Billy lapse esimene arreteerimine

Billy lapse esimene arreteerimine


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23. septembril 1875 arreteeritakse esimest korda Billy the Kid pärast pesukorvi varastamist. Hiljem murdis ta vanglast välja ja rändas Ameerika lääne poole, pälvides lõpuks ebaseadusliku ja mõrvari maine ning räpplehe, mis sisaldas väidetavalt 21 mõrva.

Lapse Billy sünni täpsed üksikasjad on teadmata, välja arvatud tema nimi William Henry McCarty. Tõenäoliselt sündis ta millalgi aastatel 1859–1861, Indianas või New Yorgis. Lapsepõlves polnud tal isaga mingeid suhteid ja ta kolis perega ringi, elades Indiana, Kansas, Colorado ja Silver City, New Mexico. Tema ema suri 1874. aastal ja Billy the Kid - kes kandis kogu elu erinevaid nimesid, sealhulgas Kid Antrim ja William Bonney - muutus varsti pärast seda kuriteoks.

VAATA: tõeline Billy the Kid ajaloohoidlas

McCarty tegi enne New Mehhikosse naasmist hobuvargana Arizonas, kus ta ühendas relvade ja kariloomade jõugu, kes osalesid kurikuulsas Lincolni maakonna sõjas Lincolni maakonna konkureerivate karjakasvatajate ja kaupmeeste vahel 1878. aastal. Hiljem Billy sihvakas kehaehitusega, silmapaistvate kõverate esihammaste ja lauluarmastusega Laps läks lamba selga ja jätkas oma ebaseaduslikku elu, varastades kariloomi ja hobuseid, hasartmänge mängides ja inimesi tappes. Tema kuriteod pälvisid talle pearaha ja lõpuks tabati ta ning süüdistati šerifi tapmises Lincolni maakonna sõja ajal. Billy the Kid mõisteti oma kuriteo eest poodi; kuid veidi aega hiljem õnnestus tal järjekordne vanglapaus, tappes selle käigus kaks asetäitjat. Lapse Billy vabadus oli lühike, sest šerif Pat Garrett jõudis 14. juulil 1881. aastal New Mexico osariigis Fort Sumneris meeleheitele järele ja lasi ta surmavalt maha.

Kuigi tema elu oli lühike, kasvas Billy Kidi legend pärast tema surma. Täna on ta kuulus Vana Lääne sümbol koos selliste meestega nagu Kit Carson, Jesse James, Wild Bill Hickok, Doc Holliday ja Wyatt Earp ning tema lugu on mütologiseeritud ja romantiseeritud paljudes filmides, raamatutes, telesaadetes ja lauludes . Igal aastal külastavad turistid Fort Sumneri linna, mis asub Albuquerque'ist umbes 160 miili kagus, et näha Billy the Kid muuseumi ja hauaplatsi.

LOE LISAKS: Kuidas Billy the Kid suri?


Regulaatorid moodustati paljudest väikestest rantšoomanikest ja kauboidest Lincolni, New Mexico piirkonnas. Paljudel neist, kes said tuntuks kui "reguleerijad", oli üksteisega varem pikk ajalugu. William Bonney, teise nimega Billy the Kid või Henry McCarty, saab tuntuimaks, peamiselt seetõttu, et uudiskontod lisasid tema nime kõigele, mida regulaatorid tegid. Lincolni maakonna sõda tõi ta rindele, kuid mitmed teised reguleerivad asutused olid tegelikult sündmuste liikumapanev jõud ja neil oli enne sõda üksteise kõrval tapmisi.

Ab Saunders, Charlie Bowdre, Doc Scurlock, Frank Coe ja George Coe olid varem kohinat tapnud. 18. juulil 1876 tungis see rühmitus Lincolni vanglasse, eemaldades hobusevarga Jesus Largo ja poos ta üles. Ab Saunders ja Frank Coe olid jälginud karjakohinat Nicos Merast, tulistades ja tappes ta samal kuul Baca kanjonis. Nende seos McCartyga algas siis, kui 1876. aasta kevadel kolis Henry (tol ajal tuntud kui Henry Antrim või William Bonney) Lincolni maakonda ja asus tööle nende juustuvabrikus Doc Scurlock ja Charlie Bowdre. Hiljem töötas ta mõnda aega karjakasvataja Henry Hookeri juures ning seejärel Ab Saundersi ja Coesi rantšos. Selleks ajaks, kui Lincolni maakonna sõda tuli, olid need peamised tuumikliikmed, keda nimetatakse „raudkattega”, kõik kogenumad ja lähemal tõelistele relvameestele kui McCarty.

Lincolni maakonna sõda sai alguse sellest, kui šerif William J. Brady poolt asendatud mehed mõrvasid 18. veebruaril 1878. aastal noore inglase John Henry Tunstalli. Nähtavasti jahtis Tunstall taga, et juriidilise võimu poolt kinni haarata Tunstall ja tema mehed sõitsid Tunstalli rantšost Felizi jõel Lincolni, kuid posse tegelik motivatsioon oli selge - kõrvaldada John Tunstall kui majanduslik oht ärimeestele James Dolanile ja LG -le Murphy, kelle kontrolli all oli šerif Brady. [1]

Tunstalli rantšo-käed ja teised kohalikud kodanikud moodustasid tema mõrva eest kätte maksmiseks grupi, mida tuntakse regulaatoritena, ning astuda vastu sellele, mida nad pidasid korrumpeerunud territoriaalseks kriminaalõigussüsteemiks, mida kontrollisid Murphy, Dolani ja kompanii liitlased. Reguleerijad said oma seaduslikkuse Lincolni linna rahukohtuniku John B. Wilsoni volituselt. [2] Rahukohtunik Wilson andis välja orderid John Tunstalli tapjate vahistamiseks ja määras regulaatori Dick Breweri erikonstaablikuks, kes täitis korraldusi. Lisaks anti regulaatorile Robert Widenmannile, kes oli varem kinnitanud ametisse USA marssali asetäitja ametikoha, tsiviilpositsiooni moodustamise ja süüdistatava vahistamise. [3] [4]

Lincolni maakonna sõda ja regulaatorid tooksid Billy the Kid igavesele kuulsusele. On tõenäoline, et tegelikkuses olid teised reguleerivad asutused, näiteks doktor Scurlock, Billyle lähemal. Tõenäoliselt omistati mõnel juhul Billy the Kidile tapmised, mida tegelikult tegid teised reguleerivad asutused. Reguleerivate asutuste lõpuks oli nende toime pandud tapmistele lisatud tema nimi, olenemata sellest, kas ta oli tegelik tulistaja või mitte. See kahjustaks lõpuks tema amnestiakatseid.

Reguleerijad läbiksid kolm erinevat juhti, kõik peale ühe tapeti. Kuigi Billy the Kid saavutaks regulaatorite liikmena kuulsuse, ei juhtinud ta neid kunagi. Nende esimene juht oli Richard "Dick" Brewer, kelle tappis hiljem Buckshot Roberts ja asendas Frank McNab, kes tapeti Seven Rivers Warriorsi liikmete poolt. McNabi asendas regulaatorite lõplik juht doktor Scurlock.

William Bonney, teise nimega Billy the Kid, ei teinud kunagi pingutusi, et saada tuntuks või olla levinud sõjas toimuvate sündmuste kohta. Frank Coe kommenteeris aastaid hiljem: "Ta ei surunud kunagi oma nõuandeid ega arvamusi sisse, kuid tal oli imeline meel." [5]

  • 18. veebruar 1878, Tunstalli tapsid Murphy-Dolani püssimehed William Morton, Frank Baker, Jesse Evans ja Tom Hill, samal ajal kui tema ja tema rantšo-käed, Dick Brewer, Billy the Kid, John Middleton, Henry Newton Brown, Bob Widenmann ja Fred Waite olid sõites üheksa hobust oma rantšos Rio Felizil Lincolnisse. Järgmisel päeval vannuvad Bonney ja Brewer välja rahukohtunik John Wilson alampositsiooni eest. Waite, Bonney ja konstaabel Martinez on vahistamismäärust täita püüdes kinni šerif William J. Brady. Waite ja Bonney jätavad Tunstalli matused vahele, Martinez lastakse lahti. 23. päeval lastakse Bonney ja Waite vanglast välja.
  • 1. märts, "Dick" Breweri nimetas rahukohus John Wilson linnakonstaabliks, Billy on tema asetäitja. Nad peavad sisse viima Tunstalli mõrvarid. Teised on asendajad ja nimetavad end "reguleerijateks".
  • 6. märts, Reguleerijad arreteerivad Bill Mortoni ja Frank Bakeri. Kolm päeva hiljem tapetakse Agua Negras Morton, Baker ja regulaator William McCloskey ning McCloskey arvati olevat reeturid reetnud.
  • 9. märts, Territoriaalne kuberner Samuel B. Axtell määras, et rahukohtunik John Wilson määrati ebaseaduslikult ametisse Lincolni maakonna komissaride poolt. Wilson oli reguleerijate asetäitja ja andis Tunstalli mõrvaritele orderid. Axtelli dekreet tähendas, et reguleerijate tegevus, mida varem peeti seaduslikuks, oli nüüd seadusest väljas. Samuti suutis Axtell tühistada Widenmanni staabi USA marssalina, muutes šerif Brady ja tema mehed Lincolni maakonna ainsaks õigusametnikuks.
  • 1. aprill, Jim French, Frank MacNab, John Middleton, Fred Waite, Henry Brown, Billy the Kid ja võib -olla ka Bob Widenmann tulistavad šerifi ja tema asetäitjaid tulles läbi tagaseina müüri. Matthews haavab Bonneyt, kui ta üritab Bradylt võetud vintpüssi tagasi saada. Sheriff Brady ja asetäitja Hindman tapetakse.
  • 4. aprill, Blazeri veskis käib relvavõitlus Buckshot Robertsiga. Buckshot ja Brewer tapetakse, Middleton on raskelt haavatud, Bonney on kuuli käes karjatatud, George Coe laskis päästiku sõrme maha.
  • 18. aprill, The Kid, Middleton, Waite ja Brown süüdistatakse šerif Brady mõrvas. Dolan, Evans, Matthews ja teised süüdistatakse Tunstalli mõrvas.
  • 29. aprill, Frank McNabi tapavad Seven Rivers Warriorsi liikmed. Ab Saunders on raskelt haavatud ja Frank Coe vangistati.
  • 30. aprill, George Coe laseb ja haavab Lincolnis Seven Riversi liige "hollandlane Charlie" Kruling. Samal päeval tapetakse seitse Riversi liiget Tom Green, Charles Marshall, Jim Patterson ja John Galvin ning kuigi regulaatoreid süüdistatakse, ei tõestatud nende osalust kunagi. Sel ajal hakkasid seitse Riversi jõugu liiget üksteise vastu pöörama.
  • 15. mai, Regulaatorid said mõningase kättemaksu, kui tungisid Seven Riversi ümbrusse, vallutasid ja tapsid Frank McNabi tapnud kauboi Manuel Segovia.
  • 15. juuli, reguleerijad ümbritseti Lincolnis McSweeni majas. Nende vastas olid Dolan/Murphy/Seven Rivers kauboid.
  • 19. juuli, maja pandi põlema. Kui leegid levisid ja öö langes, lubati Susan McSweenil majast turvaliselt välja pääseda, samal ajal kui sees olnud mehed jätkasid tulega võitlemist. Kella üheksaks sättisid endasse jäänud inimesed põleva maja tagaukse välja. Esimesena väljus Jim French, kellele järgnesid Billy the Kid, Tom O'Folliard ja Jose Chavez y Chavez. Dolani mehed nägid jooksvaid mehi ja avasid tule, tappes Alexander McSweeni seadusepartneri Harvey Morrise. Mõned sõjaväelased kolisid tagahoovi, et need, kes jäeti vahi alla, kui puhkes lähikond. Alex McSween tapeti, nagu ka Seven Rivers kauboi Bob Beckwith. Kui McSween suri, oli sõda läbi.

Lõppkokkuvõttes saavutas Lincolni maakonna sõda midagi muud kui õhutas piirkonnas umbusaldust ja vaenu ning tegi ellujäänud reguleerijatest, eriti Billy Kidist, põgenikke. Kid, Scurlock, Bowdre, Chavez y Chavez, Waite, Saunders, Brewer, Brown, McNab ja Coe nõod said kõige rohkem kuulsust kui "reguleerijad". Järk -järgult läksid tema kaaslastest relvamehed eri saatustesse laiali ja Billy the Kid jäi koos Charlie Bowdre'i, Tom O'Folliardi, Dirty Dave Rudabaughi ja mõne teise sõbraga, kellega ta karjus kariloomi ja pani toime muid pisikuritegusid, pidades samal ajal amnestiat. mida kunagi ei tule, ja hoidub vangistamisest kõrvale.

  • Ab Saunders suri 1884. aastal Californias San Franciscos operatsiooni käigus, et parandada probleeme, mida ta 29. aprillil 1878 saadud haava tõttu ikka veel kannatas.
  • Fred Waite suundus tagasi praeguse Oklahoma osariiki, kus Chickasawi rahvuseliikmena asus karjakasvatajaks ja läks lõpuks poliitikasse.
  • Frank ja George Coe kolisid mõnda aega ringi, naasid lõpuks Lincolni, kus neist said kõrgelt hinnatud kodanikud ja edukad karjakasvatajad.
  • Jose Chavez y Chavezist sai lõpuks politseiametnik, kuid ta osales mõrvas, mille eest ta veetis vanglas. Pärast vabanemist elas ta pealtnäha vaikset elu kuni surmani 1924.
  • Robert A. Widenmanni New Mehhiko-järgne karjäär viis ta Suurbritanniasse, kus ta külastas Tunstalli perekonda, ja Haverstraw, NY, kus ta suri 13. aprillil 1930 78-aastaselt.
  • Doc Scurlock kolis Texasesse, kus temast sai lugupeetud kodanik nii Texase Potteri maakonnas kui ka Eastlandi maakonnas, surnuna 79 -aastaselt.

Enamik umbes 40 -st regulaatorist olid suhteliselt tundmatud ja nende asukoht pärast sõja lõppu on ajaloole kadunud.


Suure tasandiku entsüklopeedia

Billy the Kid oli ebaseaduslik, kelle legend on varjutanud tema isikliku või ajaloolise tähenduse. Seda, millal ja kus ta sündis, ei ole rahuldavalt dokumenteeritud, kuigi on kindlaks tehtud, et tema tegelik nimi oli Henry McCarty. Aastal 1880 ütles New Mexico osariigis Fort Sumneris McCarty (teise nimega Billy Antrim, Henry Antrim, Kid Antrim, Billy Bonney, William H. Bonney ja Billy the Kid) föderaalsele rahvaloendajale, et ta on kahekümne viie aastane, et mõlemad vanemad olid sündinud Missouris ja ka tema oli seal sündinud. Pole põhjust arvata, et ta valetas. Võib dokumenteerida, et 1866. aastal elas ta koos oma ema Catherine McCarty ja vanema venna Joseph McCartyga Indiana osariigis Marioni maakonnas. Catherine McCarty põdes tuberkuloosi ja see võis ajendada teda kaugemale läände liikuma. Aastal 1873 abiellus Billy ema New Mexico osariigis Santa Fe linnas William H. Antrimiga. Varsti pärast ema surma 1874. aastal asus ta rändama ja veetis kaks aastat üldtöötaja, kauboi ja meeskonnatöötajana Arizona idaosas.

Lapse vastu saab dokumenteerida ainult neli tapmist. Esimene juhtus 1877. aastal Arizonas Camp Grantis, kui Billy tulistas ja vägivaldseks muutunud vaidlusest tulistas Frank "Windy" Cahilli. Laps tunnistati süüdi "kuritegelikus ja põhjendamatus" tulistamises, kuid ta pääses vahi alt ja naasis New Mexico osariiki. Lapse teised tapmised tulenesid tema seotusest Lincolni maakonna sõjaga, mis oli surmav vaen, mis hõlmas kohalikke kaupmehi ja kariloomi. Ühel pool seisid Šoti advokaat Alexander Mc-Sween ja inglane John H. Tunstall, kellele kuulus karjakasvatus Lincolni maakonnas. Teised olid James Dolan ja Lawrence Murphy, Lincolni linna kaupmehed. Jaanuaris 1878 töötas laps Tunstalli heaks. Kui Tunstall mõrvati Murphy-Dolani fraktsiooni poolt, kuulutasid Kid ja teised Tunstall-McSweeni liitlased end "reguleerijateks" ja otsisid kättemaksu.

Järgmisel aastal käis kahe fraktsiooni vahel verine kättemaksusõda. Märtsi alguses arreteerisid ja seejärel tapsid reguleerijad Dolani kaastöötajad Frank Bakeri ja Billy Mortoni, samal ajal kui paar üritas põgeneda. Sel hetkel kuulutas territoriaalne kuberner John Axtell reguleerivate asutuste seadusevastaseks, pärast seda, kui neid jahti peeti. 1. aprillil 1878, kui šerif William Brady ja asetäitja George Hindman, mõlemad Dolani liitlased, üritasid McSweeni varitseda, võtsid regulaatorid vastu ja tapsid juristid. Kolm päeva hiljem võitlesid reguleerijad Blazeri veskis raskelt relvastatud pearahakütti "Buckshot" Robertsiga. Tulistamises hukkusid Roberts ja reguleerija Dick Brewer. Lincolni maakonna sõja otsustav lahing peeti viiepäevase mahalaskmise ajal Lincolnis juulis 1878. Snaipimine kestis neli päeva, regulaatorid jäid McSweeni majja lõksu. Viiendal päeval, pärast ebaefektiivse USA armee saabumist, süüdati McSweeni kodu põlema ja Laps juhatas põlevast majast välja. Lapsel õnnestus põgeneda, kuid McSween ja mitmed teised olid kuulidest täis.

Koos sellega, mis oli jäänud regulaatoritest, keelati Kid lõplikult välja. Detsembris 1880 vallutasid äsja valitud Lincolni maakonna šerif Pat Garrett ja teised juristid Lapse Stinking Springsis. Lapse vastu algatati kaks föderaalset süüdistust. Esimene oli Buckshot Robertsi tapmise eest, teine ​​oli ametniku surma eest Mescalero reservatsioonis. Prokuratuur otsustas, et mõlemad need süüdistused toovad tõenäoliselt õigeksmõistva otsuse, mistõttu otsustati šerif Brady mõrva eest Kidi üle kohut mõista. Laps tunnistati süüdi ja mõisteti poodi, kuid ta pääses 28. aprillil 1881 pärast kahe valvuri tapmist. Lapse tulistati surnuks ööl vastu 14. juulit 1881, Pat Garrett tappis varitsuse ajal vanal Fort Sumneril.

Sadu raamatuid, kinofilme, raadiosaateid, telesaateid ja isegi balletti on hiljem inspireeritud legendist Billy the Kid. Legendina on Kid avatud mitmesugustele tõlgendustele, peamiselt kui hea mees, kes läks halvaks, kui halb mees, kes jäi halvaks, kui hea mees, keda valesti taga kiusati. Ka ajaloolased on süüdi selles, et nad kasutasid lapse elu, et tõestada tema tegelike olemuste kohta üht või teist teesi. Sellel pole muidugi mingit pistmist ajaloolise Billy Kidiga, kes tappis tõenäoliselt vaid neli meest, üldiselt oludes, mida võis ette kujutada enesekaitseks, ja kellel oli kahjuks sattuda kaubanduskeskuses kaotanud poolele. sõda.

Jon Tuska Kuldse Lääne kirjandusagentuur

Fulton, Maurice Garland. Lincolni maakonna sõja ajalugu. Tucson: Arizona ülikooli ajakirjandus, 1968.

Tuska, Jon. Billy the Kid: Tema elu ja legend. Albuquerque: New Mexico Pressi ülikool, 1997.


Lapse esimene tapmine Henry Antrim vs Windy Cahill

17. august 1877

On reede õhtu ja noor Henry Antrim mängib pokkerit George Atkinsi Cantinas, otse Arizonas Fort Granti sõjaväereservi ees.

Antrim, kelle tegelik perekonnanimi on McCarty, on noor põgenik (tõenäoliselt 16, võib -olla 17), kes on linnuse sõduritelt varastanud sadulaid ja hobuseid. Antrim ja endine sõdur John Mackie on spetsialiseerunud sildimeeskonna haaramise meetodile, samal ajal kui sõdurid on hõivatud lähedal asuvas Hog Ranchis (armee släng bordelli jaoks).

Sel õhtul satub Antrim külili koos kindluse sepp Frank “Windy” Cahilliga, kes nimetab kerget noorust “kupeldajaks”. Antrim nimetab suurt iirlast “litsipojaks”.

Kaks hakkavad tülitsema. Vanem mees viskab poisi mitu korda põrandale, surudes lõpuks Antrimi käed põlvedega alla ja lüües poisile näkku.

Hoolimata sellest, et poiss on maapinnale kinnitatud, õnnestub poisil püstol püksivööst kätte saada. Kõrvaltvaatajad teatavad „kõrvulukustavast müristamisest”, kui poiss tulistab tühjalt sepa kõhtu. Cahill vajub külili.

Poiss tõmbab end vabaks ja jookseb õue, kus ta haarab John Murphyle kuuluva kiireima hobuse Cashaw. Äsja vermitud mankiller, kes sai hiljem tuntust kui Billy the Kid, kannustab mäge ida poole New Mexico poole.

Surevad sõnad

Sepa surevad sõnad on trükitud Arizona nädala staar 23. augustil: „Mina, Frank Cahill, olles veendunud, et hakkan surema, ütlen oma viimase avaldusena järgmist. Minu nimi on Frank P. Cahill. Ma sündisin eile, 17. augustil 1877 Iirimaal Galway maakonnas ja linnas, mul oli Henry Antremiga probleeme. [sic], muidu tuntud kui Kid, mille käigus ta mind tulistas. Ma olin teda kutsunud kupeldajaks ja ta nimetas mind litsipojaks, siis võtsime teineteisest kinni. Ma ei tabanud teda, ma arvan, et ma nägin teda püstoli järele minemas ja üritasin seda kätte saada, aga ei saanud ja ta tulistas mul kõhus on õde nimega Margaret Flannigan, kes elab East Cambridge'is, ja teine ​​nimega Kate Conden, kes elab San Franciscos. ”

Tagajärjed: koefitsiendid ja lõpp

Kõhutõbi Frank Cahill viidi lähedalasuvasse Fort Granti, kus kirurgi assistent Fred Crayton Ainsworth tegi kõik, mis võimalik, et teda päästa. Järgmisel päeval nägi kirurg, et Windy ei ela oma haava üle. Notar Miles Wood (kes oli varem Henry Antrimi vahistanud ja enne põgenemist Fort Granti viinud) kutsuti linnusesse. Ta võttis Cahilli surivoodi avalduse (vasakul). Cahill suri piinades ja maeti pühapäeval, 19. augustil postkalmistule.

Miles Wood oli lisaks notariks olemisele ka rahukohtunik. Ta korraldas koroneri uurimise, kutsudes vandekohtunikeks kuus kohalikku: Milton McDowell, George Teague, T. McCleary, B.E. Norton, James L. Hunt ja D. H. Smith. Nad jõudsid kiiresti kohtuotsuseni, et Cahilli tulistamine oli olnud "kuritegelik ja õigustamatu ning et Henry Antrim alias laps on selles süüdi".

Kid Antrim põgenes tagasi New Mexico osariiki Silver Citysse, kus ta liitus kurikuulsa John Kinney juhitava röövellike ebaseaduslike rühmitusega. Grupp sõitis ida poole, maandudes Mesilla. Pärast võimalikku vanglas viibimist läksid poisid Lincolni, kus noor Henry osales Lincolni maakonna sõjas. Mingil hetkel muutis ta oma nime varjunimeks William Bonney. Oma elu viimasel aastal, 1880-1881, sai ta tuntuks kui Billy the Kid.

Soovitatav: Billy the Kid lääs Frederick Nolan, avaldanud University of Oklahoma Press. Antrim on mu kasuisa nimi autor Jerry Weddle, avaldanud Arizona Ajalooühing.

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Billy the Kid

Ööl vastu 14. juulit 1881. Šerif Pat Garrett tulistati väljapoole Billy the Kid sisse Sumneri kindlus. Garrett oli hiljuti kinni püüdnud Poisi, kes mõisteti poomise eest teise šerifi tapmise eest, kuid Billyl õnnestus põgeneda. Garrett hakkas uuesti asjaga tegelema, kui kuulis vihjet, et Laps varjab end kindluses.

Billy viimase õhtu kohta saate lugeda teda tulistanud mehe vaatevinklist. Aasta pärast päästiku tõmbamist kirjutas ja avaldas Pat Garrett sel õhtul toimunu kohta ülevaate ning selle konto leiate siit.

Billy the Kid sai surmajärgse armuandmise mõrva eest, mille eest ta poodi üles. New Mexico kuberner Bill Richardson keeldus seda armuandmist järgimast.

Kas laps Billy väärib vabandust, mida talle lubati?
10. august 2010

Kõigile metsikutele, metsiku lääne austajatele on siin postitus, mis on kindlasti huvitav!

Billy the Kid on pikka aega olnud üks paljudest metsiku läänega seotud nimedest Bob Dalton Gangi, Butch Cassidy ja Sundance Kidi, Cole Younger'i, Jesse Jamesi jt kõrval. Mida te ehk ei tea, on see, et ammu surnud Kid võib saada armuandmist praeguse New Mexico kuberneri Bill Richardsoni käest. Niisiis, miks küsib kurikuulus Billy Kid selle andestuse pärast? Noh, lubage mul selgitada, alustades väikese ajalootunniga.

Billy the Kid - sündinud William Henry McCarty, kuid tuntud ka kui William H. Bonney - pärines algselt New Yorgist. Noorena kolis ta perekond New Mexico ossa. Kahjuks, kui laps oli viieteistkümneaastane, oli tema ema tuberkuloosist lahkunud. Just sel hetkel ütlesid paljud allikad, et poiss alustas kuritegelikku elu - alustades varastamisest ja mõrva arenemisest. Teised allikad väidavad, et ilma vanemate juhendamiseta sai laps lihtsalt halva alguse. Ta liitus valede rühmadega ja lõpetas seaduse eest põgenemise. Üks konkreetne viga lapse elus oli tema seotus Lincolni maakonna sõjaga. Ühe paljude varitsuste tagajärjel leiti surnuna Lincolni maakonna šerif William Brady ja üks tema asetäitjatest, keda laps oli maha lasknud. Billy sai põgenikuks.

Mingil hetkel pärast neid mõrvu sai Lew Wallace'ist New Mexico kuberner. Nüüd näivad jutud sellest, mis tegelikult juhtus, põrkuma, nii et piisab, kui öelda, et Laps sattus vahi alla. Ta sõlmis kuberneriga kokkuleppe, et kui ta peaks tunnistama Lincolni maakonna sõjas osalenud isikute vastu, saab ta täieliku armu šerif Brady surma ja muude pahategude eest. Laps tunnistas nagu lubatud, kuid armuandmist ei antud kunagi. Niisiis, laps pääses vahi alt ja väldis järgneva kahe aasta jooksul seadust.

Lapse ebaseaduslikul ajal valiti Pat Garrett šerifiks ja saadeti talle järele. Taas sattus Billy the Kid vahi alla. Seekord mõisteti ta aga šerif Brady surma eest poodi. Vanglas viibides pääses Kid uuesti põgenema - seekord tappis selle käigus kaks valvurit. Veel kord saadeti šerif Garrett pärast last. Järgmine kord, kui laps kohtus šerifiga, oleks see tema viimane.

14. juulil 1881 tulistas šerif Garrett varjude varjus Fort Sumneri residentsis surnuks Billy the Kid. Mõned usuvad, et laps elas edasi kui “harjas Bill” Roberts, kuid teised usuvad, et tegelikult maeti see laps järgmisel päeval Fort Sumneri kalmistule. Mingil hetkel, arutelu tõttu, oli liikumine, et lapse ja tema ema oletatavad surnukehad kaetaks välja DNA -testimiseks. Kohtunik ilmselt otsustas nende jõupingutuste vastu, kuid see ei ole peatanud kuberner Richardsoni huvi juhtumi vastu. Ta jätkab uurimist, kas laps väärib õigustatult postuumset armuandmist, nagu lubas kuberner Wallace. Nagu võite ette kujutada, tekitab sellest uurimisest palju poleemikat - kumma poolega liitute? Klõpsake siin, et allkirjastada avaldus Billy the Kid armuandmiseks, või klõpsake siin, et allkirjastada petitsioon, mis on selle armuandmise vastu.

Nipid on lastele
30. detsember 2010

New Mexico kuberneril Bill Richardsonil on jäänud vaid tunde, et otsustada, kas andestada šerifi tapmisel “Billy the Kid” või mitte. Juhtum pärineb aastast 1881… miks siis aastavahetuse tähtaega võite küsida? See on Richardsoni ametiaja viimane päev.

Neile, kes te oma pead kratsite, mõeldes, kes on Billy the Kid, on ta läänepoolne seaduserikkuja, keda tuntakse ka William Bonney nime all. Ta suri šerif Pat Garretti relvaga 21 -aastaselt. Vaatamata oma noorele vanusele oli Kid öelnud, et tappis 9–21 meest. Richardsoni staabiülema asetäitja Eric Witt soovib selgitada, et nad ei paku üldist armu kõigi laste kuritegude eest, vaid pigem armuandmist šerifi tapmise üksikjuhtumi eest.

Richardson on tuntud Billy the Kid austaja ja kaalub armuandmist kuberner Lew Wallace'i väidetava lubaduse tõttu. Ta väidab: "Mõelge vaid sellele heale reklaamile, mida New Mexico kogu maailmas selle kohta saab ... See on lõbus." Määrav küsimus keerleb ümber veendumuse, et Wallace lubas seda armuandmist vastutasuks Kidi teadmiste eest mõrvajuhtumis, milles osales kolm meest. Need, kes on armuandmise vastu, väidavad, et pole tõendeid selle kohta, et kuberner Wallace oleks kunagi pakkunud seda, mida ta oleks võinud Kidi lihtsalt teabe pakkumiseks meelitada. Lew Wallace'i järeltulija William Wallace väidab, et Billy Kidile andestamine "kuulutaks Lew Wallace'i ebaausaks valetajaks".

Mõned neist, kes pooldavad lapse armuandmist, on esitanud avalduse, sealhulgas kaitsja vandeadvokaat Randi McGinn, kes on teinud ettepaneku juhtumit tasuta käsitleda. Ta kirjutab: "Lubadus on lubadus ja seda tuleb täita." McGinn ütleb ka, et Wallace kinnitas Kidile, et tal on õigus vabastada ta kohtu alla andmisest, kui ta teeb koostööd ja jagab oma teadmisi, kuid et Wallace ei pidanud tehingu lõpetamist kordagi.

Šerif Pat Garretti lapselaps J.P. Garrett väidab, et Richardson oleks pidanud juhtumi abistamiseks määrama erapooletu ajaloolase, ning usub, et McGinni kaasamine võib olla huvide konflikt. Richardson määras osariigi ülemkohtusse Charles Danielsi, kellega McGinn on abielus. William Wallace nõustub, viidates ka sellele, et McGinnil on "napp kvalifikatsioon". Vaatamata nendele süüdistustele väidab McGinn, et tema ainus link administratsiooniga on see, et ta pakkus asja tasuta käsile, kuna Richardson tundis kogu elu huvi Billy the Kid vastu.

Richardson ütles kolmapäeval Associated Pressile: "Ma ei tea, kuhu ma jõuan. Ma ei pruugi talle andestada. Aga siis võin. " Ma arvan, et me kõik peame lihtsalt ärevusega ootama selle surnud ebaseadusliku kohtuliku saatuse tulemust.

Vabandust ei anta
3. jaanuar 2011

Uus -Mehhiko kuberner Bill Richardson keeldus viimastel ametitundidel armu andmast läänepoolsele ebaseaduslikule Billy Kidile. Armuandmine toimus šerif William Brady tapmise nimel aastal 1878. Mis ajendas seda viimase hetke otsust tegema? ABC saates "Good Morning America" ​​reedel selgitas Richardson, et juhtumi tõendid lihtsalt ei õigusta armuandmist. Ta teatas, et otsustas armuandmise vastu olla, „kuna ei olnud lõplikku järeldust ja ajalooline ebaselgus, miks kuberner Wallace oma lubadusest loobus”.


Billy värdjaslaps? Tõeline lugu Paulita Maxwelli taga ja tema suhe ebaseadusega.

Paulita albumisse kuulub tundmatu foto, mis võiks olla tema ainukesest pojast Telesfor José'st (vasakul). Mõned ajaloolased kahtlustavad, et see on tegelikult foto William “Julian” Maxwellist, Lucien Maxwelli ja Ameerika indiaanlanna ebaseaduslikust pojast. Robert G. McCubbin, Vana Lääne fotode autentija ja True Westi väljaandja emeriit, nõustub viimasega.
-Kõik fotod viisakalt Judi Flanner Arbogastilt, José ja Paulita Maxwelli lapselapselt, Paulita isiklikust külalisteraamatust, kui Maxwell ei ole raamatuga nõus Colorado Historical Society-

20-aastase Henry “Billy the Kid” McCarty ja 16-aastase Paulita Maxwelli vahelist intensiivset, kuuma, auravat ja ebaseaduslikku romantikat on kogu maailmas aktsepteeritud kui fakti. See, et kurikuulus ebaseaduslik oli muutnud Paulita seksuaalseks vallutuseks, teeb põneva loo. Ometi ei olnud Paulita kunagi Poisi armusuhe, veel vähem armastaja. Mitte ükski tõend ei toeta seda lugu.

Populaarne pärimus väidab, et Paulita ja laps said enne lapse tabamist 23. detsembril 1880 ja pärast vanglast põgenemist 28. aprillil 1881. aastal romantikat. Laps suri 14. juulil 1881. Et nende väidetav armastuslaps sünniks seaduslik, Paulita mõjukas ema Luz ja vanem vend Peter korraldasid Paulita jaanuaris 1882 jahipüssi pulmasse kergeuskliku kohaliku lambakarjase José Felix Jaramilloga.

Tegelikkuses hõlmas Maxwell-Jaramillo abielu armastav paar ja katoliku tseremoonia Fort Sumneris, New Mexico territooriumil, mis oli planeeritud mitme kuu jooksul. Mõlema pere sugulased sõitsid kohalviibimiseks üle 175 miili.

Maxwellid ja Jaramillo perekond olid teineteist tundnud juba üle kümne aasta ja võib -olla enne seda, kui Lucien Bonaparte Maxwell 1871. aastal pere ja kümned sõbrad ja töötajad Fort Sumnerisse isegi kolis.

Peigmehel oli lambakasvatusettevõte Valencia maakonnas Los Lunase piirkonnas tema vanema venna Telesforile kuuluva karjakasvatusettevõtte lähedal. Rohkem kui nädal enne pulmi lahkusid Telesfor ja tema kaheksa -aastane naine Sofia Maxwell Jaramillo, Paulita vanem õde, oma pikale reisile Fort Sumnerisse vaguniga, et tähistada.

Jaramillod olid vähemalt sama rikkad ja lugupeetud kui Maxwellid ning olid immuunsed abielu sundimise vastu, mida nad ei soovinud. Tõde oli see, et Paulita ja José armastasid üksteist.

Enamiku ajaloofännide tuntud Paulita Maxwelli vaade on üks
sellest, et tal on raamat käes. Tema isiklik fotoalbum näitab rohkem fotosid
Paulita oma noorematest päevadest kuni vanemate aastateni.

Pulmad toimusid 18 kuud pärast Lapse surm 15. juulil 1881.

On January 14, 1883, Paulita, two months shy of her 19th birthday, married José, 21, during a Sunday mass officiated by Father A. Reden.

After mass, a reception followed that included just about everyone in the area. The celebration carried on until the wee hours of the next morning.

The newlyweds spent their wedding night in the Maxwell home in Fort Sumner. On January 16 or 17, the extended Maxwell and Jaramillo families left Fort Sumner with the bride and groom and traveled 125 miles to Las Vegas. Due to the tremendous amount of rain in the area along the Pecos River, the wedding party traveled along muddy roads and river banks overrun with floodwaters and suffered from chilling winds throughout the journey.

The weather delayed the wedding party’s arrival to the Plaza Hotel by five days. On January 25, the party arrived at the city’s newest hotel, opened in spring 1882, which offered spacious rooms, modern conveniences, a restaurant and a bar. A day or so later, the wedding photos were taken at a local studio.

The party left mid-week by train via Santa Fe and Albuquerque, then by wagon to José’s sheep ranch near Los Lunas. Upon arrival, the women helped Paulita establish her new household where she and José would live for the next 20 years or so.

Several newspaper articles, along with the Catholic Church’s marriage record, substantiate the 1883—not 1882—year for Paulita and José’s wedding.

But what of Telesfor José Jaramillo, the alleged love child of Paulita and the Kid?

The child was named in honor of José’s brother, Telesfor, who had died unexpectedly in July 1891. And he was not their first-born child. The first of their three children, Adelina, was born in January 1884. Luz was born in November 1890. Telesfor José was born in Fort Sumner on June 7, 1895—14 years after the Kid’s death. No records or family stories reveal Paulita gave birth prior to Adelina.

Telesfor José spent his first 14 years on the family sheep ranch near Los Lunas, then 14 years living with his mother in Fort Sumner, before he moved back to Los Lunas in 1923, marrying Reina Romero. In 1934, Reina bore him one son, Luciano, who, after spending all his life in the same area, passed away in 2004, having never married and no known children. Telesfor José died of cardiac disease at age 64 on September 9, 1959.

Unfortunately for Paulita, by the mid-1890s, José was abusive toward her. She found a retreat at her brother Peter’s and mother’s homes in Fort Sumner, but these havens ended when Peter died in June 1898 and Luz died in July 1900.

Within a few years after the 1900 Federal Census, Paulita separated from José, rather than stay in that relationship, according to family lore. Given the era and the fact that José and Paulita were Catholic, they never divorced or had their marriage annulled. Neither remarried. She retained some of the real estate, as tax records show she paid taxes on land in Valencia County as late as 1917.

In late spring 1909, Paulita moved her children and household to the new site of Fort Sumner, about four miles from the original settlement, with its railroad depot and a boomtown population of nearly 700 residents. She purchased and managed the new Commercial Hotel across from the depot her cousin, Rebecca Beaubien, owned the Pecos Valley Hotel down the street. The 1910 census has 15-year-old Telesfor José living with Paulita.

Paulita, 56, identified herself as a widow when the census came calling in 1920. We don’t know where José was living then we do know he was in Fort Sumner when he met his maker on March 28, 1937.

Whatever the reason the two had parted, Paulita was retired and financially secure, having sold her hotel to an oil company, which freed her son, Telesfor José, 25, to manage her estate. The census also recorded other family members who were living with Paulita: her first daughter, Adelina Adelina’s husband, Joseph Welborn and their daughter.

Unfortunately, Fort Sumner’s boomtown “bust” in the late 1920s left Paulita near penniless by decade’s end. At the time of her death, she had a mere $100 worth of personal property, in addition to her venture real estate purchases.

In the early and mid-1920s, author Walter Noble Burns and others tracked down and interviewed the old-timers who had roamed the New Mexico countryside at the same time as the Kid. Paulita, in her late 50s, and other Old Fort Sumner residents never mentioned she was ever pregnant with the Kid’s child. Paulita stated that she and the Kid had never had a romantic relationship, although she admitted openly that she, like many others, had been infatuated with him and at one point would have married him if he had loved her.

Even after his interview, while writing his 1926 book, The Saga of Billy the Kid, Burns portrayed Paulita in alignment with all the unfounded rumors of a torrid love affair with the Kid. His publisher, who knew his descriptions could not be confirmed, wisely cut parts and modified others to prevent a probable defamation of character lawsuit. The publisher made the right decision.

Burns and those of his ilk do not appreciate the fact that, up to the time of her marriage, Paulita was tightly chaperoned, almost always by her Navajo household servant, Deluvina Maxwell, and by local adult women when she attended bailes and went into town. Even if Paulita had unlikely gotten away, why would she have romanced the Kid in the summer of 1881, after his murderous escape from the Lincoln County Courthouse jail when he had killed two deputy sheriffs, had the law gunning for him and would be hanged on the gallows if captured?

Despite Paulita’s interviews, some writers and TV documentary producers have stretched an unsubstantiated and denied romantic relationship into a ludicrous scenario in which brother Peter alerts Sheriff Pat Garrett of the Kid’s whereabouts in Fort Sumner and allegedly plots with him to ambush the Kid before he could elope with Paulita. Somewhere along the way, this wild, inaccurate tale became accepted as fact.

Paulita and José raised two daughters: Adelina (left) and Luz (above). Paulita passed down her album to Luz, who gave it to her son Charles Flanner. The treasure is now owned by Judi Flanner Arbogast, daughter to Charles and great-granddaughter to Paulita.

After a two-day fight with pneumonia brought on by influenza, Paulita died at 65 on December 17, 1929, at her home on Sumner Avenue in Fort Sumner. Her body was buried in the Old Fort Sumner military cemetery. In 1937, her estranged husband, José, was buried next to her.

Paulita passed away frustrated because the stories of her true relationship with the Kid and the real family she raised with husband José were never accepted. Hopefully, once and for all, the tale that she was the Kid’s lover and gave birth to the Kid’s love child will cease, and Paulita can at last rest in peace.

Robert J. Stahl is a retired history and social studies education professor from the Teachers College at Arizona State University and an officer for the Scottsdale Corral of Westerners International. He gives thanks to his research assistants Nancy Nance Stahl and Marilyn Stahl Fischer.


Billy the Kid First Arrest - HISTORY

For over eight months in 2001, investigators pursued Clayton Waagner. Authorities apprehended the fugitive after an all-out effort.

But that effort cost an incredible sum in salaries, travel and various services. Senior Inspector Geoff Shank, the Investigative Services Division case coordinator, recalled that costs exceeded $200,000 before Waagner was captured in December.

But closing these cases has never come cheaply. U.S. marshals and their deputies have been chasing down fugitives for 212 years, and even back in the Old West, they ran up fairly hefty tabs while performing their jobs. When factoring in money values of the times, it's no stretch to say that deputies of bygone days faced financial challenges similar to those of their modern day counterparts.

William Bonney, alias Billy the Kid, has a firm place in American history. Legend has it that before he turned 21, he had killed 21 people - the byproduct of being a major player in a turbulent battle between competing cattle empires in southeast New Mexico Territory. Like many legends before and after him, Billy the Kid was hunted by the U.S. Marshals. They spent many long hours in the process. The year was 1881, but just like in present time, these lawmen still had to eat, sleep and buy supplies.

A recent discovery in the National Archives shed some light on the expenses incurred during the famous final chase for Billy the Kid, who was eventually killed July 14, 1881, by Lincoln County (New Mexico) Sheriff Pat Garrett. (S hown on Right is William Bonney, 'Billy the Kid')

On Nov. 20, 1882, U.S. Marshal John Sherman Jr. wrote Attorney General Benjamin Harris Brewster a seven-page letter. Sherman was writing from law offices in Washington, D.C., on a matter of payment. Part of the letter reads as follows:

Voucher 1, $375.00, is for the subsistence of my deputies, and posse, and hire of horses with forage for the same. This expense was incurred in the arrest of William Bonny (sic), known as "Billy the Kid, " charged with murder and passing counterfeit money also for the arrest of an accomplice by the name of Rudebaugh. This man Bonny was a most notorious character. Large rewards had been offered for his arrest by the Territorial authorities, and frequent attempts made to capture him. He was finally captured by my deputy, lodged in jail, and afterwards shot by Deputy Garrett in attempting to escape. The whole expense in making this arrest was $1.072.00, all of which has been allowed by accounting officers with the exception of $375.00, which they say is in the nature of an extraordinary expense, and requires your approval before it can be allowed. (Pat Garrett shown on left)

In this case, as with many similar instances, Sherman's request for the additional reimbursement was disallowed because the original payments were already settled. Attorney General Brewster could have appealed to President Chester Arthur for funding. but it was often countermanded by the advice of the U.S. Treasury, which operated under strict guidelines.

While $375 does not seem like much today, it was costly in 1882. And Sherman's case was not that obscure. In the 1860s Dakota Territory, it was not always possible to make a straight line in order to reach an objective - especially with Indians in the way. U.S. Marshal L.H. Litchfield, disappointed that one of his official expense reports to serve process shortchanged him $465.35, wrote to the comptroller of the currency in Washington to justify his bill for travel. See luges:

The necessity for so much travel is apparent . In this case it became my duty to travel 1,200 miles to serve & the same to return the attachment & the same to serve and return the execution making a distance of 4,800 miles traveled. Almost the entire country between here & Fort Abercrombie (where the goods were) in a direct route is inhabited by Indians alone . Consequently, the only feasible route is from here south to Sioux City, Iowa. thence east across the entire length of Iowa to the Mississippi River, thence to St. Cloud, Minnesota, thence west to Dakota, making three right angles. In conclusion I have only to say that the services were performed as economically as possible and the amount ($465.35) is just1y due me.

U.S. Marshal Henry White of West Virginia knew all about money squabbles with Washington. He served from April 1889 until May 1893, and his entire tenure was plagued by the feud between the Hatfields and McCoys.

When Anderson "Devil Anse" Hatfield was arrested for violating revenue laws, Marshal White needed extra guards. He was meticulous in tracking his expenses - such as the charge of 86 miles at 10 cents per mile. White's group contained 10 guards, including three Hatfields. This was a preventative measure, as ambushes were common and bounty hunters were trying to capture Devil Anse. The Hatfields apparently favored the marshals to the McCoys.


6 Buckshot Roberts Defeats Billy the Kid's Entire Gang by Himself

Andrew "Buckshot" Roberts is probably best known for killing Charlie Sheen while taking a dump in Young Guns. The actual story of that day is no less amazing.

You see, Billy the Kid (the famous gunfighter and co-author of Bill and Ted's history report) and his gang the Regulators had a warrant for Roberts' arrest, implicating him in the murder of a rancher named John Tunstall, whom Billy used to work for. Roberts didn't actually have anything to do with Tunstall's death, but he was a shit-kicking Texas outlaw who didn't shy away from gunfights, so when Billy and his gang staged an ambush, Roberts was more than happy to engage in a free exchange of bullets.

That's right -- rather than surrender when he realized he was surrounded by 14 Regulators (that's enough guys to field one and a half heavily armed baseball teams), Roberts instead told them all to go straight to hell.

As the battle commenced, Roberts was hit in the groin almost immediately, which would've taken the fight out of Quick Draw McGraw himself. But Roberts continued firing until his rifle was empty, wounding three Regulators and taking them out of the fight. Billy the Kid tried to take advantage of Roberts' dick wound by rushing him, but Roberts took his empty rifle and clubbed the blazing pigshit out of him.

Roberts retreated into a house to reload, where Regulator Dick Brewer (Charlie Sheen's character in the movie) tried to sneak up on him. Roberts spotted Brewer and blasted his head into skull-and-brains confetti. At that point, Billy the Kid decided it was way too early in the day for any more of this bullshit and ordered his gang to beat feet, leaving Buckshot Roberts alone to bleed to death a day later. Go back and read that sentence again -- one of the most famous gunfighters in history, backed up by his entire gang, wasn't enough to bring the mortally wounded Buckshot Roberts down.

Related: 6 Baffling Robert Pattinson Stories That Raise More Questions Than Answers


Billy the Kid First Arrest - HISTORY

MP3 fail
William Bonney, known to the world as Billy the Kid, was involved in his first murder today in 1877. As with many famous people from the era of the American Wild West, his legend is much larger than his stature in real life. Although he has been dead for 125 years, Billy the Kid still defines the image of the young, sharp-shooting outlaw.

The man who would one day be called Billy the Kid used several aliases during his short life, including Henry McCarty, Henry Antrim and William Bonney. Since little is known about his youth or his parents, his real name has been lost to the dustbin of the ages. He was short, thin and had blue eyes. Most people who met him described him as friendly, but he could also display a fierce temper at a moment's notice. His abilities with a pistol or rifle were legendary but probably true. He had quick senses, which gave him an almost animal-like ability to sense and escape from danger. His instinct alone saved his life more than once.

Billy's story as a fugitive from justice began in 1875, when he escaped from the Silver City, New Mexico jail while being held on charges of theft. He worked as a ranch hand for the next two years before being hired to drive a team of horses for the Camp Grant Army post. He almost immediately developed a confrontational relationship with Frank Cahill, a civilian blacksmith at the post. On August 17th, 1877, Billy and Cahill exchanged heated words, which resulted in Cahill attacking Billy and throwing him to the ground. Cahill was a large man Billy was 17 years old and thin as a rail. Probably out of fear, he drew his pistol and shot Cahill. The blacksmith died the next day, resulting in Billy's arrest. A local Marshal was sent for, but Billy was able to make an escape before a trial could be held.

That fall, Billy showed up in Lincoln County, New Mexico, working as a cattle guard. The residents of the county were fighting a sort of mini-civil war, a conflagration that would come to be known as the Lincoln County Cattle War. The details of the war could fill several thick volumes suffice it to say that Billy ended up riding with a group known as the Regulators, eventually becoming the gang's leader.

As leader of the Regulators, Billy took part in gun battles that resulted in five deaths, most notably Sheriff William Brady. The group was indicted for murder and went on the run for several months. They were finally tracked to a house in Lincoln, where they held out for five days against a posse of deputies and locals. The house was set on fire, forcing the Regulators to face the posse that encircled them. Billy escaped once again. One of the men killed that day was Alexander McSween, a lawyer who was the leader of one side in the county war. With his death, the Lincoln County Cattle War ended.

In the fall of 1878, a general amnesty was proclaimed for anyone involved in the Lincoln County War who was not already under indictment. Billy was living in Texas at this time and was still under indictment for Sheriff William Brady's murder. However, he came forward and offered to testify against other gun fighters if he was granted amnesty. The state agreed to this concession and Billy turned himself in. After testifying, however, he was returned to jail. As he had proven many times in the past, Billy was not fond of the iron bars of a cell. Before any action could be taken against him, he once again freed himself and headed out of town.

Billy became a cattle rustler and gambler for the next 18 months and was involved in several shootings. The activities of his gang drew attention, and not in a good way. The group was hunted by a posse looking for cattle thieves and Billy once again found himself trapped in a house surrounded by armed men. But the posse accidently shot one of their own men, at which point they broke up and allowed Billy and his crew to escape.

Billy's reputation had grown, so much so that newly-elected sheriff Pat Garrett put a $500 bounty on his head. He and his posse were soon surrounded, captured and hauled off the town of Mesilla to wait for trial. He was convicted of murdering Sheriff Brady after a one day proceeding and was sentenced to hang. While being held in the top room of the local courthouse, Billy killed his two guards and escaped. How he managed to do this remains a mystery, but it is believed that he may have slipped out of his handcuffs and grabbed one of the deputies' weapons.

Billy the Kid met his end on July 14, 1881 at Pete Maxwell's house near Fort Sumner, New Mexico. Sheriff Garrett came to the house to question Maxwell about Billy's whereabouts, not knowing that the 21-year old was only a room away. The exact events of the evening are shaded by time, but one thing is certain: Pat Garrett shot Billy twice, killing him instantly. He was buried the next day in Fort Sumner's cemetery between two of his Regulator companions.

Much has been made of Billy the Kid's body count. Legend has it that he killed 21 men, one for every year of his life. The truth, however, is much less sensational. Most likely, Billy was involved in 9 murders 5 in which he was with a gang and four when he was alone. One year after he died, Pat Garrett, the sheriff who killed Billy, published a book entitled 'The Authentic Life of Billy, the Kid', which was wildly inaccurate and told many of the fanciful tales that survive to this day. The legend was born.


Billy the Kid arrested for first time in 1875

On this day in 1875, Billy the Kid is arrested for the first time after stealing a basket of laundry. He later broke out of jail and roamed the American West, eventually earning a reputation as an outlaw and murderer and a rap sheet that allegedly included 21 murders.

The exact details of Billy the Kid’s birth are unknown, other than his name, William Henry McCarty. He was probably born sometime between 1859 and 1861, in Indiana or New York. As a child, he had no relationship with his father and moved around with his family, living in Indiana, Kansas, Colorado and Silver City, New Mexico. His mother died in 1874 and Billy the Kid—who went by a variety of names throughout his life, including Kid Antrim and William Bonney—turned to crime soon afterward.

McCarty did a stint as a horse thief in Arizona before returning to New Mexico, where he hooked up with a gang of gunslingers and cattle rustlers involved in the notorious Lincoln County War between rival rancher and merchant factions in Lincoln County in 1878. Afterward, Billy the Kid, who had a slender build, prominent crooked front teeth and a love of singing, went on the lam and continued his outlaw’s life, stealing cattle and horses, gambling and killing people. His crimes earned him a bounty on his head and he was eventually captured and indicted for killing a sheriff during the Lincoln County War. Billy the Kid was sentenced to hang for his crime however, a short time later, he managed another jail break, murdering two deputies in the process. Billy the Kid’s freedom was brief, as Sheriff Pat Garrett caught up with the desperado at Fort Sumner, New Mexico, on July 14, 1881, and fatally shot him.

Although his life was short, Billy the Kid’s legend grew following his death. Today he is a famous symbol of the Old West, along with such men as Kit Carson, Jesse James, Wild Bill Hickok, Doc Holliday and Wyatt Earp, and his story has been mythologized and romanticized in numerous films, books, TV shows and songs. Each year, tourists visit the town of Fort Sumner, located about 160 miles southeast of Albuquerque, to see the Billy the Kid Museum and gravesite.


Patrick Floyd Jarvis Garrett was born on June 5, 1850, in Chambers County, Alabama. He was the second of five children born to John Lumpkin Garrett and wife Elizabeth Ann Jarvis. Garrett's four siblings were Margaret, Elizabeth, John, and Alfred. [1] Garrett was of English ancestry, his ancestors migrated to America from the English regions of Hertfordshire, Northamptonshire, Bedfordshire, Lincolnshire and Buckinghamshire. [2] [3] When Pat was three years old his father purchased the John Greer plantation in Claiborne Parish, Louisiana. The Civil War, however, destroyed the Garrett family's finances. Their mother died on March 25, 1867, at the age of 37. Then the following year, on February 5, 1868, his father died at age 45. The children were left with a plantation that was more than $30,000 in debt. The children were taken in by relatives. The 18-year-old Garrett headed west from Louisiana on January 25, 1869. [1] : 9 [4] : 28

Buffalo hunter Edit

Garrett's whereabouts over the next seven years are obscure. By 1876 he was in Texas hunting buffalo. During this period Garrett killed his first man, another buffalo hunter named Joe Briscoe. Garrett surrendered to the authorities at Fort Griffin, Texas, but they declined to prosecute. [1] : 29–31 When the buffalo hunting declined, Garrett left Texas and rode to the New Mexico Territory. [4] : 267n, 293n When Garrett arrived at Fort Sumner, New Mexico, he found work as a cowboy for Pedro Menard "Pete" Maxwell.

Family life Edit

Garrett's first wife was Juanita Martinez, who died 15 days after their marriage. [5] The reference Leon C. Metz made about Juanita being the older sister of Pat's second wife Apolonia is unfounded. Apolonia only had a sister by the name of Celsa Gutierrez. [1] On January 14, 1880, Garrett married Apolinaria Gutierrez. [1] : 40–41 [4] : 94–96 Between 1881 and 1905 Apolinaria Garrett gave birth to eight children: Ida, Dudley, Elizabeth, Annie, Patrick, Pauline, Oscar, and Jarvis.

Pursuit of Billy the Kid Edit

Billy the Kid, born Henry McCarty, and also known as William H. Bonney, was wanted for murder in the aftermath of the Lincoln County War. On November 2, 1880, Garrett was elected sheriff of Lincoln County, New Mexico, having defeated the incumbent, Sheriff George Kimball, by a vote of 320 to 179. [6] Although Garrett's term would not begin until January 1, 1881, Sheriff Kimball appointed him a deputy sheriff for the remainder of Kimball's term. Garrett also obtained a deputy U.S. Marshal's commission, which allowed him to pursue the Kid across county lines. Garrett and his posse stormed the Dedrick ranch at Bosque Grande on November 30, 1880. They expected to find the Kid there, but only succeeded in capturing John Joshua Webb, who had been charged with murder, along with an accused horse thief named George Davis. [7] Garrett turned Webb and Davis over to the sheriff of San Miguel County a few days later, and moved on to the settlement of Puerto de Luna. There a local tough named Mariano Leiva picked a fight with Garrett and was shot in the shoulder. [8]

On December 19, 1880, Billy the Kid, Charlie Bowdre, Tom Pickett, Billy Wilson and Tom O'Folliard rode into Fort Sumner. Lying in wait were deputy Garrett and his posse. Mistaking O'Folliard for the Kid, Garrett's men opened fire and killed O'Folliard. [9] Billy and the others escaped unharmed. Three days later, Garrett's posse cornered Billy and his companions at a spot called Stinking Springs. They killed one man and captured the others. [10] On April 15, 1881, Billy the Kid was sentenced to hang by Judge Warren Bristol, but escaped thirteen days later, killing 2 deputies. [11]

On July 14, 1881, Garrett visited Fort Sumner to question a friend of the Kid's about his whereabouts and learned he was staying with a mutual friend, Pedro Menard "Pete" Maxwell. Around midnight, Garrett went to Maxwell's house. The Kid was asleep in another part of the house, but woke up in the middle of the night and entered Maxwell's bedroom, where Garrett was standing in the shadows. The Kid did not recognize the man standing in the dark. He asked him, repeatedly, "¿Quién es?" ("Who is it?"), and Garrett replied by shooting at him twice. [12] The first shot hit the Kid in the chest just above the heart, while the second missed. Garrett’s account leaves it unclear whether Billy was killed instantly or took some time to die. [13]

His account of Billy the Kid Edit

He coauthored The Authentic Life of Billy, the Kid with Ash Upson, [14] and for decades his book was deemed authoritative. [15]

Following Billy the Kid's death, writers quickly went to work producing books and articles that made a folk hero out of Billy the Kid, while making Garrett seem like an assassin. Although filled with many errors of fact, The Authentic Life served afterward as the main source for most books written about the Kid until the 1960s. [16] [17] [18] A failure when originally released, an original copy of the Pat Garrett-Ash Upson book became a rare commodity in 1969 the original 1882 edition of the Garrett-Upson book was described by Ramon F. Adams as being "exceedingly rare." [19] Twentieth-century editions of Garrett's Authentic Life of Billy, the Kid (with alterations to the original title) appeared in 1927, [20] 1946 [21] and 1964. [22]

Texas Ranger Edit

Garrett did not seek re-election as sheriff of Lincoln County in 1882. He moved to Texas, where he ran for office as a state senator and was declined that seat. Garrett became a captain with the Texas Rangers for less than a month, then returned to Roswell, New Mexico. [24]

Irrigation investments and move to Texas Edit

Garrett discovered a large reservoir of artesian water in the Roswell region and went into partnership with two men to organize the "Pecos Valley Irrigation and Investment Company" on July 18, 1885. [25] Garrett kept his irrigation schemes alive for several years, and on January 15, 1887, he purchased a one-third interest in the "Texas Irrigation Ditch Company", but the partners got rid of him. On August 15, 1887, he formed a partnership with William L. Holloman in the "Holloman and Garrett Ditch Company." [26] All of Garrett's forays into the irrigation field, however, resulted in failure. [ tsiteerimine vajalik ] By 1892, Garrett had moved his large family to Uvalde, Texas, where he became close friends with John Nance Garner (1868–1967), a future vice president of the United States. [27] Garrett might have lived out the remainder of his life in Uvalde, had it not been for a headline-making event back in New Mexico.

Disappearance of Albert Jennings Fountain Edit

On January 31, 1896, Colonel Albert Jennings Fountain and his eight-year-old son Henry disappeared at the edge of the White Sands area of southern New Mexico. Neither of the Fountains was ever seen again. The mystery was never officially solved, even with the efforts of Apache scouts, the Pinkertons, and an all-out push by the Republican Party. [28] In April 1896, Garrett was appointed sheriff of Doña Ana County, and two years later had gathered sufficient evidence to make arrests, asking a judge in Las Cruces for warrants to arrest Oliver M. Lee, William McNew, Bill Carr and James Gililland. Within hours, he had arrested McNew and Carr. [29]

During the early morning hours of July 12, 1898 Garrett and his posse confronted Oliver M. Lee and James Gililland at a spot called "Wildy Well" near Orogrande, New Mexico. Garrett had hoped to capture the fugitives while they were sleeping, but Lee and Gililland expected trouble and took their bedrolls up to the roof of the bunkhouse to avoid being taken by surprise. One of Garrett's deputies named Kearney heard footsteps on the roof, scaled a ladder, and was mortally wounded by the fugitives. A stray shot nicked Garrett. Due to his concern for his dying deputy, Garrett arranged a truce with the fugitives and withdrew while Kearney was lifted into a wagon. Kearney, however, died on the road to Las Cruces, and Lee and Gililland remained at large for another eight months, before they finally surrendered to Sheriff George Curry. [30] They were found not guilty in the Fountain killings, and the indictments for killing the deputy were also dismissed. [31]

Final kill Edit

Garrett killed his last offender in 1899, a fugitive named Norman Newman, who was wanted for murder in Greer County, Oklahoma. Newman was hiding out at the San Augustin Ranch in New Mexico. Sheriff George Blalock of Greer County went to New Mexico and asked Garrett for his assistance. The lawmen and Jose Espalin, one of Garrett's deputies, rode to the ranch, and on October 7, 1899, Newman was killed in a gunfight. [32]

Presidential appointment in El Paso Edit

On December 16, 1901, President Theodore Roosevelt nominated Garrett to the post of collector of customs in El Paso. [33] He also became one of President Roosevelt's three "White House Gunfighters" (Bat Masterson and Ben Daniels being the others). [34] Despite public outcry over his appointment, Garrett was confirmed by the U.S. Senate on January 2, 1902. [35] Garrett's tenure as El Paso's collector of customs was stormy from the start. On May 8, 1903, he got into a public fistfight with an employee named George Gaither. The following morning, both Garrett and Gaither paid five dollar fines for disturbing the peace. [36] Continued complaints about Garrett's alleged incompetence were sent to Washington. [37] Through it all, President Roosevelt stood by Garrett. As a show of his support, Roosevelt invited Garrett to attend a Rough Riders reunion being held in San Antonio during April 1905. Since Garrett had not been a member of that regiment, Roosevelt's invitation was taken as a snub at those critics who wanted Garrett replaced from his post. Garrett brought a guest of his own to the event named Tom Powers. Garrett introduced Powers to the president as "a prominent Texas cattleman." Garrett and Powers posed for two photographs with Roosevelt, first standing with him in a group and later seated with Roosevelt at dinner. [38] Garrett's enemies obtained copies of the photos and sent them to Roosevelt, informing the president that instead of being the "cattleman" that Garrett claimed, Powers was, in fact, the owner of a "notorious dive" in El Paso called the Coney Island Saloon. That was the final straw for Roosevelt, who replaced Garrett with a new collector of customs on January 2, 1906. [39]

Financial problems Edit

Following his dismissal, Garrett returned with his family to New Mexico. Garrett was in deep financial difficulty. His ranch had been heavily mortgaged, and when he was unable to make payments, the county auctioned off all of Garrett's personal possessions to satisfy judgments against him. The total from the auction came to $650. [40] President Roosevelt had appointed Pat's friend George Curry as the territorial governor of New Mexico. Garrett met with Curry, who promised him the position of superintendent of the territorial prison at Santa Fe, once he was inaugurated. Since Curry's inauguration was still months away, the destitute Garrett left his family in New Mexico and returned to El Paso, where he found employment with the real estate firm of H.M. Maple and Company. During this period Garrett moved in with a woman known as "Mrs. Brown", who was described as an El Paso prostitute. [41] When Governor-elect Curry learned of his involvement with Brown, the promised appointment of prison superintendent was withdrawn. [42]

Last conflict and death Edit

Dudley Poe Garrett, Pat's son, had signed a five-year lease for his Bear Canyon Ranch with Jesse Wayne Brazel. [43] Garrett and his son objected when Brazel began bringing in large herds of goats, which were anathema to cattlemen like Garrett. Garrett tried to break the lease when he learned that the money for Brazel's operation had been put up by his neighbor, W. W. "Bill" Cox. He was further angered when he learned that Archie Prentice "Print" Rhode was Brazel's partner in the huge goat herd. [44] When Brazel refused, the matter went to court. At this point James B. Miller met with Garrett to try to solve the problem. Miller met with Brazel, who agreed to cancel his lease with Garrett – provided a buyer could be found for his herd of 1,200 goats. Carl Adamson, who was related to Miller by marriage, agreed to buy the 1,200 goats. Just when the matter seemed resolved, Brazel claimed that he had "miscounted" his goat herd, claiming there were actually 1,800 – rather than his previous estimate of 1,200. Adamson refused to buy that many goats, but agreed to meet with Garrett and Brazel to see if they could reach some sort of agreement.

Garrett and Carl Adamson rode together, heading from Las Cruces, New Mexico in Adamson's wagon. Brazel appeared on horseback along the way. Garrett was shot and killed, but exactly by whom remains the subject of controversy. Brazel and Adamson left the body by the side of the road and returned to Las Cruces, where Brazel surrendered to Deputy Sheriff Felipe Lucero. More than thirty years later, Lucero claimed that Brazel exclaimed, "Lock me up. I've just killed Pat Garrett!" Brazel then pointed to Adamson and said, "He saw the whole thing and knows that I shot in self-defense." [45] Lucero incarcerated Brazel, summoned a coroner's jury, and rode to Garrett's death site. Brazel's trial for Garrett's murder concluded on May 4, 1909. [46] Brazel was represented at his trial by attorney and future Secretary of the Interior Albert Bacon Fall. The only eyewitness to Garrett's murder, Adamson, never appeared at the trial, which lasted only one day and ended with an acquittal. [47] [48] [49]

Identity of the murderer Edit

The coroner's report on Garrett's death states that Brazel shot Garrett. [50] Brazel reportedly confessed, but was acquitted at trial. Four other suspects have been proposed: Adamson, Cox, Rhode, and Miller. In a book published in 1970, Glenn Shirley gave his reasons for naming Miller as the killer of Pat Garrett. [51] Leon C. Metz in his 1974 biography of Garrett related the claim of W.T. Moyers that "his investigations led him to believe that [W. W.] Cox himself ambushed and killed Garrett.", [52] but also wrote that "[t]he Garrett family believes that Carl Adamson pulled the trigger." [53] In his 2010 book on Billy the Kid and Pat Garrett, Mark Lee Gardner suggests that Archie Prentice "Print" Rhode killed Garrett. [54]

Death site Edit

The site of Garrett's death is now commemorated by a historical marker south of U.S. Route 70, between Las Cruces, New Mexico and the San Augustin Pass. [55] [56] The historical marker is located about 1.2 miles from where Garrett was murdered. In 1940 his son, Jarvis Garrett, marked the spot with a monument consisting of concrete laid around a stone with a cross carved in it. The cross is believed to be the work of Garrett's mother. Scratched in the concrete is "P. Garrett" and the date of his killing. The marker is located in the desert. [57] The city of Las Cruces plans a development that would destroy the site. An organization called Friends of Pat Garrett has been formed to ensure that the city preserves the site and marker. [58] [59]

Funeral and burial site Edit

Garrett's body was too tall for any finished coffins available, so a special one had to be shipped in from El Paso. His funeral service was held March 5, 1908, and he was laid to rest next to his daughter, Ida, who had died in 1896 at the age of fifteen. Garrett's grave and the graves of his descendants are in the Masonic Cemetery, Las Cruces. [59]

Garrett has been a character in many films and television shows, and has been portrayed by:


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