Palestiinasse Shoah tundsid selle linna juudid sügavalt. Tänapäeval loeb juudi kogukond kümnendiku sellest, mis oli enne sõda.

Sünagoog © Zacqary Adam Xeper – Wikimedia Commons

Suur sünagoog

Trieste sünagoog, mille ehitas 1912. aastal kogukond, kes soovis näidata oma jõukust ja võimu, kujutab endast arhitektuuriliselt üheks 19. sajandi lõpu emantsipeeritud judaismi olulisemaks ehitiseks. Avara, elegantse ja kitšivaba sünagoogi kujundasid arhitektid Ruggero ja Arduino Berlam ilma kulusid arvestamata. Kaunistused, mis on osaliselt inspireeritud Lähis -Ida teatud kristlike hoonete (st Süüria) ehitistest, näitavad ka mosaiikides, tähista kuplit ja interjööri suurepärast heledust ning stiilide mõjusid. kahekümnenda sajandi alguses Viinis moes.

Juudi Trieste

Alates 1843. aastast on juudi kalmistu aadressil 4 via della Pace. Vana oli San Giusto mäel (15. sajandi keskpaik ja#8211 19. sajandi keskpaik), via del Monte taga, järsul tänaval, kus praegu asub juudi kool ning Carlo ja Vera Wagneri muuseum. See oli varem ashkenazi oratooriumi asukoht, kus saksa, tšehhi ja poola põgenikud palvetasid enne sõdadevahelist Palestiinasse emigreerumist. Hoones asus Iisraeli juudi agentuur, mis aitas tuhandetel inimestel põgeneda vene ja seejärel natside antisemitismi eest. Tegelikult nimetasid juudid Trieste sadamalinna “ Siioni ukseks ja#8221. Oratoorium on nüüd muuseumi osa. Siin eksponeeritud kaunistused ja kuldesemed on mõnel juhul üsna antiiksed, paljud pärinevad nii Böömimaalt ja Saksamaalt kui ka Itaaliast.

Caffè San Marco. Foto autor Alexandros Delithanassis ja#8211 Wikipedia

Kitsad tänavad, nagu Via del Ponte, Piazza della Borsa lähedal, annavad aimu, milline see endine juudi kvartal võis olla sajand tagasi, kui selles elasid vaesed juudid ja seal oli veel neli sünagoogi, mille diskreetsed fassaadid varjasid rikkalikult kaunistatud interjööre . Varase geto hooned ja sünagoogid lammutati 1930ndatel täielikult Trieste juudi kogukonna juhtide suureks rõõmuks, kuna neil polnud soovi oma viletsa mineviku jäänuseid näha. Paljud sünagoogi sisustus on nüüd Iisraelis.

Suure sünagoogi lähedal asuv Caffè San Marco, mis on Trieste ja intelligentsi lemmikpaigas, on endiselt üks linna meeldejäävamaid paiku. Italo Svevo külastas Caffè San Marcot, nagu ka paljud kunstnikud ja kirjanikud, nii juudid kui ka mittejuudid. Traditsioonid jätkuvad tänapäeval selliste autoritega nagu Claudio Magris, kes pühendas suurepärased leheküljed Mikrokosmosed (Pariis: Gallimard, 1998) kohvikusse. Sajandivahetuse Viini pärimis-stiilis interjöör on tähelepanuväärne-nagu ka kohv ja toit.

Tuntud kogu linnas oma toodete kvaliteedi poolest ja#8211 rääkimata selle sisekujundusest ning kuulus kondiitritoodete pood La Bomboniera oli kuni 1930ndateni ka koššerist kondiitritoode, mille veebruarist märtsini valmistatud Purimi koogid rõõmustasid Triestet. elanikud, nii juudid kui ka mittejuudid.

Luuletaja ja kirjanik Umberto Saba ’ meistriteos Canzionere avaldati esmakordselt tema raamatupoes 1921. aastal. Pood, mida ta juhtis kuni oma surmani 1956. aastal, on jäänud selliseks, nagu see oli Saba eluajal, mil teda sageli leiti pikaajaliste aruteludega siin saadud klientide ja sõpradega.

Risiera San Saba © Pier Luigi Mora – Wikimedia Commons

Morpurgo de Nilma kodanikumuuseum

1875. aastal ehitatud paleesse paigaldatud Morpurgo de Nilma kodanikumuuseum on nime saanud Carlo Marco Morpurgo järgi, kes kuulutati oma saavutuste eest vapraks impeeriumi rüütliks. Palee soovitab, milline oli igapäevaelu suure Trieste juudi perekonna jaoks.

Privaatsed korterid asuvad kolmandal korrusel ja sisaldavad suurepärast Louis XVI stiilis muusikatuba, suurt Venezia stiilis kaunistatud taevasinist vastuvõtusaali ja roosat salongi. Teised paleed, mis kuulusid kunagi suurtele juudi perekondadele, nagu Hierschel de Minerbi aadressil 9 Corso Italia või Vivante aadressil Piazza Benco 4, asuvad naabertänavatel ja on muudetud kortermajadeks või kontoriteks.

San Saba Risiera

Natsid rajasid Itaalia ainsa krematooriumiga koonduslaagri San Saba Risiera endise riisitöötlemistehase hoonetesse. See oli laager, mida kasutati juutide, pantvangide, partisanide ja poliitvangide kinnipidamiseks ja kõrvaldamiseks. Juudi vangide jaoks oli see peamiselt transiidipunkt teel hävitamislaagritesse. Ajavahemikus oktoober 1943 kuni märts 1945 küüditati Risierast 22 juudi konvoid. Kokku küüditati Triestest üle 1000 juudi ja umbes 30 tapeti Risieras.

Sait muudeti mälestusmärgiks 1965. aastal. Kümme aastat hiljem sai sellest kodanikumuuseum, mille kujundas arhitekt Romano Boico ja mida on hiljuti uuendatud.


Trieste: Itaalia linn, kes soovib lahutust

Šoti referendumi järel otsivad iseseisvusliikumised üle Euroopa oma meediahetki. Ja Itaalias - mis sai ühtseks riigiks alles 1861. aastal - on rohkem iseseisvusliikumisi kui enamikul.

Veneetsia iseseisvusliikumine, mida juhtis ärimees Gianluca Busato, tõusis hiljuti pealkirjade alla mittesiduva veebireferendumiga, kus Busato väidab, et 87% elanikkonnast hääletas iseseisvuse poolt.

Kaks tundi Veneetsiast ida pool, Sloveenia piiri lähedal, esitab teine ​​linn oma iseseisvusnõude.

Triestel on alati olnud kultuuriliselt mitmekesine ajalugu-sajandeid kuulus see sõjajärgseteks aastateks Austria-Ungari impeeriumi koosseisu, see oli Churchilli lõunapoolne "raudse eesriide" eelpost, mis eraldas lääne kommunistlikust Idast.

Vahetult pärast Teist maailmasõda tunnistati Jugoslaavia piiril asuv Trieste rahvusvahelise õiguse kohaselt vabariigiks, kuigi jäi sõjaväelise okupatsiooni alla kuni 1954. aastani, mil see Itaaliasse tagasi saadeti.

Kuid Trieste vaba territooriumi liikmete jaoks, kes on viimastel kuudel oma meeleavaldustel osalenud 2000 kuni 8000 meeleavaldaja vahel, pole Trieste vabadus lõppenud.

19. sajandi lagunenud mõisas, viie minuti kaugusel merest, unistab Vito Potenza vabanemisest.

Kolm punast lippu - sportlik Trieste traditsiooniline vapp - ripuvad akendest, teine ​​katab kontorilauad.

Sümboolika on igal pool: tihvtidel, kruusidel, Potenza ja#x27s Facebooki lehel.

"Me võitleme Trieste vaba territooriumi elanike õiguste eest," ütleb Potenza. "Me võitleme Itaalia valitsuse vastu."

Lõppude lõpuks on nad okupatsiooni all.

Siin, kus Veneetsia Spritz kokteili serveeritakse Sloveenia juustuga nisuleival, kus mereäärsed kohvikud pakuvad oma cappuccinoid Viini vahukoore kõrvale, paljud identifitseerivad kõigepealt Triestini, teine ​​Itaalia.

Kunagi oli see linn Austria-Ungari impeeriumi suur sadam Piazza dell ' Unitas, hõivavad väljaku kolm külge suurepärased Habsburgide hooned, neljas on meri.

Tahvliga mälestatakse kohta, kus Mussolini teatas oma rassiseaduste poliitikast juutide vastu. Saint Antonio katoliku kirik jagab ruumi Suurel kanalil Serbia õigeusu kirikuga, sünagoog on kahe minuti kaugusel.

& quot; Me oleme mitmekultuuriline rahvas, & quot; ütleb Potenza-ta ise on pooleldi itaallane, pooleldi horvaat.

Tema liikumine Trieste vaba territoorium, mis nõuab linna ja selle tagamaa iseseisvust, on kavandatud seda kajastama: ta näeb itaalia, sloveeni ja horvaadi keelt ühiste ametlike keeltena.

"Itaalia on meie kultuuri liiga kaua maas hoidnud," ütleb ta. Fašistlikud 1920ndate ja 30ndate aastad, mil Trieste slaavi elanikkond allutati sunniviisilisele italisatsiooniprogrammile, pole nii kaua aega tagasi.

Potenza ja tema toetajad usuvad, et Trieste on rahvusvahelise õiguse kohaselt juriidiliselt vaba.

Nad viitavad ÜRO Julgeolekunõukogu 1947. aasta hartale, millega tunnistati Trieste ja selle ümbrus - sealhulgas praeguse Horvaatia ja Sloveenia osad - vabaks riigiks, kusjuures ametlikuks keeleks on nii itaalia kui ka sloveeni keel, tingimusel et määratakse rahvusvaheliselt tunnustatud kuberner. .

Seda "vaba territooriumi" ei olnud aga praktikas kunagi olemas - seitsme Triestini iseseisvusaasta jooksul valitsesid "vaba territooriumi" osi Suurbritannia, Ameerika ja Jugoslaavia - kuni 1954. aasta Londoni memorandumini, millega tagastati suurem osa territooriumist Itaaliale.

Potenza arvates on see otsus ebaseaduslik sissetung: 60 aastat on [Itaalia] kehtestanud meie rahvale suveräänsuse. 1947. aasta leping on seadus, see on meie territooriumi põhiseadus. "

Tema kolleeg Giorgi Deskovich Deschi nõustub tulihingeliselt.

Trieste on "külma ilmaga Jeruusalemm", kinnitab ta.

& quot; Ma olen kultuuriliselt itaallane, kuid hoian endas horvaadi, Veneetsia ja Slovakkia geene. See linn võib hõlmata kõiki neid omadusi, et teha endast tõeline keskus. "

Tuleviku "võimsa sümbolina" näeb ta ette tasuta Triestet, kus "kõik religioonid, kõik teadmised, kogu kunst" eksisteerivad üheskoos.

& quot; Trieste on maailmale tõeliselt avatud, & quot; ütleb ta, kasutades masoonilist terminit & quotagape & quot, kirjeldamaks oma nägemust ühtekuuluvusest. "Me elame suurepärasel hetkel ja Trieste on südames."

See on Trieste, kus elavad koos "katoliiklased, Serbia õigeusklikud, juudid ja vabamüürlased".

Ta naeratab kohmakalt. "Kõik religioonid ja mitte ükski," ütleb ta.

Kuid Potenza eesmärgid on nii majanduslikud kui ka kultuurilised.

Triestel on rahvusvaheliselt tähtis sadam, märgib Potenza - rohkete impordimaksudega peab ta võlgnevusi vabale territooriumile -, kuid Itaalia valitsus keeldub seadust kohaldamast ja kogub raha.

Miks peaks suhteliselt jõukas Trieste Itaaliaga kokku kukkuma? & Quot, mis tema arvates on paratamatult languses.

Aga enamus inimesi Triestes, kes on täiesti õnnelikud, et on nii Triestine kui ka Itaalia? Potenza kehitab õlgu. Nad ei saa seadust eitada: "See projekt on tähtsam."

See on ainult aja küsimus, ütleb ta. Viimase aasta jooksul on ta saatnud ÜRO -le mitmeid kirju ja allkirjastanud petitsioone, nõudes Trieste tasuta staatuse tunnustamist.


Avastage Trieste ajaloolisi kohvikuid

Trieste on kohvisõpradele üks parimaid kohti Itaalias. Trieste ajalugu on sügavalt seotud ülemaailmse kohvitootmisega ning alates 18. sajandist on see olnud kohvi väravaks Itaaliasse. See elav meresadam on sajandeid olnud Vahemere peamine kohvisadam.

Kuna Trieste oli maailma kõige nõutuma oa turustuskeskus, sai sellest ka ülemaailmne kohvi röstimise keskus. Illy, üks kohvi kuulsamaid kaubamärke, on pärit Triestest.

Kuna meil on pikaajaline traditsioon parimate ubade omamiseks ja oskused neid täiuslikult röstida, pole üllatav, et Triestes on olnud sadu aastaid tagasi õitsev kohvikukultuur. Esimene kohvik avati Via S. Nicolo tänaval 1768. Täna tänavatel jalutades leiate palju tähekujulisi väikeseid röstimisettevõtteid, mis on sageli ühendatud mõne linna ajaloolise kohvikuga. Pikk kunstiline keskus, kohvikutes vestlemine on olnud üks sajandeid Triestes, kus kirjanikud nagu James Joyce, Stendhal, Franz Kafka ja Italo Svevo on teadaolevalt lõõgastunud ja oma lemmikud.

Milline on kohalike lemmik Trieste kohvik? See sõltub maitsest, kuid valida on laias valikus. Vaatame mõningaid tähelepanuväärsemaid näiteid.

Esimese maailmasõja ajal Itaalia poliitika ja hiljem intellektuaalide lemmikpõrandakoda, Caffè San Marco avati 1914. aastal. Sõja poolt hävitatud, ehitati see 1920. aastatel kohe ümber ja pole sellest ajast peale palju muutunud. Kohviku sisekujundus sisaldab avaraid lagesid ja hubast videot ning sisaldab palju peidetud sümboleid ja metafoore, mis meenutavad kohviku poliitilist päritolu.

Alates 2013. aastast on ka raamatupood San Marco muutunud ruumi osaks, kus on regulaarsed lugemised, kontserdid ja kultuuriüritused. Tulge raamatuid, kohvi ja vestlema. Jääge näksima nende kuulsat šokolaadi- ja pirnikooki.

See kohvik, mis asub Piazza Unità d'Italia peaväljakul, on juba pikka aega olnud Trieste kultuurielu ja ajaloo keskmes. Asutatud aastal 1839, oli see algselt kaunistatud graveeritud peeglite seeriaga, mis võimaldaks küünalde ja õlilampide valgust tagasi peegeldada, luues ümbritseva valguse ka õhtuni. Enne elektripäeva lahkusid paljud kliendid kohvikutest varakult, kuna nad olid äärmiselt pimedad. See kohvik oli eriti James Joyce'i lemmik.

Caffè degli Specchi on tänapäeval hästi hoitud ja ilus, omades suurt osa oma tihedast puidust võlu, suurepärast valgustust ja loomulikult suurepärast kohvi.

Kui teie Triestes vaatamisväärsuste nimekirjas on linna vanim kohvik, peaksite külastama Caffè Tommaseo, mis avati 1830. Kohvik on elegantne ja ekstreemne ning sisaldab neoklassitsistlikku kujundust, mis taastati täielikult 1997. aastal .

Caffè Tommaseo, üks esimesi gelato serveerimise kohti Triestes Itaalias, oli kohtumispaik ka revolutsionääridele Austria-Ungari impeeriumi ajal. Võite istuda laudade ääres, rüübata oma kohvikut ja kujutada ette, kuidas revolutsionäärid pikki öiseid tunde vandenõusse võtavad. Ehkki te ei plaani revolutsiooni, võite reisisaatjatega koos käies siiski nautida hommikusööki või õhtusööki.

Loodame, et naudite oma aega Triestes lõõgastava peatusega ühes neist kuulsatest kohvikutest.


Charlie Grigio

Minu isa sünnikohal Triestel on värvikas ja mitmekesine taust.

Ajaloolised andmed näitavad, et piirkond, kus Trieste praegu asub, asusid neoliitikumi ajal, umbes 12 000 aastat tagasi, asunike poolt. Esimesed seal ilmunud indoeuroopa rühmitused olid tuntud kui Histri (elavad Istrias) umbes 10. sajandil e.m.a.
(vt pilti allpool)

See piirkond sai tuntuks saksakeelse nimega Tergeste, Rooma omavalitsus pärast Rooma vallutamist Istrias 177 eKr.

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Vana -Rooma asula jäänuseid võib endiselt näha San Giusto mäe linna ja rsquose ajaloolises keskuses. Rooma templid, mis on pühendatud Jupiterile ja Athenale, on nähtavad ka mõnes San Giusto basiilika arhitektuuris (ülal).


Paljudest põhjustest, miks armastada Euroopas elamist või reisimist, toovad paljud inimesed esile selle rikkaliku ajaloo. Kui võrrelda Põhja -Ameerika linnade või piirkondade ajalooga, võivad Euroopa linnad ja riigid pakkuda sajandeid lugusid ja sündmusi, mis on kujundanud selle koha väljanägemise.

See ei saaks Itaalia linna Trieste jaoks tõesem olla. Oma ainulaadse asukohaga, mida ümbritseb Sloveenia, Horvaatia lähedal ja mis on muust Itaaliast peaaegu eraldatud, on sellel mõnevõrra alahinnatud reisilinnal (märkis Lonely Planet) üks pikimaid ja põnevamaid ajaloosid Euroopas.

Selle suurepärase asukohaga Aadria mere rannikul ja Trieste lahel - ideaalne kauplemiseks ja võimu asukohaks - on Trieste asustatud alates 9. või 10. sajandist eKr. Ainuüksi erinevate valitsevate impeeriumide loendist piisab, et veenda teid seda linna külastama. Alates Veneetsia valitsemisest kuni Rooma, Habsburgide, Sloveenia, Prantsuse, Austria ja Jugoslaaviani, lühikese ajaga vaba territooriumina, on see linn näinud nii paljusid kultuure.

Lisaks sellele, et Trieste on valitsenud paljude erinevate impeeriumide poolt, on ta läbi ajaloo olnud koduks paljudele erinevatele kogukondadele ja kultuuridele, sealhulgas itaalia, slaavi, saksa, horvaadi, serbia ja kogukondadele erinevatest Balkani riikidest. Mõni on seda isegi New Yorgiga võrdlenud seal elavate vähemusrühmade mitmekesisusega. Aja jooksul on selle keele üle võidelnud, seda on muudetud ja arenenud ning tänapäeval on sellel oma murre, mis koosneb itaalia, saksa, horvaadi ja kreeka keelest.

Kui on jälle turvaline reisida, saab Trieste -reisiga hõlpsasti kogeda laia valikut mõjutusi. Näete erinevaid arhitektuuristiile, kuulete erinevaid keeli ja maitsete paljusid selle olulise linna läbinud kulinaarseid traditsioone. Isegi nimi Trieste rõhutab kaubanduse ja kultuurivahetuse tähtsust, kuna see pärineb rooma-eelsest nimest “Tergeste”, mis tähendab turgu.

Linnas saate tutvuda Piazza Unita d'Italiaga, mis on üks Euroopa suurimaid väljakuid rannikul ja Suur kanal, kus kaupmehed sildusid. Peaksite peatuma tohutu sadama juures, et mõtiskleda ajaloo üle, mida see maa -ala on näinud ja läbi elanud.

Samuti tasub külastada Trieste Rooma teatrit, mis on suurepärane näide oma ajast Rooma võimu all. Seejärel saate kogeda 15. sajandi Habsburgide valitsemise arhitektuuri Saint Giusto lossis. Hüpake paar sajandit edasi ja 15 minutit väljaspool Triestet näete kaunist 19. sajandi Miramare lossi. Jätkates oma arhitektuurireisi läbi sajandite, on endiselt näha 20. sajandi Viini arhitektuuri ja kohvikuid, samuti fašistliku valitsemisaja hooneid ja monumente.

Väljaspool linna peaksite külastama ka Grotta Gigante'i, mille nimi tähendab tohutut koobast. See on üks suurimaid turiste külastavaid koopaid maailmas-kuumaõhupall lendas sellest isegi läbi!

Samuti ei ole te kaugel sellest, et kogeda mõnda Sloveenia parimat sihtkohta, nagu kaunis ja salapärane Bledi järv, Ljubljana pealinn ja suured koopad, nagu Postojna ja Predjama loss, mis on ehitatud koopa suudmesse.

Ükskõik, kas olete huvitatud Trieste vaatamisväärsustest, helidest või maitsetest, on raske ignoreerida kihilist ajalugu ja lugusid, mida seinad ja tänavad võiksid rääkida. Lõpuks loodan, et üks päev Triestes sisaldab vaikuse hetke, kus mõtisklete kogu selle koha ajaloo üle, alates konfliktist kuni rahu ja õitsenguni ning kõigest vahepealsest.

Tellige meie Stripes Europe uudiskiri ja saate otse oma postkasti hämmastavaid reisilugusid, suurepärast sündmusteavet, kasulikke PCS -i näpunäiteid, huvitavaid elustiiliartikleid ja palju muud!


10. jaanuar Trieste reis sügavale

Sa vaatad musta kuristikku, kus ükski mees pole varem käinud, lootes mõnele elumärgile, kui jätkad laskumist edasi Maa haigutavale lõugule. Kitsas mulli sees istudes vaatate oma partnerile, kes samuti pisikesest aknast välja vaatab, elektrimõõturite sumin ja rõhuandurite susin, moodustades enne üksteisega häälestumist madalat rütmilist mustrit. Äkitselt raputab salong ägedalt ja mehaanilist virisemist lõikab läbi tugev pragisemismüra! Suure silmaringiga õuduses otsite kahekesi meeletult põhjust, lootes samal ajal, et järgmised paar hetke ei jää teie viimaseks.

Bathyscaphe Trieste. Viisakalt USA mereväe ajaloo ja pärandi juhtkond.

Kaevik

Marianase kaevik on sügavaim teadaolev koht maailmas. See asub Vaikses ookeanis ja moodustus tektooniliste plaatide piiril - piiril, kus üks tektooniline plaat surub teise maapõue. Sel juhul surub Marianase plaat Vaikse ookeani plaadi maakoore sisse ja sellel piiril, kus need kaks kohtuvad, on koht, kus tekkis Marianase kaevik. Selles kaevikus on org, mis kulgeb sügavamalt kui kaevik ise, Challenger Deep, ja see on maailma sügavaim teadaolev punkt. Selles kohas on see nii sügav, et kui Mount Everest asetataks põhja, jääks see pinnast kahe kilomeetri kaugusele.

Konvergentse piiri toimimise skeem. Viisakalt Geograafiline asukoht.

Challenger Deep asub väljaspool Abyssali tsooni, mis on enamiku ookeanide sügavaim vöönd, ja ulatub Hadali tsoonini. See on tsoon, mis ulatub 6000 meetrist allapoole ja on ookeani sügavaim sektor. Selles piirkonnas pole valgust, kuna päikesekiired ei suuda nendesse sügavustesse tungida, see on kottpime ja rõhk on nii suur, et ületab tuhande naela ruut tolli kohta. Nendesse sügavustesse jõudmine on peaaegu sama raske kui kosmosereis ja see on sama võõras.

Ookeanitsoonide skeem. Viisakalt Meri ja taevas.

Laev

Professor Auguste Piccard oli Šveitsi teadlane, kes leiutas sukeldatava batiskaavi. Kõige paremini tuntud õhupallidega seotud ujuvuse tõttu püstitas ta aastatel 1931–1932 maailmarekordi kõrgeima õhupalliga lendamise kohta. Aastal 1933 käis ta Chicagos maailmanäitusel oma kõrgel kõrgusel õhupalli näitamas ja just seal kohtas ta batüsfääri, mis oli batüskaafi eelkäija, ja sai süvamere uurimisest vaimustusse. Kahjuks katkestas Teine maailmasõda tema uurimistöö ja Piccard pidi ootama kuni 1946. aastani, et alustada oma uue laeva ehitamist.

Auguste Piccard. Viisakalt Wikimedia Commons.

Tema varasemaid uuringuid arvestades ei olnud üllatav, et selle uut tüüpi sõiduki põhiidee oli sarnane õhupalli tööpõhimõttega ja see koosneks kahest põhiosast. Ülemine osa oleks nagu tegelik õhupall, suur õõnes terasest paak, mis oleks täidetud bensiiniga. Kasutati bensiini, kuna see on ujuvam kui vesi ja on kokkusurumise suhtes vastupidav, mistõttu on see ideaalne kandidaat süvamere sukeldumiseks, kuna see hoiab võrdset rõhku. Gaasimahuti mõlemal küljel olid õhumahutid, mida oli võimalik täis pumbata, et need toimiksid ballastina ja laevad saaksid vajuda. Lisaks vesiballastidele oleks sellel ka kaks raudgraanulitega täidetud punkrit, mis suurendaksid kaalu ja võimaldaksid sellel vajuda. Graanuleid hoiaks paigas elektromagnet ja kui need oleks vaja vabastada, katkeks magneti toide, võimaldades seega bensiinil veesõidukit üles tõsta. Suuresse paaki oleks kinnitatud ka halogeenvalgustid, et sõitjad näeksid pimedas sügavuses. Sukeldumissüsteemi teine ​​osa koosnes kerast, mis rippus suure paagi põhjas, sarnaselt õhupalli gondliga. See väike teraskera oli koht, kus sõitjad töötasid ja vaatlusi tegid. Sellel oli väike pleksiklaasist vaatamisport, mida kasutati ookeani vaatamiseks, ja teine ​​ülaosas, mida kasutati sfääri sisenemiseks. Sissepääs läbis gaasipaagi keskosa ja kui veesõiduk sukeldus, oli koridor üle ujutatud ja meeskonna pinnale ilmumisel tuleb see suruõhuga välja loputada. Laev ei olnud kiire ja tõepoolest ei saanud ta üles ega alla minemisest palju kõrvale liikuda, batüskaaf leiutati ühte eesmärki silmas pidades - süvamere uurimist.

Skeem selle kohta, kuidas batüskaaf, täpsemalt Trieste, toimib. Viisakalt USA mereväe ajalooline keskus.

Piccard ehitas kaks mudelit, mida tema ja ta poeg Jacques Piccard testisid. Esimene ehitati Belgias aastatel 1946–1948 FNRS 2. Kahjuks kahjustati seda peagi pärast selle valmimist 1948. aastal Cabo Verde saartel toimunud katsete ajal. Laev ehitati kiiresti ümber, täiustati ja nimetati ümber FNRS 3. See sooritas mitmeid suurepäraseid sukeldumisi kuni 4000 meetrini, nii et selle ideega õnnestus Piccardi edukalt katsetada veelgi parema mudeli ehitamiseks. 1. augustil 1953 Trieste, mis sai nime selle linna järgi, kuhu see ehitati, lasti vette ja sukeldus hõlpsalt 3150 meetri sügavusele. Nende sügavuste olulisuse mõistmiseks tuleb meeles pidada, et enamik allveelaevu töötas sel ajal vaid 200–280 meetri sügavusel. Auguste Piccard ja tema poeg jätkasid oma käsitöö katsetamist, kui otsisid kedagi, kes nende uurimistööd rahastaks. 1958. aastal ostis USA merevägi Trieste ja kavandas uue kera, mida saaks kasutada süvamerekaevikute uurimiseks. See uus kera oli valmistatud 5 tolli paksusest terasest, mis kaalus üle 14 tonni, mistõttu tuli nüüd gaasipaagi pikendamiseks arvestada suurenenud massiga. Merevägi oli huvitatud sellest, kuidas süvamere rõhku, heli ja temperatuuri suurtel sügavustel mõjutada, ning ookeani põhja kaardistamisest strateegilistel eesmärkidel. Tegelikult rahastab USA merevägi 1958. aastaks ligikaudu 90% kõigist okeanograafiaga seotud ettevõtmistest Ameerika Ühendriikides ja nad ei kavatse lasta võimalusel uurida ookeani sügavaimat osa.

FNRS 2. Viisakalt FNRS Selts.

Mehed

Reisi teeks kaks meest Trieste ookeani põhja, Jacques Piccard ja Don Walsh. Jacques Piccard oli Šveitsi füüsik, ookeaniinsener ja majandusteadlane, kes oli kuulsa professor Auguste Piccardi poeg. Aastatel 1944–1945 tegi ta pausi õpingutes, et teenida Teise maailmasõja ajal Prantsuse esimeses armees. Pärast sõjast naasmist aitas ta kujundada Trieste koos oma isaga ning pärast seda, kui oli abiks sukelduri ehitamisel ja katsetamisel, läks ta 1956. aastal USA -sse ostjat proovima. USA merevägi ostis selle kaks aastat hiljem ja Piccard kohtus Don Walshiga.

Jacques Piccard. Viisakalt Wikimedia Commons.

Don Walsh oli mereväe leitnant ja oli suurema osa oma elust huvitatud ookeanist. Ta sai teenistuses olles inseneriks ja töötas allveelaevadel, saades tol ajal üheks kogenumaks. Aastal 1959 sai temast ohvitser Triestening tema ja Piccard hakkasid Vaikse ookeani laevade võimalusi katsetama ja veealuseid katseid tegema.

Don Walsh. Viisakalt National Geographic Society.

Sukeldumine

Neli päeva USA mereväe puksiirlaev Wandank oli pukseerinud Trieste 220 miili Guami saare peatuspaigast kuni kaevikuni. Merele üha kaugemale minnes muutusid ilmastikutingimused ja ookeanisurf karedamaks ning panid mehed oma teekonnas kahtlema. 1960. aasta 23. jaanuari varahommikul jõudsid nad sukeldumispaika. For the past two days a Navy destroyer had detonated more than 800 TNT explosion underwater in order for them to find the Marianas Trench and Challenger Deep, there were existing undersea maps but they were old and likely inaccurate. When the men reached the spot marked by the destroyer they were disheartened to find that several of their scientific instruments had been damaged during the towing. The surface telephone, the device used by the Trieste’s captain to communicate during the launching process, was torn away and inoperable. The tachometer, a device that measures the speed of descent and ascent, was completely destroyed, it had weathered over 50 dives without mishap. Finally the vertical current meter that measures the waters velocity was broken and barely clinging to its supports. It looked like they might not perform the dive so the crew set about repairing what they could.

Don Walsh and Jacques Piccard standing on Trieste’s deck. Public Domain.

They now had a choice to make, go ahead with the dive despite not being able to use some of their most important, though not vital, equipment, or let all their hard work go to waste and return to Guam. Structurally the craft itself was perfectly fine and all the electrical circuits were working so they would be able to release the ballasts and use the lights. Still, Piccard was nervous and did not want to perform the dive in such unfavorable conditions but Walsh being the one in charge said he would make the dive with or without him, inviting the Trieste’s engineer to come along if Piccard did not. Piccard promptly followed and began preparations. They made final checks and created impromptu signals for the crew since the Trieste now lacked a surface telephone, the undersea telephone would be used once they were below the waves. The sun began to rise and the sea worsened, tossing the Trieste and other ships in the area all about. The two men now wanted nothing more than to dip below the waves and escape the awful quake that was tossing their balloon like vessel around.

Trieste sitting on top of the water. Courtesy of Naval Historic and Heritage Command.

Quickly they climbed into the sphere and sealed the hatch behind them. Only a single bolt was used to hermetically seal them in, the thousands of pounds of pressure outside would ensure it stayed shut. At 0823 hours they began their dive and the Trieste became calm for the first time in days as it slipped below the waves. Though the nerve wracking task of descending to depths never seen before lay in front of them, they were somewhat happy to be in this position so they did not have to experience the waves and storms that the remaining crew would. The bathyscaphe slowly descended, only reaching 300 feet in 10 minutes but this was by design so the men could do any final checks that were needed.

Unfortunately an issue had already risen, they had reached the level where water cooled rapidly and completely halted their descent. In cooler water the relative weight of the craft was diminished so it would no longer sink. There were only two options, wait for the gasoline to cool to the outside water temperature or release some gasoline to bring down their weight. Both options held risks. Waiting meant that they might disrupt their timeline and it was imperative that they returned to the surface while it was still daylight. However if they released some of the gasoline then they might not have enough left to make their return to the surface. After a minute of deliberation the men decided to release some of the liquid. They were confident that their fuel calculations were correct and would not need the extra 150 cubic feet of extra gas they had brought along. After releasing their reserve they would have 4,000 cubic feet of gasoline left to lift them to the surface. Piccard opened the gas valve to allow some of the fuel to escape and after about a minute they began to descend once again. The valve was closed to keep what they could of the reserve tank but after descending only 35 more feet they hit another layer of cooler water and were halted again. More gas was released to resume the dive. Five minutes after this second halt, at a depth of 425 feet, they were stopped once more by another layer and had to release even more fuel. Seven minutes later they were stopped again at a depth of 530 feet and had to release more of the precious liquid. Jacques later stated that “This was the first time in my 65 dives in the Trieste that I had observed this phenomenon of repeated stratification.”

There was an upside to all of these stops however, they were able to watch their new electric thermometer and accurately take temperatures of the thermocline. This information would be helpful to oceanographers in defining the different temperature zones of the ocean.

After diving 650 feet the problems appeared to be over as the men were now descending at a steady rate of four inches per second. The true dive was just now beginning as they had nearly seven miles to go. Luckily as the men continued to dive deeper and deeper the increased pressure would add weight and cause them to descend faster, eventually coming to a mean speed of three feet per second. The only time Piccard or Walsh would interfere with the process was when they released ballasts to ensure they were traveling at a safe speed.

Piccard and Walsh sitting inside the Trieste. Courtesy of Wikiwand.

At 1,500 feet the ocean was already pitch black and they turned on a small light inside of the sphere, just bright enough for them to read their instruments. The temperature was dropping rapidly so the men decided to put on their dry clothes as they had both been soaked by ocean spray when entering the craft. All precautions were taken to ensure the men stayed warm as they would basically be sitting motionless for nine hours with little chance to move around.

A little further down they began to see phosphorescent plankton appearing. The searchlight was rarely used during the descent as they wanted to observe these luminous creatures, but were a bit disappointed as they only saw them around 2,200 feet and 20,000 feet. The men were not seeing much life at all on their descent, describing the depths as “extraordinarily empty”. However they theorized that the presence of the bathyscaphe may have disrupted the natural habitat and caused many fish and other creatures to disappear. Piccard later went on to say that he rarely saw fish during a rapid descent and even when travelling at a creep it was rare to see anything other than plankton or other “relatively primitive species.”

Trieste. Courtesy of Factinate.

The men had planned on allowing the bathyscaphe to descend at a rate of three feet per second until they hit 26,000 feet, at that point they would slow to two feet per second. They would continue at two feet per second until 30,000 feet and then reduce even further to one foot per second, this would allow sufficient time for them to slow down before hitting the bottom. Of course there was always a danger of a deep sea current sweeping them off course or landing on a hard slope of the trench. In order to avoid these catastrophes and control the speed of the craft the men had to continually check the outside water temperature, the gasoline temperature, the quantity of ballasts still available, and, likely most important of all, the pressure at the exact time and depth. They also were constantly checking the humidity, oxygen percentage, carbon dioxide and temperature inside their sphere while also taking notes that would be used for research after they returned to the surface. Piccard and Walsh later said that all this work made the five hour descent go by rather quickly.

At 5,600 feet, an hour after the dive began, the men received a phone call from the surface. Buono, the Trieste’s engineer, on the surface assured the men that despite the less than favorable wave and weather conditions everything went as planned. They received another phone call at 10,000 feet and a third at 13,000 feet. It was difficult to tell whether they would be able to maintain contact for the duration of the dive but for the best chances it was paramount that the surface crew to stay directly above the Trieste, not an easy task in rough seas.

Past 24,000 feet the men were in virgin territory, no one had ever been to these depths before. It was the fourth time the Trieste had broken the deepest diving record, a craft built to withstand any depth had served well. However they were still not at the bottom and had quite a ways to go. They continued to 26,000 feet and were still able to hear conversations between the tugboat and their Naval escort over the telephone.

At 1130 hours they reached 30,000 feet and slowed to one foot per second. The pressure outside squeezed the bathyscaphes walls with 150,000 pounds of force, if the men were not protected by the steel sphere then they would be crushed instantly. The water at that depth was extremely dead and they saw no signs of life. For a quick moment the spotlight was turned on and its beam penetrated the waters below, but no sign of the bottom could be seen. Piccard said, “We are in the void, the void of the sea”. By this point they had turned on the sonic depth finder and were expecting to reach their goal at any moment. The searchlights were switched on once more but still no appearance of the sea floor. Ever so often ballasts were dropped to slow their gradual descent time seemed to move extremely slowly as they waited for the bottom to rise out of the opaque abyss.

The Trieste being lifted into the water. Courtesy of Britannica.

All of a sudden at 32,500 feet the sphere was overtaken by tremors and the men were petrified to hear a dull cracking noise coming from their battered craft. The men looked at each other, both worried and confused as to what it might be. At first they thought they had hit bottom but that idea was quickly thrown out as the depth finder did not show anything and looking out the viewport they could see they were still descending. For a moment they theorized they may have even met a large sea creature unknown to them, a veritable sea monster. All systems inside were still running normally, the gauges were all working, there was no change in the bathyscaphes equilibrium, and they were descending at a steady rate. They were not sure what to think. They turned off everything on board that made a noise, humming electronic instruments, hissing oxygen gauges, all of it was silenced as they attempted to discover the origin of the cryptic noise. In the quiet depths all they could hear was “tiny crackling sounds, like ants in an ant hill, little cracking sounds coming from everywhere, as if the water were being shattered by our passage.” The men theorized everything from small shrimp hitting the outside of the sub to the outer paint cracking under the enormous pressure. Fortunately they were still descending at a regular pace which was a great reassurance to both of them, and because of this, along with the fact that nothing was leaking, they decided to continue the descent and discover the origin of the sound later.

A few signs of life were now beginning to show themselves. Though they had a difficult time seeing them the men believed jellyfish were swimming around their viewport, not a surprise as they knew that there is bacteria and various other invertebrates that can survive at great depths. The real question to them was whether fish could survive under such pressure. They continued to descend and the telephone stopped picking up signals from the surface. Save for the hum of the instruments, everything was silent and time moved slowly as the men feverishly glanced back and forth out the tiny window then back at the depth finder, sure that they would be reaching the bottom soon. At 1256 hours the men saw the ocean floor on the depth finder, 300 feet below them was the bottom of the trench. It took them 10 minutes to traverse those 300 feet and at 1306 hours with a light thud they touched down on the pale sea floor. Indifferent to the close to 200,000 tons of pressure pressing against it, the Trieste quietly sat 35,797 feet at the very bottom of the Pacific Ocean. As luck would have it they set down just a few feet from a fish, not bacteria or an invertebrate, but a true fish. This answered a question that oceanographers and ichthyologists had asked for decades, could fish survive at such extreme depths under intense pressure? The answer was a resounding yes. The fish was flat, “like a halibut or sole”, measuring about a foot long and about half a foot wide. The men carefully watched as it slowly swam out of the garish spotlights and back into the dark void it knew so well. As the fish disappeared the white dust kicked up by their landing was beginning to obscure their view.

CGI of what the Trieste looked like on the bottom of the ocean. Courtesy of the National Geographic Society.

The two planned on staying at the bottom for 30 minutes and would try to record as much information as they could in that short amount of time. They took temperature readings, 38° F, attempted to find any sort of current, they discovered none, and checked for radioactivity, none. The two also spent several minutes peering out the viewport and watched as a lone shrimp fluttered past them in the tranquil water. To make sure they left nothing up to scientific curiosity, Walsh picked up the phone and skeptically called the crew on the surface, “This is Trieste on the bottom, Challenger Deep. Six three zero zero fathoms. Over.”

The men lit up as they heard “I hear you weakly but clearly. Please repeat the depth.” Slowly and articulately Don repeated the depth and they received another reply, “Everything O.K. Six three zero zero fathoms?”

Walsh again answered, “That is Charley. (Seamen's jargon for correct) We will surface at 1700 hours.”

“Roger” was the simple response from the surface. The two were elated after this conversation as they now knew that even at great depths they could maintain communication with those on the surface.

Picture that Piccard and Walsh took inside the Trieste after reaching the bottom. Courtesy of Don Walsh.

They had planned on staying on the bottom for 30 minutes before ascending. At around the 20 minute mark Walsh had Piccard swing the spotlight around to the rear viewport, and after peering out it for a few seconds he told Piccard that he knows what that jolt and cracking noise was earlier. The plexiglass viewport that the men used to enter the sphere had cracked in several places. This did not worry the men as the pressure would make sure the cracks did not leak, what worried them was if the cracks would prevent the entrance way from being drained once they reached the surface or if the window cover would need to be replaced by a spare. In such rough seas this would need to be done in daylight and if they did not reach the surface in time then they may have to stay in the cramped sphere even longer, a thought that appealed to neither of them. In order to try and prevent this unfavorable outcome the men reluctantly left for the surface 10 minutes early. Piccard flipped the electric switch that released the iron pellets that acted as ballasts and watched as a white cloud of gleaming dust engulfed the vessel. This dust was made of silica from the skeletons of dead sea creatures that fell to the bottom and reflected the spotlights rays back onto the craft. The men began their ascent to the surface, leaving the abyss in the utter darkness that had engulfed it for centuries.

The spotlights were kept on for much of the ascent and the two watched out the porthole but were still unable to see anything, the feeling of emptiness that they had felt on their descent was quickly being restored. Trieste’s ascent grew gradually as the pressure slowly decreased and allowed it to rise faster. At first just one and a half feet per second, then at 30,000 feet they were going two and a half feet per second, at 20,000 feet roughly three feet per second, and at 10,000 feet about four feet per second. Not long before they reached the surface they were traveling at about five feet per second but this was soon slowed as they reached warmer water and the weight of the craft was increased by about a ton. The Trieste performed flawlessly throughout the entire ascent, never rolling, tipping, or jolting through the whole returning voyage. Their instruments were the only indication that they were ascending as the ride was so smooth. It was still chilly in the cabin, about 40 °F, but sunlight was now beginning to enter through the viewports, they did not have much longer to go.

CGI image of the Trieste ascending. Courtesy of the National Geographic Society.

At 1656 hours the Trieste pierced the ocean's surface, completing the deepest dive man had ever made. The men now had to blast the water out of the corridor with compressed air so they could exit the craft. Usually the operation only took two or three minutes but because the plexiglass window was cracked they could not put too much pressure too fast, and it ended up taking 15 minutes for them to expel the water. A final challenge for the men who had been to one of Earth’s most treacherous places. As they climbed out of the sphere they were tossed about by the waves and high winds that had worsened since they had begun, but no amount of bad weather could break their spirits now. The two men stood on the top deck of the Trieste and were met by a noisy salute as several Navy jets and a jet from the Guam Air Rescue unit flew overhead and dipped their wings to greet the men. A few miles away the Wandank and the Navy escort ship were rapidly approaching to pick up the men and their craft. As the ship and boat greeted them they were overtaken by a crowd of photographers who kept yelling for the men to salute as they took pictures. In the words of Piccard, “ indeed, we saluted gladly not for posterity, to be sure, not for the photographers, but for the rediscovered sun and pure air, even for the wind and the waves that submerged us each instant. We had only one thought: profound gratitude for the success achieved, gratitude toward all those who had contributed to the success of this uncommon day.”

The full crew of the Trieste posing in front of her. Courtesy of the USA merevägi.

Afterwards

After the 1960 expedition the Trieste was taken by the US Navy and used off the coast of San Diego, California for research purposes. In April 1963 it was taken to New London Connecticut to assist in finding the lost submarine USS Thresher. In August 1963 it found the Threshers remains 1,400 fathoms (2,560 meters) below the surface. Soon after this mission was completed the Trieste was retired and some of its components were used in building the new Trieste II. Trieste is now on display at the National Museum of the United States Navy at the Washington Navy Yard.

The Trieste II. Courtesy of Cybernetic Zoo.

Jacques Piccard went on to continue designing submarines with his father, most notably the mesoscaphe class submarine which could carry multiple passengers. He also continued helping the US Navy perform underwater research, specifically with the Gulf Stream. In his later life he went on to work as a consultant for several private deep sea research companies. Jacques Piccard unfortunately passed away on November 1, 2008.

Jacques Piccard with some of his submersible designs in front of him. Courtesy of AFP.

After relinquishing command of Trieste in 1962, Don Walsh continued to work on submarines and became the commander of one in 1968. In 1975 he retired from the Navy and went on to become a professor of ocean engineering at the University of Southern California. Throughout the rest of his life he would speak about the ocean in TV and radio interviews and continue writing ocean related publications. His expeditions did not stop with the Trieste however as he would go on to make dives to deep sea vents, the wreckage of the R.M.S. Titanic and the battleship Bismarck along with going on polar expeditions in the Antarctic. Walsh would go on to obtain many prestigious awards from academic organizations, including the Hubbard Medal, National Geographics highest honor. At the time of writing this article he resides in Oregon where he is a courtesy professor at Oregon State University.

Don Walsh. Courtesy of the USA merevägi.

Though there were a few unmanned submersibles to explore the Marrianes Trench, Jacques Piccard and Don Walsh remained the only two people to reach the deepest known part of the ocean until the DEEPSEA CHALLENGE expedition in March 2012. Canadian film producer and inventor James Cameron dove solo to the bottom of Challenger Deep. Don Walsh helped Cameron’s crew understand the unique challenges they would face at these depths. A brand new unique submersible was built for the voyage. This time the sub was outfitted for more indepth research as it possessed a robotic arm and other tools for collecting samples and specimens. It was also outfitted with 3D cameras that would take high quality video and audio of the surrounding area. Cameron spent a few hours on the ocean floor collecting data and samples and plans on making more trips in the future. All this being possible thanks to the sacrifice and determination that was made many years ago.

James Cameron’s submarine. Courtesy of the National Geographic Society.

Personal Thoughts

I have a love hate relationship when it comes to ocean exploration. On one hand it fascinates me, but on the other it terrifies me and I’ve been this way since I was little. I loved learning about the ocean but at the same time not knowing what all lives down there scares me quite a bit. I do really enjoy learning about deep sea expeditions like this however.

Something I kind of have to wonder is that they said they didn’t see much life when they were down there and I just can’t help but think that might have something to do with all the TNT they dropped beforehand.


History of Trieste - History

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The Natural History Museum in Trieste exhibits large botanic, zoological, mineral, geological and paleontological collections. These are divided into two sections: one for the public and one for specialists.

The botanic collection has about thirty herbariums and other material coming from the region and also from all over Italy.

The zoological collection has, among others, corals, madrepores, sea and softwater fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals from all over the world.

The mineral and paleontological collections are also rich, among which the fossil of a 4-metre long hadrosaurus practically complete and anatomically connected, found near Trieste.

The Museum hosts also a section on the evolution of hominids, with the skull of the Man from Mompaderno and many important casts of fossil hominids among which the famous "Lucy".

The scientific library is well furnished of books, where you will find mainly periodics (both domestic and foreign).


Trieste, Italy: a cultural city guide

The vast Piazza Unità d’Italia

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To discover the secret of a happy life head to Trieste, the Italian port tucked inside the Slovenian border. The Triestini embrace life with a passion that is palpable and infectious, if the chatter at evening aperitivo is anything to go by. And at the merest hint of sunshine, Triestini are off to the nearby seaside, Barcola, even in November, and even though it’s a concrete strip.

This unsquashable humour is no doubt born of being a frontier city, variously owned or occupied by the Romans, Habsburgs, Mussolini’s regime, Germans and Allied Forces, only finally returning to Italy in 1954. The consequence is a glorious jumble of architectural and ethnic influences. In the space of 15 minutes, I came across Serbian Orthodox, Greek Orthodox and Helvetic Evangelist churches, while the city’s synagogue is one of the largest in Europe.

It was Austrian Emperor Charles Vl’s stroke of genius in 1719, in the midst of 500 years of Habsburg rule, to declare Trieste a free port, thus attracting flocks of merchants, that led to this “Mitteleuropean” mix. The wealth created led to a splashy “new town” to the north of the medieval core, all grand neoclassical buildings, boulevards and piazzas, and with two hearts: the Canal Grande and the vast Piazza Unità d’Italia. The latter, open-sided to the sea, is clearly modelled on Venice’s St Mark’s, and is (whisper it) more breathtaking.

To gain an idea of how wealthy some Triestini became, I visited Museo Revoltella, the former 19th-century palazzo of Pasquale Revoltella, a whizz-kid financier who, amongst other things, put money into the Suez Canal. It dazzles from the marquetry-style parquet flooring and silk wall-hangings to the chandelier-hung ballroom and white-and-gold dining room. His art collection forms the basis of the Modern Art gallery, which spreads into two adjoining palazzi.

Canal Grande

After staggering through this, I was in need of reinforcement, specifically caffeine. And here’s another happy fact about Trieste it has, probably, the finest coffee in Italy. Its tax-free port status coincided with the coffee craze sweeping Europe. As well as becoming a big importer (and still today Illy has its HQ here), it developed a string of Viennese-style coffeehouses. Several still exist, such as Caffè Tommaseo with its faded bello époque charm and where my “capo in B” (macchiato in a glass) came with a tiny dish of whipped cream.

Recharged, I climbed the narrow, paved streets of the Old Town, lined with tall, shuttered, sorbet-coloured buildings – from one of which a relic from the Roman walls, the Riccardo Arch, leans out like a lost limb – eventually popping out at San Giusto Cathedral.

More Roman remains – a forum and basilica – lie nearby in the shadow of the 15th-century castello, a fortified residence for the Habsburgs and, frankly, dull, but worth it for the views over city and Adriatic. Sparkling on a headland to the north, like a frothy-white Disneyesque creation, was Miramare Castle to which I headed the following morning.

Built between 1855 and 1860 for Archduke Maximilian of Habsburg, the castle is a temple to his vanity, bristling with castellations, over-the-top furnishings and a ludicrous Throne Room whose throne, with gilded lions as feet, was never used as he was executed in Mexico in 1867 when he was their Emperor.

The surrounding parkland is a mix of Italianate and English, but I preferred the little-frequented Orto Lapidario (Lapidary Garden) in the city’s Museum of History and Art (a musty treasure trove of archaeological plunder, from Roman glass to Egyptian mummies). Like a lost garden, strewn with classical urns, tombstones and inscriptions, it was a perfect sun-soaking spot to gear myself up for the evening’s high-octane aperitivo hour.

Miramare Castle

Kas sa teadsid?
The fastest recorded speed of the ferocious local wind, ‘bora’, is 176kph

Sinna jõudmine

Ryanair (0871 246 0000 ryanair.com), flies to Trieste from Stansted where a half-hourly bus costs €3.80/£3.20 for the hour’s journey to Trieste’s Piazza Libertà, a 10-minute walk from the centre. Taxis cost around €60/£51 and take 35 minutes. The city is walkable, if hilly in parts. The excellent bus service costs €1.25/£1 for a 60-minute ticket, €4.15/£3.50 day-ticket.

Where to stay

Urban Hotel Design £
A radically renovated 16th-century building, with 62 minimalist rooms of white walls, designer lighting and funky coloured chairs (0039 40 302 065 urbanhotel.it doubles from £76 b&b).

L’Albero Nascosto £
Tucked into the tight streets of the medieval old town, this narrow 10-room hotel (no lift) oozes charm simple but classy with wood floors, toile de jouy bedspreads and antiques (300 188 alberonascosto.it doubles from £89 b&b).

Savoia Excelsior Palace ££
Stepping distance from Piazza Unità, this grand hotel wears its neoclassical elegance lightly. Spacious rooms mix marble bathrooms and sleek furnishings with powdery colours and black-and-white photographs. Push the boat out for a sea-view (77941 starhotels.com doubles from £125 b&b).

Where to eat

Da Pepe £
The chefs in this noisy and crowded “buffet” will fix a platter of mixed cold cuts – predominantly pork – in minutes. Add sauerkraut and a beer and it’s little more than a tenner (Via Cassa di Risparmio 3 366 858).

Nettare Di Vino £/££
At this relaxed, enoteca-style restaurant in a former warehouse, there’s no menu waiters explain the daily-changing choice: perhaps “jota” (bean and sauerkraut soup), beef tartare or spaghetti with home-made pesto (Via Diaz 6b 310 200).

Osteria Istriano ££
Beyond the waterfront’s noisy bars this unsophisticated osteria rewards with simple, home-cooked fish (Riva Grumula 6 306 604).

Al Bagatto £££
Despite its old-fashioned interior, this restaurant serves seafood cooked with flair while traditional dishes such as salt-cod are given a stylish twist (Via Cadorna 7 301 771).

Trieste waterfront

The inside track

The FVG (Friuli Venezia Giulia) card (48-hour, €15/£12.75 72-hour, €20/£17) gives free museum entry and transport. Buy online (turismo.fvg.it) or from the Tourist Office, Via dell’Orologio 1 00 39 040 347 8312.

Take Bus 2 or 4 to Opicina, in the Carso (limestone) region above Trieste and follow the two-mile Napoleonica Walk to Prosecco for views out to sea and Slovenia before catching bus 42 back.

Pasticceria Pirona (Largo Barriera Vecchia 12), whose polished fittings seem unchanged since writer James Joyce frequented during his 15 years in the city, serves exquisite cakes such as polentina, strudel and presnitz.

For a summer lunch, take bus 34 to Ristorante Scabar (Erta di Sant’Anna 63 810 368), a family-run restaurant above the city with creative cooking and terrace views over olive groves.


History of Trieste - History

Traces of its earliest past have almost all been lost, but according to scholars, the first inhabitants of this region lived in large caverns in the upland plains at the beginning of the Ice Age.

However, it was only in two thousand B.C. that a settlement of sorts began to take shape on the summits of the hills. These were the first villages or castellieri which were surrounded by defensive walls, designed to keep out both invaders and bears which were frequently spotted in the surrounding areas. Inhabited by people of Indo-European (rather than Venetian or Gallo-Celtic) descent, these villages rapidly became commercial trading ports, as they were a natural gateway between east and west and between land and sea.

It was on the site of one of these castellieri - probably the one that dominated the hill where the San Giusto Cathedral stands ' that the village of Trieste originated. Its name (derived from the Latin Tergeste) indicates its original purpose: Terg is a Paleo-Venetian word meaning 'market' and este means 'town'. There is no shortage of myths and legends surrounding the place: according to ancient texts, it was here that Jason and the Argonauts were said to have landed on their quest for the mythical Golden Fleece it was also the place where Antenore and Diomedes were said to have disembarked during the battle for Troy.

Next came the Romans. The area was conquered and in 52 B.C. Tergeste became a colony of the Eternal City. Commerce and trading began to increase at an astonishing rate, particularly during the second century A.D. This went hand in hand with rapid architectural development. Many remains from this period are still visible to this day including the Arco di Riccardo, the Teatro Romano, the patrician villas and the Basilica Forense.

The fall of the Roman Empire heralded a period of great uncertainty. After a succession of Barbarian invasions, the region passed through the hands of the Goths, the Longobards, the Byzantines and the French. The situation was barely any better throughout the Middle Ages. Violent battles for control over the Adriatic lead to Trieste pledging allegiance to the Austro-Hungarian Empire, or rather to Duke Leopold of Austria.

In 1382, an indissoluble bond was created between Trieste and the Hapsburgs. It was a bittersweet bond based on love and hate, respect and submission. It was indeed the Austrians ' towards whom many people of Trieste still feel conflicting emotions ' that ordered the construction of the castle on San Giusto hill, between 1470 and 1630. This castle has now become one of the principle symbols of the city.

It was in accordance with the wishes of the Hapsburgs (a huge international power) that Trieste was swiflty transformed from a sleepy seaside village to a large European port. With the exception of a few other periods of foreign rule ' Venetian, Spanish and finally Napoleonic ' Trieste remained subjugated by the Hapsburgs until 1918.

Merchants, entrepreneurs and adventurers from all over the world flocked to Trieste and the city was radically restructured in the eighteenth century by the energetic Empress Maria Teresa. By the end of the nineteenth century the city numbered over one hundred and fifty thousand inhabitants. Large insurance and shipping companies began to appear and shipyards and factories also opened their doors.

Trieste became an important port under Viennese control and numerous economic and cultural initiatives were set up. Thousands of people arrived here from Greece, Turkey and other countries even further afield. This migration gave rise to a multi-ethnic community unpararalled in the rest of Europe. Numerous religions and corresponding places of worship were welcomed to the area ' many of these remain standing to this day. Great writers such as Italo Svevo Scipio Slataper, Rainer Maria Rilke and James Joyce lived here. The city's streets are laiden with charm, charisma and mystery it is full of places of historical interest such as the ancient café or bookshop owned by the poet and intellectual Umberto Saba.

In keeping with the irredentist movements that were taking hold all over Europe, many inhabitants of Trieste began to show their support for Garibaldi's forces and the Risorgimento. By the end of the First World War, Trieste had become part of a united Italy. However, the upheavals did not end here. The Second World War brought with it new tragedies. Italy lost the war and Trieste was invaded by Tito's Yugoslavian troops. The thousands of Italians who spoke out against the Communist regime were incarcerated in large underground rock cavities called foibe. They were eventually released thanks to the interventention of Allied troops and the city ' with feelings of both euphoria and disorientation ' came under U.S. military rule until 1954. It was at this time that Trieste was finally and defintively returned to Italy and it became the administrative seat of the smallest province in Italy and the Friuli-Venezia-Giulia region.

When the Ameicans left however, there were further problems. Many people found themselves being made redundant and the region underwent a progressive de-industrialisation. The crisis facing the port and the undeniable lack of business acumen among the citizens of Trieste were the final straw. The city's economy was transformed into an anomalous phenomenon. Regaining the wealth and prosperity of the past was to be a difficult task. Even today, the percentage of unemployed in Venezia-Giulia is one of the highest in Northern Italy.


Vaata videot: 5 klass ajalugu video nr 22 Eesti uus iseseisvusaeg