USS Lääne -Virginia ACR -4 - ajalugu

USS Lääne -Virginia ACR -4 - ajalugu


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USS Lääne-Virginia ACR-4

Lääne-Virginia-Huntington I

(ACR-5: dp. 13 680 n .; 1,503'11 "; s. 69'7"; dr. 24'1 "; s. 22 k .; cpl. 829; a. 4 8", 14 6 ", 2 18" tt; cl. Pennsylania)

Esimene soomustatud ristleja Huntington (ACR-5) käivitati Lääne-Virginia nime all 18. aprillil 1903 Newport News Shipbuilding Co., Newport News, Va .; sponsor. Miss Katherine V. White; ja tellis 23. veebruaril 190a kapten C. H. Arnoldi juhtimisel.

Pärast raputamiskoolitusi sõitis Lääne -Virginia koos New Yorgi mereväelastega Atlandi laevastiku üksusena kuni 30. septembrini 1906, mil ta sõitis koos Aasia malevkonnaga. Laev jäi Aasia eskadroni juurde 2 aastaks väljaõppele ja pärast 1908. aastal Mare saarel tehtud kapitaalremonti liitus Vaikse ookeani laevastikuga sarnasteks õppusteks Ameerika Ühendriikide läänerannikul. Aastatel 1911 ja 1912 tegi ta koos laevastikuga kruiisi Hawaii vetesse ja aastal 1914 aurustas Ameerika huvide kaitseks Mehhiko lääneranniku ääres eriteenistusel. Ta jäi Vera Cruzi kriisi ajal Mehhikost eemale ja naasis Washingtoni Bremertoni, et saada osa Vaikse ookeani reservlaevastikust.

Lääne -Virginia jäi Bremertonisse kuni 20. septembrini 1916, kui ta purjetas taas Mehhikosse, et kaitsta Ameerika elu ja vara ning toetada USA diplomaatiat. Selle teenistuse ajal nimetati ta 11. novembril ümber Huntingtoniks, et lubada oma vana nime määramine äsja volitatud lahingulaevale BB - 8. Pärast kuuajalist teenindust Mehhikost lahkus ta Mare saarele katapuldiseadmete paigaldamiseks veerandtekile. ja varustust nelja vesilennuki mahutamiseks paaditeki teedele.

Huntington eraldati reservväest ja paigutati täies ulatuses ametisse ~ aprill 1917. Ta lahkus 11. mail NIare saarelt ja aurutati Panama kanali kaudu Pensacolasse, Fla. Pärast 28. mail Floridasse saabumist Vaikse ookeani laevastikust eraldatuna veetis ta järgmised 2 kuud Pensacola mereväe lennundusjaamas, tehes mitmeid olulisi varajasi katseid tekilt õhku lastud õhupallide ja vesilennukitega. Seejärel purjetas ristleja 1. augustil Hampton Roads'i ja jõudis ~ päeva hiljem New Yorki. Seal moodustus Huntington koos kuuest sõjalaevast koosneva konvoiga, mis suundus Prantsusmaale 8. septembril. Teekonnal tehti mitu õhupallide vaatlusmatši ja ühel neist, 17. septembril, surus õhupall tuisu alla ja õhupallur takerdus selle taglasesse. Nähes hädaolukorda, hüppas laevafirma Patrick McGunigal üle parda, et vabastada piloot õhupalli korvist, selleks ajaks ümber paisatuna ja vee all. Oma kangelasliku tegevuse eest pälvis McGunigal I maailmasõja esimese aumärgi. Päev pärast päästmist anti kolonn Euroopa vetes Ameerika hävitajate kätte; ja Huntington aurutasid tagasi Hampton Roadsile, saabudes 30. septembril.

Pärast täiendamist Norfolkis purjetas Huntington 5. oktoobril New Yorki, et lasta oma katapult ja vesilennukid eemaldada. Ta alustas 27. oktoobril ja saabus 2 päeva hiljem Halifaxi, et alustada USA kõrgetasemelist komisjoni liitlastega nõu pidama. Presidendi saadik, kolonel House; Adm. W. S. Benson; Kindral T. Bliss; ja teised auväärsed isikud asusid Huntingtonis, saabudes 7. novembril 1917 Inglismaale Davenporti, et kohtuda Briti ametnikega. ~, Huntington lahkus New Yorki Hampton Roads'i kaudu, saabudes 27. novembril.

Seejärel naasis ristleja olulise kohustuse juurde eskortida väekolonne Euroopasse, tehes üheksa sellist reisi Euroopasse ja tagasi ajavahemikus 19. veebruar - 13. november 1918. Lisaks tegi Huntington kolm rannikukonvoi läbisõitu New Yorgist Hampton Roadsisse . Ta sisenes 17. novembril 1918 Brooklyni mereväe õue väeveoks.

Transpordivägede, Atlandi laevastiku koosseisu määratud Huntington sõitis järgmiseks Prantsusmaale, et tuua koju Euroopa lahingute veteranid. Ta lahkus New Yorgist 17. detsembril, saabus Bresti 29. detsembril ja tõi 14. jaanuaril New Yorki üle 1700 reisija. Laev tegi veel viis reisi Prantsusmaale ja naasis, tuues koju ligi 12 000 sõdurit ning lõpetas oma viimase reisi Bostonis 5. juulil 1919. Transpordijõududest eraldatuna määrati ta ümber Cruiser Force'i ja sai lendava eskaadri lipulaevaks 18. juulil 1919. Huntington dekomisjoneeriti Portsmoutlh Navy Yardis, Portslllouth, NH, 1. ~ september 1920. Ta kustutati mereväe nimekirjast 12. märtsil 1930 ja müüdi vastavalt Londoni mereväe relvastuse vähendamise lepingule 30. augustil 1930.


Pearl Harbor: 16 päeva surmani ja#8211 Kolm meremeest lõksus USS Lääne -Virginias

Uppunud lahingulaev USS Lääne-Virginia (BB-48) Pearl Harboris pärast tema tulekahjude kustutamist, võib-olla 8. detsembril 1941. USS Tennessee (BB-43) on pardal. Vought OS2U Kingfisheri vesilennuk (tähistatud 𔄜-O-3 ”) on tagurpidi Lääne-Virginia ja#8217s tekil. Teine OS2U on osaliselt läbi põlenud torni nr 3 katapuldi kohal.

Rünnakute tagajärjel Pearl Harbor maailmasõja ajal ilmusid lood meremeestest, kes olid uppunud lahingulaevadesse lõksu jäänud, mõned elasid isegi nädalaid.

Need, kes olid vee all lõksus, paugutasid pidevalt laeva küljel, et keegi neid kuuleks ja neile appi tuleks. Kui müra esmakordselt kuuldi, arvasid paljud, et see on lihtsalt lahtised rusud või osa hävitatud sadama koristustöödest.

Kuid päev pärast rünnakut mõistsid meeskonnaliikmed, et sadamasse uppunud USS Lääne -Virginia laevakerest kostab õudne pauk.

Ei läinud kaua aega, kui sadamas viibinud meeskond ja merejalaväelased mõistsid, et nad ei saa midagi teha. Nad ei saanud õigel ajal nende lõksus olevate meremeeste juurde. Kuud hiljem leidsid USS Lääne -Virginiat üles tõstnud pääste- ja päästetööde mehed kolme mehe surnukehad, kes olid laoruumist leidnud õhuluku, kuid olid lõpuks õhu otsa saanud.

Need olid 18 -aastane Ronald Endicott, 20 -aastane Clifford Olds ja 21 -aastane Louis Costin. Poes oli kalender ja nad olid iga päev üle joonud, et nad olid elus - 16 päeva oli punase pliiatsiga maha tõmmatud. Mehed oleksid rünnaku ajal teki all olnud, seega on ebatõenäoline, et nad teadsid, mis toimub.

Need, kes rünnaku üle elasid ja olid USS Lääne -Virginia meeskonnad, on seda lugu mäletanud ja jutustanud seda vaikselt kui noorsõdurite vapruse ja sihikindluse lugu.

Tõepoolest, USA merevägi polnud kunagi öelnud oma peredele, kui kaua need kolm meest ellu jäid, selle asemel öeldes neile, et nad on sadama rünnakus tapetud. Nende vennad ja õed avastasid lõpuks tõe, kuid olid nii kurvad, et ei rääkinud sellest.

Üks Cliffordi sõpradest ja kaaslastest Jack Miller naasis sageli sadamasse ja palvetas oma sõbra eest uppunud vraki kohas. Ta ütleb, et just õhtul enne rünnakut olid nad koos õlut joonud ja ta tahtis teda rünnakujärgsetel päevadel meeleheitlikult päästa.

Kuid päästemeeskonnad ei pääsenud nende juurde, sest kui nad lõikaksid laevale augu, ujutaks see selle üle ja kui nad prooviksid kasutada puhurit, võib see plahvatada, kuna vees oli liiga palju õli ja bensiini.

Ellujääjad ütlevad, et keegi ei tahtnud minna USS Lääne -Virginia lähedale valvuriks, sest nad kuuleksid lõksus ellujäänute paugutamist terve öö, kuid midagi ei saaks teha.


Esimene maailmasõda [redigeeri | allika muutmine]

Huntington eraldati reservväest ja pandi täielikult tööle 5. aprillil 1917. Ta lahkus 11. mail Mare saarelt ja aurutas Panama kanali kaudu Floridasse Pensacolasse. Pärast 28. mail Floridasse saabumist Vaikse ookeani laevastikust eraldatuna veetis ta järgmised kaks kuud Pensacola mereväejaamas, tehes mitmeid olulisi varajasi katseid tekilt õhku lastud õhupallide ja vesilennukitega. Seejärel purjetas ristleja 1. augustil Hampton Roads'i ja jõudis viis päeva hiljem New Yorki. Seal, Huntington moodustati kuuest sõjalaevast koosneva konvoiga, mis suundus Prantsusmaale 8. septembril. Teel, tehti mitu õhupalli vaatluslendu ja ühel neist 17. septembril sundis õhupalli pardale tagasi toomisel tuisk alla ja vaatleja leitnant (jg) Henry W. Hoyt löödi korvist välja ja jäi vee alla oma taglasesse takerdunud. Nähes hädaolukorda, hüppas laevafirma Patrick McGunigal üle parda, et vabastada meeskonnaliige õhupalli korvist, selleks ajaks ümberpööratud ja vee all. Oma kangelasliku tegevuse eest pälvis McGunigal I maailmasõja esimese aumärgi. Ώ ] Päev pärast päästmist anti kolonn Euroopa vetes Ameerika hävitajate kätte ja Huntington aurutatud tagasi Hampton Roadsile, saabudes 30. septembril.

Pärast täiendamist Norfolkis Huntington purjetas 5. oktoobril New Yorki, et eemaldada tema katapult ja vesilennukid. Ta alustas tööd 27. oktoobril ja saabus kaks päeva hiljem Halifaxisse, Nova Scotiasse, et alustada USA kõrgetasemelist komisjoni, et pidada liitlastega nõu. Aastal astusid presidendi saadik, kolonel Edward M. House'i admiral William S. Benson, kindral Tasker H. Bliss ja teised kõrged esindajad. Huntington, saabudes 7. novembril Inglismaale Davenporti, kus peavad kohtuma Briti ametnikud. Huntington väljus Hampton Roads'i kaudu New Yorki, saabudes 27. novembril.

Seejärel naasis ristleja olulise kohustuse juurde eskortida väekolonne ja varusid Euroopasse, tehes üheksa sellist reisi Euroopasse ja tagasi 19. veebruarist kuni 13. novembrini 1918. Lisaks Huntington tegi kolm rannikukonvoi läbipääsu New Yorgist Hampton Roadsini. Ta sisenes 17. novembril Brooklyni mereväe õue, et minna üle väetranspordiks.



USS Lääne-Virginia Teise maailmasõja lõpus Jaapanis Sagami Wanis. Taustal on Fujiyama mägi.
Foto viisakalt
Naval Imaging Command


USS Lääne-Virginia
Pearl Harboris
teel mandrile,
Oktoober 1945


USS Lääne-Virginia pukseeritakse
Bremertoni laevatehastesse päästmiseks


USS relvade põletamine Lääne-Virginia
Foto viisakalt Todd Pacific Shipyardsist


Lahtivõtmine
USS Lääne-Virginia


USSi mast Lääne-Virginia
Lääne -Virginia ülikool

Avaldatud allikad

Myron J. Smith, juunior, The Mountain State Battleship: USS Lääne-Virginia. Richwood, WV: Lääne -Virginia pressiklubi, 1981.


1930ndatel aastatel, Lääne-Virginia osales iga -aastastel laevastikuõppustel ja kuuel korral pälvis "lihapalli" ehk lahingutõhususe vimpli - au, mis anti lahingulaevale, kes saavutas parima tulemuse relvastuses, kommunikatsioonis ja inseneriteaduses.


Ümbrik USA laevastikust,
Suvikruiis, 1938


USS Lääne-Virginia pesapallimeeskond, 1938


Meeskonnaliikmed
Foto viisakalt
Chester Elliott


Nooremohvitserid Mess
Pearl Harbor
11. mai 1940


Top 16 16 "relvatorn, 1940
Foto viisakalt B. A. Hannah


Golden Gate'i sild
Foto viisakalt
Chester D. Elliott

1936. aastal nimetati Seattle'i lähedal asuv mahajäetud armee post ümber Camp West Virginia laagriks ja seda kasutati USS -i meeste nädalavahetusel puhkamiseks. Lääne-Virginia. Mõnele laagrilisele meeldis ujumine, kalapüük, hobuserauad, matkamine, pehmepall, võrkpall, korvpall, bowling ja tennis, teised aga kasutasid aega ainult lõõgastumiseks.


Mitteametlikud pildid
Lääne -Virginia laager


James McNally, CS divisjon



USS Cony paneb ümber suitsukate Lääne-Virginia off Leyte, 20. oktoober 1944
Foto viisakalt Rahvusarhiivist


Kaplan palvetab
ohutus vaenlase tule eest
Foto viisakalt H. E. Wiggins


5 -tollised relvad Leytes
Foto viisakalt H. E. Wiggins


Hiiglaslikud 16 -tollised relvad kostuvad avamisetapil Leyte kaugete sihtmärkide suunas
Filipiinide kampaaniast,
19. oktoober 1944


USS Lääne -Virginia oma 16 "relvad
Foto viisakalt
H. E. Higgins


Jaapani kamikaze tabas Austraalia ristlejat, nagu USS -ist näha Lääne-Virginia
Foto viisakalt H. E. Higgins


Teel Lingayeni lahele, et osaleda Luzoni sissetungis
Foto viisakalt Rahvusarhiivist


Miinide lõikamise seade
Foto viisakalt
H. E. Higgins


USS Lääne-Virginia
läheneb Iwo Jimale
Foto viisakalt
H. E. Higgins


Jaapani enesetapulennuk tulistas USS -i rünnates alla Lääne-Virginia
Foto viisakalt H. E. Wiggins


USS Lääne-Virginia aprillil Okinawas, 1. aprillil 1945 tabas laeva kamikaze
Foto viisakas Charles Haught

1903. tunni ajal lähenesid laevale kolm vaenlase lennukit. Üks kukkus sisse Lääne-Virginia, tappes neli ja haavates seitset meremeest. Kuigi lennukiga kaasas olnud pomm murdus oma ahelast lahti ja tungis teisele tekile, ei plahvatanud see ja pommi kõrvaldamise ametnik muutis selle kahjutuks. Surnud maeti merele ja laev jätkas lühikese aja jooksul tuletoetust. Järgmise paari kuu jooksul on Lääne-Virginia pakkus Okinawas armee ja merejalaväelaste toetuseks valgustust ja vastupatareid, lõhkus Jaapani vägede koondumised ja hävitas koopad, mis vaenlast varjasid.


USS -i kahjustused Lääs
Virginia
kamikaze rünnakuga
Foto viisakalt H. E. Wiggins


Rahulepingu allkirjastamine USS -iga
Lääne-Virginia taustal
Foto viisakalt Ed Rothilt


Klõpsake kuupäeval/kellaajal, et näha faili sel ajal ilmunud kujul.

Kuupäev KellaaegPisipiltMõõtmedKasutajaKommenteeri
praegune09:23, 20. juulil 201912 308 × 8 705 (9,63 MB) USA rahvusarhiivi robot (arutelu | kaastööd) USA rahvusarhiivi Identiferi 86752334 robotipõhine üleslaadimine.

Te ei saa seda faili üle kirjutada.


Lääne -Virginia ajaloo ajaskaala

Pakub Lääne -Virginia ajaloo oluliste kuupäevade, sündmuste ja verstapostide kronoloogilist ajakava.

Küngaste ehitajad olid esimesed teadaolevad elanikud. Esimeste eurooplaste saabudes oli piirkond aga enamasti asustamata, toimides asunike ja põlisameeriklaste ühise jahimaana (ja seega ka lahinguväljana).

Kui Virginia osariik hääletas kodusõja ajal (1861–65) USA-st lahkumise poolt, olid osariigi karmi ja mägise läänepiirkonna inimesed otsusele vastu ning organiseerusid toetama oma osariiki Lääne-Virginiat. liidu pädevusse. Kongress andis 20. juunil 1863 Lääne -Virginiale omariikluse.

17. sajandi Lääne -Virginia ajaloo ajaskaala

1607 - Inglismaa asutatud Virginia koloonia

  • Koloonia kuberneri William Berkeley palgatud John Ledererist sai esimene eurooplane, kes vaatas Lääne -Virginiat.
  • Robert Cavelier ja Sieur de La Salle uurisid Ohio jõge ja maandusid mitmes kohas Lääne -Virginias

1670ndad - Algab Lääne -Virginia uurimine

1671 - Thomas Batts ja Robert Fallam avastavad veed, mis voolavad lääne suunas Ohio jõkke, ja aitavad luua inglise nõudeid Ohio orule

18. sajandi Lääne -Virginia ajaloo ajaskaala

1712 - Parun Christopher de Graffenreid siseneb Ida -Panhandle'i

1716 - kuberner. Alexander Spotswood siseneb Lääne -Virginiasse Shenandoah jõe kallastele.

1719 - Presbüterlased asutasid Lääne -Virginias esimese kiriku, Shepherdstowni Potomoke kiriku.

  • Virginia valitsus asutajaid julgustades lubab peredel elada kümme aastat riigile kuuluval maal üürivabalt
  • Iroquois alistub väidetele, et maandub Ohio jõest lõunasse lisaks maakondadele idapoolses käepidemes.
  • Karusnahakaupmehed uurisid Lääne -Apalatše.
  • Lääne -Virginia põhjaosa uuris kaupleja John Van Nehne

1727 - Asustus New Mecklenburgis (Shepherdstown), mille asutasid Pennsylvania sakslased.

  • Virginia hakkas julgustama asumist Virginia lääneorgu
  • Maa -toetusi Lääne -Virginias antakse Isaacile ja John Van Meterile.

1731 - Morgan Morgan rajab esimese asula praeguses Lääne -Virginias Bunker Hilli lähedal Berkeley maakonnas.

  • Šoti-iiri, kõmri ja saksa pioneerid asustavad Virginia lääneosa.
  • Harperi parvlaev jäi elama.
  • Söe, mille avastasid John Howard ja John Peter Salley (Salling) Coal Riveris Racine'i lähedal.
  • Esimene raudahi Blue Ridge'ist läänes Bloomery'is Shenandoahi jõel, mille ehitas Thomas Mayberry.

1744 - Territoorium Allegheny mägede ja Ohio jõe vahel, mille inglased andsid Kuue Rahva India indiaanlased.

  • George Washington uurib Lord Fairfaxi leidmiseks Lääne -Virginia maad.
  • Algus "Harpers Ferry" viib reisijaid üle Shenandoahi jõe.
  • Esimene registreeritud asula Allegheniesest lääne pool Marlintonis, mille tegid Jacob Marlin ja Stephen Sewell
  • Ohio Company saab toetust 500 000 aakrit
  • Celeron de Bienville'i prantsuse väiteid kinnitasid Ohio jõe äärde maetud pliidiplaadid
  • Ohio kindlus, mis on ehitatud Ridgeley'sse, praegu Mineral County.
  • Greenbrieri orgu ja Kentuckyt läbi Cumberlandi lünga uuris Thomas Walker lojaalsest ettevõttest.

1754 - 1763 - Prantsuse ja India sõda

1754 - 13. detsember - Hampshire'i maakond, mis loodi Augustast, moodustus ka Fredericki krahvkond.

  • Kindral Braddock alistas Pittsburghis prantslased ja indiaanlased pärast rännakut idas
  • Fort Ashby ehitati praegusesse mineraalimaakonda.
  • 3. juuli - Shawnee indiaanlased ründasid New Riveris Draperi niitudel asulat, peaaegu kõik tapeti või võeti kinni.

1757 - Hampshire'i maakond korraldatud.

1758 - Morgantown asus elama.

1762 - 23. detsember - Romney ja Mecklenburg (hiljem Shepherdstown) loodi, kui Virginia kuberner asutamislepingule alla kirjutas.

  • Harperi parvlaev on ühendatud.
  • Briti valitsus keelab Allegheniesest läänes asuvate maade hõivamise.

1764 - Kindral Horatio Gates asub Jeffersoni maakonda.

1765 - Clarksburg asus elama.

  • Mason-Dixon Line'i uuring ulatub läänepiirini Marylandi ja Lääne-Virginia vahel.
  • Delaware ja Mingo indiaanlased hävitasid 1766–1767 Zackquill Morgani (Morgan Morgani poeg) asutatud Morgantowni kogukonna.

1767 - Ice's Ferry, Monongalia maakond, Frederick Ice. Fredericki poeg Adam Ice oli esimene valge laps, kes sündis Monongahela orus.

  • Iroquois loovutab maad Little Kanawha jõest põhja pool brittidele Fort Stanwixi lepingus.
  • Esimene registreeritud Ohio jõe üleujutus.
  • Williamstowni asutas Isaac Williams

1770 - "Harewood", kolonel Samuel Washingtoni kodu, ehitati Jeffersoni maakonda Charles Town'i lähedale.

1771 - maagaasi avastab John Floyd Kanawha orus.

  • George R. Clarki uuritud Ohio ja Kanawha jõed.
  • Veebruar - Fredericki maakonnast loodi Berkeley maakond.
  • Simon Kenton ja seltskond veetsid talve Charlestoni lähedal Põdrajõel.
  • Esimene püsiv inglise asukas Kanawha maakonnas, Cedar Grove Kelly's Creeki suudmes, on William Morris, Sr.
  • Fort Fincastle (ümbernimetatud Henryks, 1776) ehitati Wheelingis.
  • Pricketi kindlus ehitati Fairmonti lähedale.
  • 10. oktoober - Point Pleasant'i lahing (Lord Dunmore'i sõda) Virginia asunike ja miilitsa ning Shawnee, Delaware'i, Wyandot'i, Cayuga ja teiste India hõimude konföderatsiooni vahel Cornstalki juhtimisel.

1775 - Charlestoni lähedalt avastati gaas.

  • Lääne -Virginia esitas kontinentaalsele kongressile avalduse eraldi valitsuse saamiseks
  • Oktoober - Virginia peaassamblee asutas Bathi linna (Berkeley Springs).
  • Oktoober - Lääne -Augusta rajoonist moodustati Ohio ja Monongalia maakond.
  • India sõda algab
  • September - indiaanlased piirasid edutult Fort Henry.
  • 10. november - pealikud Cornstalk, tema poeg ja pealik Red Hawk mõrvati valgete poolt Fort Randolphis.
  • Oktoober - Greenbrieri maakond loodi Montgomery maakonna Botetourtist.
  • Martinsburgi pani paika Adam Stephen,
  • Wheelingis peeti revolutsioonilise sõja lahing
  • Briti ja indiaanlased ründasid Fort Henry kindlust.
  • 10. september - Fort Henry piiramine (teine).

1783 - Allegheny mägedest läänes asuvad asunikud üritavad luua uue osariigi "Westsylvania"

  • James Rumsey eksponeerib Lääne -Virginias Bathis oma "mehaanilist paati"
  • Masoni ja Dixoni liin nõustus Virginia-Pennsylvania piiriks.
  • Juuli - Monongalia maakonnast loodi Harrisoni maakond.
  • Esimene protestantlik kirik Allegheniesest läänes, Rehobothi kirik, mis on ehitatud Unioni lähedale Monroe maakonnas.
  • Andrew Ice käivitas esimese lubatud parvlaeva Lääne -Virginias.
  • 10. detsember - Hampshire'i maakonnast loodi Hardy maakond.
  • Oktoober - Virginia peaassamblee rentis Charles Town'i.
  • Oktoober - Harrisoni maakonnast loodi Randolphi maakond.
  • Esimene trükis trükitud Shepherdstowni osariigis, voldik James Rumsey, Lühike käsitlus auru rakendamisest.
  • Virginia ratifitseeris föderaalse põhiseaduse
  • 14. november - Greenbrieri ja Montgomery maakonnast loodi Kanawha maakond
  • Pendletoni maakond loodi Augusta, Hardy ja Rockinghami maakonnast.
  • Esimene püsiasula, mis ehitati Charlestoni.
  • Daniel Boone tellis Kanawha miilitsa kolonelleitnandi.
  • Tee Winchesterist jõuab Clarksburgi.
  • Esimene ajaleht, avaldatud Shepherdstownis, "Potomaki eestkostja ja Berkeley reklaamija", autor Nathaniel Willis.
  • USA rahvaloenduse elanikkond: 55 873.

1791 - Daniel Boone valiti Virginia assamblee delegaadiks.

1792 - 30. juuni - Esimene postkontor asutati Martinsburgis.

  • Esimene raudahi, mis asub läänes Allegheniesest King's Creekis, ehitas Peter Tarr.
  • "Mad Anthony" Wayne'i võit Fallen Timbersil (Ohio) peatab indiaanlaste rünnakud.
  • 19. detsember - Virginia peaassamblee asutas Charlestowni (Charleston).

1795 - Daniel Boone lahkub Kanawha orust.

1796 - 30. november - Ohio maakonnast loodi Brooke'i maakond

  • Teine Lääne -Virginia ajaleht ,. Erapooletu vaatleja, asutatud Shepherdstownis.
  • Esimene Lääne -Virginias trükitud raamat, Kristlik paanika trükitud Erapooletu vaatleja
  • Harman Blennerhassett ostab saare Ohio jões Parkersburgis.
  • 21. detsember - Harrisoni maakonnast loodi Woodi maakond.
  • Mecklenburg nimetas Virginia Assamblee ümber Shepherdstowniks.

1799 - 14. jaanuar - Greenbrieri maakonnast loodud Monroe maakond.

  • 78 000 inimest Lääne -Virginias, 35 000 Allegheniesest läänes. Olemas 13 maakonda, 8 postkontorit ja 19 asutatud linna.

19. sajandi Lääne -Virginia ajaloo ajaskaala

1801 - 8. jaanuar - Jeffersoni maakond loodi Berkeley maakonnast.

1803 - Esimene ajaleht Allegheniesest läänes on Monongalia väljaanne ja Morgantowni reklaamija.

1804 - 2. jaanuar - Kanawha maakonnast loodi Masoni maakond.

1805 - Harman Blennerhassett ja Aaron Burr plaanisid vallutada USA territooriumi Blennerhasseti saarel Ohio jõest lõuna pool.

1806 - Esimene soolakaev puuriti Great Kanawha orus

1807 - Wheelingi esimene ajaleht Hoidla, avaldatud.

1808 - Lewisburgi akadeemia (hiljem Greenbrieri sõjakool) avab oma uksed poistele

1809 - 2. jaanuar - Kanawha maakonnast loodi Cabelli maakond.

  • Lääne -Virginia protesteerib ebavõrdset esindatust Virginia seadusandlikus kogu.
  • Õli avastatud.
  • Parkersburg võttis kasutusele uue nime, varem tuntud kui Newport ja Stokeleyville.
  • Clarksburgi esimene ajaleht ,. Hüvasti, Stander, avaldatud.
  • 16. detsember - Ohio maakonnast loodi Tyleri maakond.
  • Wheelingis asutatud Linsly instituut.
  • Morgantownis asutati Monongalia Akadeemia.

1815 - Maagaas, mille avastas James Wilson Charlestonis.

1816 - 18. detsember - Lewise maakond loodi Harrisoni maakonnast.

  • Korraldati esimene usaldus USA -s Kanawha Salt Company.
  • Avaneb esimene pank, Virginia loodepank.
  • Cumberland Road (või National Road) valmis Marylandist Cumberlandist Wheelingini.
  • 19. jaanuar - Monongalia maakonnast loodi Prestoni maakond.
  • 30. jaanuar - Nicholase maakond loodi Greenbrierist, Kanawha, Randolphi maakond
  • Charles Town nimetas ümber Charlestoniks.
  • Fairmontis avatakse esimene kaubanduslik söekaevandus.
  • Märts - Morgani maakond loodi Hampshire'i maakonnast Berkeley'st.
  • Charlestoni esimene ajaleht ,. Kenawha pealtvaataja, avaldatud.

1821 - 21. detsember - Pocahontase maakond loodi Bathist, Pendleton, Randolphi maakond.

1823 - Esimene religioosne ajaleht, "Kristlik baptist" alustab avaldamist.

1824 - 12. jaanuar - Cabelli, Gilesi, Kanawha ja Tazewelli maakonnast loodi Logani maakond.

1825 - Marquis de Lafayette saabub Wheelingisse

1829 - Virginia maakonnad Allegheny mägedest läänes protestivad põhiseaduse vastu, mis soosib orjapidajaid.

1830 - Lääne -Virginia eraldamine Ida -Virginiast Wheeling Gazette

  • Virginia poliitilist lõhestumist suurendavad orjaarutelud
  • Fayette'i maakond loodi Greenbrieri, Kanawha, Logani ja Nicholase maakonnast
  • 1. märts - Jacksoni maakond loodi Kanawha, Masoni ja Woodi maakonnast.

1833 - Kooleraepideemia Wheelingi piirkonnas, tappes ühe päeva jooksul 23 inimest.

1834 - Esimene kaubanduslik söefirma Ohio kaevandusettevõttes Kanawha orus

  • 12. märts - Ohio maakonnast loodi Marshalli maakond.
  • 14. oktoober - Wheeling, John Templeton, John Moore, Stanley Cuthbert ja Ellen Ritchie süüdistatakse mustanahaliste lugemise ebaseaduslikus õpetamises.
  • Esimene raudtee jõudis Harpers Ferry osariiki.
  • Ratas kaasatud.
  • 15. jaanuar - Braxtoni maakond loodi Kanawha, Lewise ja Nicholase maakonnast.
  • 17. märts - Tazewelli maakonnas Gilesist loodud Merceri maakond.
  • Marshalli akadeemia (Marshalli ülikool) asutati Guyandotte'is (Huntington).

1838 - 4. aprill - Virginia Assamblee loodud Beckley linn.

1840 - Bethany College, Lääne-Virginia vanim kraadi andev kolledž, mille asutas Alexander Campbell.

1841 - Staunton-Parkersburg Turnpike valmis

1842 - 18. jaanuar - Cabelli maakonnast loodud Wayne'i maakond Marioni maakond, mis loodi Harrisoni ja Monongalia maakonnast.

  • 3. märts - Barbouri maakond loodi Harrisonist, Lewise ja Randolphi maakonnast
  • 18. veebruar - Harri, Lewise ja Woodi maakonnast loodi Ritchie maakond.
  • Fairmont on nii nime saanud.

1844 - 19. jaanuar - Taylori maakond loodi Barbourist, Harrisonist ja Marioni maakonnast.

1845 - 4. veebruar - Harrisonist, Lewise, Ritchie ja Tyleri maakonnast loodud Doddridge'i maakond, Kanawha ja Lewise maakonnast loodud Gilmeri maakond.

1846 - 10. jaanuar - Tyleri maakonnast loodi Wetzeli maakond.

  • 11. märts - Cabelli, Kanawha ja Logani maakonnast loodi Boone'i maakond.
  • Esimene telegraafiliin jõuab Lääne -Virginiasse Wheelingis.
  • 15. jaanuar - Brooke maakonnast loodi Hancocki maakond
  • 11. märts - Putnimi maakond loodi Cabelli, Kanawha ja Masoni maakonna järgi
  • 19. jaanuar - Jacksonist ja Woodi maakonnast loodi Wirti maakond.

1849 - 30. oktoober - Ratasild valmis. (1849–1851, maailma pikim sild) hävitati 1854.

  • Reformikonverents toimub Richmondis
  • 23. jaanuar - Fayette'i maakonnast loodi Raleighi maakond
  • 26. jaanuar - Logani maakonnast loodi Wyomingi maakond.
  • Joseph Johnsonist, Bridgeportist saab ainus Virginia kuberner, kes valiti rahvahääletusel ja on pärit osariigi lääneosast.
  • Uus põhiseadus annab Lääne -Virginiale järeleandmisi.
  • 26. märts - Upshuri maakond loodi Barbourist, Lewise ja Randolphi maakonnast
  • Ritchie, Tyleri ja Woodi maakonnast loodud meeldivate maakond.
  • Wheelingis asutatud vanim päevaleht, Intelligents
  • 24. detsember - B & ampO Railroad valmis Wheelingini.

1854 - suure tuule tõttu hävitatud ratasild.

  • 5. märts - Gilmeri maakonnast loodi Calhouni maakond.
  • 7. märts - Randolphi maakonnast loodi Tuckeri maakond.
  • 11. märts - Roane'i maakond loodi Gilmeri, Jacksoni ja Kanawha maakonnast.

1857 - B & ampO Railroad jõuab Parkersburgi.

  • 28. veebruar - Tazewelli maakonnast loodi McDowelli maakond.
  • 29. märts - Braxtoni ja Nicholase maakonnast loodi savi maakond.
  • Woodburni naisseminar, mis asub Morgantownis.
  • Rathbone Well, esimene edukas õlikaev, mis puuriti Wirti maakonnas Burning Springs Runil.
  • Martinsburg liideti.
  • 16. oktoober - John Brown ja kakskümmend kaks järgijat ründasid Harpers Ferry juures USA föderaalarsenali, et õhutada orjade ülestõusu ja lõpetada orjus.
  • 2. detsember - John Brown poos Charles Townis üles.
  • USA rahvaloenduse elanikkond Charlestonis: 1520.
  • Burning Springsis puuritud kaubanduslik õlikaev.
  • Websteri maakond loodi Braxtoni, Nicholase ja Randolphi maakonna järgi.
  • Kodusõda: Lääne -Virginia panustab liidu armeesse umbes 32 000 ja Konföderatsiooni umbes 10 000 sõduriga.
  • Philippi lahing tähistab kodusõja esimest maavõitlust.
  • Liidu võidud sunnivad Konföderatsiooni Monongahela ja Kanawha orudest välja.
  • 17. aprill - Virginia osariigi konventsioon hääletas rahvahääletusel heakskiidu saamise eesmärgil.
  • Mai - 15. mai - 25 maakonna delegaadid kogunesid esimese ratta kokkutulekul, keeldudes liidust lahkuminekust.
  • 23. mai - Virginia eraldumismäärus ratifitseeriti, kuid lääne maakondade enamus väljendas vastuseisu.
  • 11. -25. Juuni - teine ​​Wheelingi konventsioon: Lääne -Virginia maakonnad keeldusid Virginiast eraldumast ja lõid Wheelingis Virginia taastatud valitsuse.
  • 6. august - teise rataste konvent kogunes uuesti.
  • 20. august - teise rataste konvent võttis vastu tükeldamismääruse, mis näeb ette uue riigi moodustamise, mille nimi on Kanawha.
  • 10. september - Carnifexi praami lahing
  • 11. - 13. september - Pettusmäe lahing
  • 24. oktoober - Avalik rahvahääletus, valijad toetavad uue riigi loomist, mille nimi on Kanawha.
  • 1. - 1. november - kindral John B. Floydi väed ründasid Gauley silla juures Rosecransi jänke
  • 6. november - Droopi mäe lahing
  • 11. november - Guyandotte, Cabelli maakond, põletasid liidu väed kättemaksuks konföderatsiooni ratsaväe rünnaku eest.
  • 26. november - Teine Wheelingi konventsioon kogunes uuesti, muutis uue osariigi nime Lääne -Virginiaks, hakkas koostama põhiseadust ja laiendas piire.
  • 1. oktoober - 3. Lääne -Virginia ratsaväekompanii A - värvatud peamiselt Morgantownist, koondatud Wheelingisse
  • 21. detsember - 3. Lääne -Virginia ratsaväekompanii A - kogunes Brandonville'i
  • Jaanuar - Lääne -Virginia Parkersburgi värvikooli juhatus, mille moodustasid seitse meest ja korraldas päevakooli mustadele lastele Esimene mustanahaliste avalik kool.
  • Aprill - Valijad kiitsid heaks Lääne -Virginia uue põhiseaduse.
  • 13. mai - (taastatud) Virginia seadusandja andis ametliku nõusoleku uue riigi moodustamiseks.
  • 23. mai - Liidu väed võitsid Lewisburgis konföderatsiooni.
  • 29. mai - Ameerika Ühendriikide senaator William T. Willey esitles Ameerika Ühendriikide senatile mälestusmärki, milles palus moodustada uut riiki ja taotles selle vastuvõtmist liitu.
  • 14. juuli - Senat võttis vastu Lääne -Virginia osariigi seaduse eelnõu, muutes Lääne -Virginia põhiseaduse orjuse sätet, et võimaldada orjuse järkjärgulist emantsipatsiooni.
  • 13. september - Charlestoni lahing, linn, mille okupeerisid liidu väed.
  • 31. detsember - President Lincoln kiitis heaks liitu vastuvõtmise akti, mis jõustub pärast seda, kui osariigi põhiseadusesse lisatakse klausel, mis näeks ette orjade järkjärgulise emantsipatsiooni.
  • Parkersburg liideti.
  • 20. aprill - president Lincoln avaldas väljakuulutamise
  • 27. aprill - Konföderatsiooni kindral William Jones üritas põletada rippsilla üle Monongahela jõe.
  • 29. aprill - Jones võitis Fairmontis liidu vägesid
  • 20. juuni - Lääne -Virginia võeti liitu 35. osariigiks, esimeseks kuberneriks Arthur I. Boreman Parkersburgist.
  • 15. juuli - seadus, mis andis mustanahalistele samad õigused kriminaalmenetlusele kui valgetele, kuid kiideti heaks õigus žüriis teenida.
  • 7. august - Moorefieldi lahing
  • 26. september - riigipitsat
  • 26. september - sõjaväe harjas
  • 26. september - Vapp
  • Charlestonis avatakse esimene tasuta riigikool.
  • 3. veebruar - kuberner kiitis heaks orjuse kaotamise seaduse ja näeb ette kõigi orjade emantsipatsiooni.
  • 9. aprill - kodusõda lõppes.
  • 23. juuni - 3. Lääne -Virginia ratsavägi lõpetas teenistused
  • Osariigi põhiseadus keelab kodakondsuse ja valimisõiguse kõigile isikutele, kes olid toetanud Konföderatsiooni.
  • Osariigi vanglakaristus asub Moundsville'is.
  • Mineraalide maakond, mis loodi Hampshire'i maakonnast Grant'i maakond loodi Hardy maakonnast.
  • Hullumeelsete haigla valmis Westonis
  • 24. mai - valijad ratifitseerisid põhiseaduse muudatuse, millega keelatakse kodakondsus kõigil, kes on abistanud konföderatsiooni.
  • Lääne -Virginia põllumajanduskool Morgantownis.
  • Lincolni maakond loodi Boone'ist, Cabellist, Kanawhast, Putnami maakonnast.
  • Asutati Fairmont State College.
  • Jeffersoni maakonnas Harpers Ferry'is avati Storeri kolledž, üks riigi esimesi mustade kolledžeid.
  • 16. jaanuar - seadusandja ratifitseeris USA põhiseaduse neljateistkümnenda muudatuse.
  • Ainult osariigi rahvuslik kalmistu asutati Taylori maakonnas Graftonis.
  • Lääne -Virginia põllumajanduskolledž nimetas ümber Lääne -Virginia ülikooliks.
  • 10. veebruar - Charleston nimetas valitsuse asukoha
  • March - Preston County Courthouse burns
  • March 23 - West Virginia State Senate ratifies the Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution
  • Charleston incorporated.
  • 1870 census population: 442,014.
  • School for the Deaf and Blind established at Romney.
  • Huntington founded as the western terminus of the C&O Railroad
  • West Liberty State College established.
  • April 1 - State capitol moved from Wheeling to Charleston.
  • Flick Amendment to the state constitution adopted, granting suffrage to all male citizens regardless of race.
  • Summers county created from Fayette, Greenbrier, Mercer, and Monroe county.
  • April 27 - Citizenship restored to all persons stripped of their voting privileges in 1866.
  • C&O Railway completes its line across the state
  • Kanawha Chronicle (now the Charleston Gazette) established.
  • Joseph Harvey Long purchases the Huntington Herald and installed and operated the first stereotype and linotype.
  • March 12 - Governor approves acts that only white males over the age of 21 could serve on juries.
  • June 11 - Charleston Mayor Snyder and city council appoint Ernest Porterfield as a police officer, the first black to receive a public job in Kanawha County

1875 - State capital moved to Wheeling.

1876 - Broaddus College moves from Winchester, Virginia, to Clarksburg.

  • July - Governor Mathews sends the state militia to Martinsburg, where B&O Railroad workers are interfering with train movements to no avail. Federal troops dispatched to break the first national labor strike that also included Maryland, Missouri, Pennsylvania, and New York.
  • August 7 - Public referendum on permanent site of the capital Charleston, Clarksburg, or Martinsburg
  • First oil pipeline completed, running from Volcano to Parkersburg
  • Manufacture of Mail Pouch tobacco at Wheeling by Bloch brothers.
  • Telephone line installed in Wheeling between the two Behrens grocery stores
  • October - Taylor Strauder decision, US Supreme Court found the West Virginia law forbidding blacks from serving on juries to be unconstitutional
  • First major coal strike results in Governor Mathews sending militia to Hawks Nest
  • 1880 census population: 618,457.
  • Telephone exchange installed in Wheeling
  • June 22 - Beckley's first newspaper, the Raleigh County Index (later the Raleigh Register), begins publishing.

1881 - February 3 - Governor approves a bill allowing all eligible voting citizens, including blacks, to be jurors.

  • Wheeling electric light plant begins operation.
  • Telephone exchange installed in Parkersburg.
  • Twenty-year-long Hatfield-McCoy feud erupts.
  • N&W Railroad brings railway service to counties in southern West Virginia .
  • First long distance line in the state constructed, to connect Wheeling to Pittsburgh.
  • Telephone exchange installed in Charleston.
  • Ohio River floods Huntington.
  • Telephone exchanges are installed in Huntington and Moundsville.
  • Charleston becomes the permanent state capital.
  • The National Gas Company of West Virginia established
  • Mountain Brook mine disaster at Newburg claims 39 lives.
  • November 12 - Huntington get electric streetlights.

1887 - Huntington replaces Barboursville as the Cabell county seat.

  • Aretas Brooks Fleming, who appears to have lost the election for Governor by 130 votes to Nathan Goff Jr., contests the election.
  • Barboursville Seminary established at Barboursville.
  • Salem Academy (later Salem College) established at Salem.
  • Faculty of West Virginia University votes to allow admission of women.
  • Drilling operations near Mannington initiate an oil boom
  • Huntington Advertiser begins publication.
  • United Mine Workers of America formed.
  • West Virginia Wesleyan College established at Buckhannon.
  • Office of the Inspector of Mines for the coal industry created.
  • Joseph Harvey Long starts the Wheeling News.
  • 1890 census population: 762,704. Largest cities are Wheeling, 34,522 Huntington, 10,108 Parkersburg, 8408 Martinsburg, 7226 and Charleston, 6742.
  • March 4 - State Legislature passed an act establishing the West Virginia Colored Institute at Institute (later West Virginia State College). Approved by the Governor on March 17.
  • November 28 - First intercollegiate football game at West Virginia U played, against Washington & Jefferson College.

1893 - The Huntington Herald, later the Herald-Dispatch, begins publication.

  • Mingo county created from Logan county.
  • February 21 - Legislature passes an act establishing the Bluefield Colored Institute (Bluefield State College).
  • George W. Atkinson elected Governor, first Republican governor since Reconstruction period.
  • Voters elected the first African-American to the legislature, Christopher Payne of Fayette County
  • October - 6. Rural free mail delivery begins in Charles Town, first in United States.
  • Mary Harris "Mother" Jones sent into West Virginia to organize miners
  • August 3 - "The Great Lewisburg Fire" causes significant damage.
  • December 16 - Public hanging at Ripley takes place, prompting the legislature to turn over the responsibility for executions to the state government. John Morgan was the last public hanging in West Virginia .
  • Spanish American War: West Virginia furnishes two regiments of volunteer infantry.
  • November 16 - Trial of Williams v. Board of Education of Tucker County began.
  • Fairmont incorporated.
  • October 10 - First state-sponsored execution in West Virginia takes place, at the state penitentiary in Moundsville.

20th Century West Virginia History Timeline

1900 - June 8 - The Raleigh Herald (later the Beckley Post-Herald) begins publishing.

  • Governor George W. Atkinson requests the Legislature to name a state flower.
  • Fayette County citizen Morris Harvey makes large gifts to Barboursville College, which changes its name to Morris Harvey College.

1902 - Mother Jones campaigns to unionize 7,000 miners in Kanawha Valley.

1903 - January 29 - Big Laurel (Rhodedendron Maximum) adopted as state flower.

1904 - Davis and Elkins College established at Elkins.

1905 - Morgantown incorporated.

  • January 4 - 22 are killed at Coaldale mine in Mercer County.
  • January 18 - 18 are killed at Detroit mine in Kanawha County.
  • February 8 - 23 are killed at Parral mine in Fayette County.
  • March 22 - 23 are killed at Century mine in Barbour County.
  • January 29 - 84 are killed at Stuart in Fayette County.
  • February 4 - 25 are killed at Thomas mine in Tucker county.
  • December 6 -362 are killed at Monongah in the worst mine disaster in US history.
  • White Sulphur Springs incorporated.
  • Beckley newspaper, The Messenger, kehtestatud.
  • January 12 - 67 killed at Switchback mine.
  • April 2 - Earthquake in Charles Town - Martinsburg area

1912-1921 - Conflicts between miners and mine owners over labor unions

  • Paint Creek-Cabin Creek miners strike to gain recognition of the United Mine Workers of America. On three separate occasions, Governor Glasscock declares martial law and sends in troops.
  • State prohibition becomes effective.
  • March 26 - 83 killed in mine disaster at Jed.
  • April 13 - Beckley fire.
  • September 21 - Mary Harris "Mother" Jones leads a march of miners' children through Charleston.
  • First units of the Greenbrier resort are built.
  • February 12 - Mary Harris "Mother" Jones leads a protest of conditions in the West Virginia mines and arrested.
  • March 27-30 - Thousands homeless in Huntington and Parkersburg after flooding by the Ohio River.
  • May 8 - Newly-elected Governor Hatfield released Mary Harris "Mother" Jones from jail.
  • April 28 - 192 killed in mine disaster at Eccles.
  • October 14 - A glass manufacturing plant, later part of the Owens-Illinois Company, begins operations in Huntington.
  • Supreme Court rules West Virginia owes Virginia more than $12.3 million as part of the state debt at the time of separation.
  • March 2 - 112 killed in mine disaster at Layland.

1916 - November - Amendment allowing suffrage for women rejected by voters.

  • US enters World War I. West Virginia Selective Service registrants number nearly 325,000. Over 45,000 see active service and 624 are killed in action.
  • May 26 - Department of Special Deputy Police, a wartime internal security force serving in the absence of the federalized West Virginia National Guard

1918 - Fire destroys the Charleston Gazette building at 909 Virginia St. , Charleston

  • Governor Cornwell discourages an armed miners' march by promising to address the miners' grievances.
  • March 31 - Governor Cornwell signs bill creating the Department of Public Safety (West Virginia State Police). The West Virginia State Police is the fourth oldest state police agency in the United States.
  • September - Miners march on Logan county to unseat Sheriff Don Chafin whose deputies assaulted and evicted union organizers who entered the county. The march was ended after federal military forces were activated at the request of Governor John J. Cornwell.
  • November - Nationwide coal strike.

1920:1921 - Coal wars in an effort to unionize West Virginia coal miners.

  • UMWA membership booms in Mingo County following the "Matewan Massacre."
  • John L. Lewis becomes President of the UMW
  • January - UMW moves its unionization campaign from Logan to Mingo County. Mother Jones delivers a speech of support.
  • April 12 - Hull of the second Lääne-Virginia (Battleship No. 48 to the Navy and Hull 211 to the builders) was laid down
  • May 19 - Matewan Chief of Police Sid Hatfield attempts to arrest detectives hired by coal operators to evict families of fired union miners from company housing. Ten people died including Matewan Mayor Cable C. Testerman. "Matewan Massacre" makes Sid Hatfield a folk hero to miners throughout the state and a national celebrity.
  • August 28 - Governor Cornwell requests federal troops to guard the mines of southern West Virginia .
  • September - Rioting in Williamson follows attempts to import strikebreakers into the area.
  • November 27 - Governor Cornwell proclaims martial law in Mingo County.
  • West Virginia miners fight with mine guards, police, and federal troops in a dispute over organizing unions.
  • KDKA, Pittsburgh broadcast first football game ever on radio. West Virginia University vs the University of Pittsburgh.
  • 3. jaanuar - State capitol at Charleston destroyed by fire.
  • May 12 - "Three Day's Battle" begins along both shores of the Tug River, with sniping by strikers at state police, deputies and coal company officials.
  • May 18 - Mingo County sheriff authorizes State Police Captain Brockus to assume responsibility for law enforcement in the county. "Volunteer state police" organized.
  • May 19 - Governor Morgan proclaims martial law in Mingo County. Major Thomas B. Davis, acting Adjutant General, named executive agent to administer the proclamation.
  • June 14 - Davis and Brockus lead state police and vigilantes in a raid on the Lick Creek tent colony, in retaliation for further sniping incidents. 47 strikers arrested.
  • July 1 - West Virginia becomes the first state to have a sales tax.
  • July 14 - US Senate Committee on Education and Labor begins a three-month investigation of the crises in West Virginia 's coal mining industry.
  • August 1 - Matewan Chief of Police Sid Hatfield shot and killed on the steps of the McDowell County Courthouse.
  • 7. august - One thousand miners present Governor Morgan with a resolution calling for an end to martial law in Mingo County.
  • August 21 - First unit of West Virginia National Guard -Company I, 150th Infantry - reactivated at Williamson.
  • 23. august - John H. Charnock appointed Adjutant General, replacing Major Davis.
  • August 25 - Governor Morgan asks President Harding for federal troops and military aircraft.
  • 3. september - Battle of Blair Mountain ends in cease fire.
  • September 4 - 10th US Infantry march up Hewitt Creek in Logan County and efforts to unionize the southern West Virginia coal fields ended.
  • Radio station WHD licensed to West Virginia University, became West Virginia's first radio station.
  • May - International Nickel Company plant begins operation in Huntington.
  • May - "Treason Trial" at Charles Town, Jefferson County, of union members accused of participating in the march on Logan and Battle of Blair Mountain.
  • September 22 - Martial law rescinded in Mingo County.

1923 - WSAZ - begins broadcasting at Pomeroy, Ohio. It later moved to Huntington.

  • April 28 -119 killed in mine disaster at Benwood9.
  • February 12 - Beckley's first daily newspaper, the Evening Post, begins publication.
  • April 1 - Strike begins against the coal operators in the north and lasted for three years.
  • Governor Morgan and his wife become the first residents of the present Governor's Mansion
  • Late March - Black leaders protest and prohibited the showing of D. W. Griffith's Birth of a Nation, scheduled to open at the Rialto Theatre in Charleston on April 1, on the grounds it violated a 1919 state law prohibiting any entertainment which demeaned another race
  • West wing of the present state capitol completed.
  • Sixth Street Bridge, opens in Huntington.
  • December 6 - Wheeling radio station WWVA signs on the air.
  • June 20 declared West Virginia Day
  • Fire destroys the temporary "pasteboard capitol," built after the old capitol burned in 1921.
  • April 30 - 97 killed in mine disaster at Everettville7.
  • October 12 - Charleston radio station WOBU (later WCHS) signs on the air.
  • January 10 - Minnie Buckingham Harper was appointed to the House of Delegates, becoming the first African-American woman to serve in a legislative body in the United States.
  • May - The Keith-Albee Theater opens in Huntington.

1929 - March 7 - State flag adopted.

1930 - March 30 - New-Kanawha Power Company breaks ground on the Hawks Nest Tunnel and Dam, part of the New River power project

1931 - December 10 - Two blacks accused of killing two white constables in Greenbrier County are lynched.

  • Democratic candidate for Governor, Herman G. Kump is elected.
  • Present state capitol dedicated.
  • March 18 - Mass murderer Harry Powers hanged.
  • Fall - Voters approve an amendment to the state Constitution to limit property taxes.
  • June 20 - New state capitol dedicated.
  • July 1 - Legislature abolishes the magisterial and independent school districts, merging them into 55 county school boards.
  • State prohibition law repealed.
  • First of more than 150 New Deal homestead communities established in Arthurdale, Preston County, by the Roosevelt Administration.
  • Morris Harvey College moves from Barboursville to Charleston.
  • State Constitution amended to allow home rule for cities with populations over 2,000.

1937 - January 26-27 - Huntington's worst flood paralyzes the entire city and leaves 6000 homeless. Parkersburg also flooded.

  • Tygart Dam on the Tygart River completed.
  • Mingo Oak, largest and oldest white oak tree in the US, declared dead and felled with ceremony.

1939 - West Virginia makes the final payment of its debt to Virginia.

  • January 10 - 91 killed in mine explosion at Bartley in McDowell County.
  • December 17 - 9 killed in a mine disaster in Raleigh.
  • US enters World War II.
  • First synthetic rubber plant in the US opens near Charleston.
  • December 19 - First German and Hungarian diplomats arrive at The Greenbrier.
  • During the war, 1700 persons from foreign countries were imprisoned at The Greenbrier.

1942 - February 6 - Governor Neely orders activation of West Virginia State Guard, an internal security force serving in the absence of the federalized National Guard.

  • US Supreme Court rules that schools cannot require students to recite the Pledge of Allegiance in West Virginia State Board of Education vs Barnett .
  • Salt deposits discovered in the northwestern West Virginia.

1944 - June 23 - North-central West Virginia battered by the Shinnston Tornado, killing 116.

  • Major chemical industries begin operating in the Ohio River valley.
  • August 15 - WCFC in Beckley, begins broadcasting.

1947 - State's coal production reaches 173.7 million tons, more than any previous year. More than 167,000 miners are employed.

  • March 7 - Sugar Maple (Acer saccarum) adopted as state tree
  • October 24 - WSAZ-TV in Huntington begin operations
  • Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) adopted as state bird.

1950 - Elizabeth Simpson Drewry of McDowell County serving until 1964 becomes the first black woman elected to the House of Delegates.

1951 - July 17 - Elizabeth Kee of Bluefield elected to complete the unexpired term of her husband, Rep. John Kee became the first woman in West Virginia history to serve in Congress.

  • Bluestone Dam on the New River completed.
  • Construction begins on the West Virginia Turnpike.
  • West Virginia Turnpike completed.
  • Law allowing blacks to attend state colleges and universities enacted.
  • Wheeling College founded.
  • August 15 - WCHS-TV at Charleston signs on the air.
  • Ravenswood aluminum plant opens.
  • November 6 - Voters approve jury service for women. Republican, Cecil H. Underwood elected Governor

1957 - George Howard Mitchell appointed the first black Assistant Attorney General.

1958 - December - James R. Jarrett named head basketball coach at Charleston High School, the first black in the state to be appointed head coach at a previously all-white public school

  • Operations begin at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Green Bank.
  • March 1 - 101st Special Forces Operational Detachment FC formed from existing units in the West Virginia Army National Guard.
  • John F. Kennedy defeats Hubert Humphrey in West Virginia
  • January 26 - Danny Heater, Burnsville High School scoring 135 points in a high school basketball game to earn him an entry in the Guinness Book of World Records.
  • Public Employees Retirement System, the Department of Natural Resources, the Air Pollution Control Commission, the Human Rights Commission, the Industrial Development Authority, and the Department of Commerce created.
  • World's largest movable radio telescope begins regular operations at Green Bank
  • Funds to supply birth control information and aid to welfare recipients approved.
  • February 28 - "The West Virginia Hills" adopted as state song. "West Virginia, My Home Sweet Home" and "This is My West Virginia"
  • March 8 - Old Gold and Blue adopted as state colors
  • Issuance by counties or municipalities of tax-exempt industrial development bonds approved.

1966 - Summersville Dam on the Gauley River dedicated.

  • Laws to control air and water pollution and strip mining were pass.
  • December 15 - Silver Bridge at Point Pleasant collapses, 46 killed.
  • Mass dismissals of state highway workers follow a strike for union recognition, all were reinstated who would return to work.
  • 20. novembril - 78 killed in explosions and fire in Farmington coal mine.
  • Former Governor W. W. "Wally" Barron sentenced to a five-year prison term for jury tampering.
  • November 19 - Strongest, most widely felt earthquake in West Virginia's history
  • 9. detsember - Tony Boyle reelected President of the UMWA. Twenty-two days later, his challenger, Jock Yablonski and his wife and daughter were murdered
  • December 30 - Coal Mine Health and Safety Act signed by Nixon.

1970 - 14. novembril - Southern Airways plane crashes killing almost the entire Marshall University football team, coaches, and other athletic department personnel, All 75 aboard were killed.

1971 - November 12 - Governor Arch Moore negotiates the end of a 44-day national coal strike.

  • Arch A. Moore, Jr. first governor of West Virginia to succeed himself since 1872.
  • 26. veebruar - Buffalo Creek coal waste dam collapses near Man. 125 people killed.
  • March 7 - Golden Delicious apple adopted as state fruit.
  • 22. detsember - Arnold Miller became the first native West Virginian to head the United Mine Workers (UMW) union. He appointed Levi Daniel president of District 29 in southern West Virginia, the first African-American district president in the history of the UMW.
  • Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) adopted as state fish
  • Black Bear (Ursus americanus) adopted as state animal.

1974 - September 12 - Kanawha County school board removes controversial textbooks and students at George Washington High School in Charleston walk out in protest.

1974-1975 - Coal miners staged a wildcat strike in support of the textbook critics crusading against what they considered to be unpatriotic and immoral textbooks.

1975 - Major resurgence in the state's coal industry.

  • Governor Arch Moore acquitted by a federal court of charges that he had accepted bribes.
  • Wildcat mine strike in Logan and spreads to eight other states.
  • Medical school established at Marshall University
  • 22. oktoober - New River Gorge Bridge near Fayetteville opens.
  • December - Strike shuts down coal mines (until March 1978).
  • State records its second successive record-breaking winter of bad weather.
  • April 27 - Scaffolding at cooling tower under construction at Willow Island (St. Marys) collapses, killing 51 men.

1980 - Governor John D. Rockefeller defeats Arch A. Moore

1981 - 8. juuni - Miners return after a 72-day strike.

1983 - July - Governor John D. Rockefeller IV imposes major cutbacks in state spending.

  • Fairmont native Mary Lou Retton became the first woman to win a gold medal in gymnastics at the Los Angeles Olympics.
  • Arch Moore wins third term as governor John D. Rockefeller elected to the US Senate.
  • 5. oktoober - Captain Jon A. McBride of Beckley in Raleigh County piloted the Challenger Space Shuttle on its first mission.
  • State lottery established
  • November 4-5 - Heavy flooding: Death toll - 47 (including 3 never found). Regionally, 71 were killed and damage was $1.2 billion.
  • Major oil spill on the Monongahela and Ohio rivers
  • 15. juuli - Portion of Interstate 64 opens in southern West Virginia.
  • Novembril - Radio telescope at Green Bank collapsed.
  • November 19 - West Virginia University football team has first undefeated season.
  • March 10 - Lithostrotionella, Chalcedony adopted as state gemstone
  • Former Governor Arch Moore pleads guilty to federal charges of extortion, mail and tax fraud, and obstruction of justice and sentenced to prison.

1992 - December - Marshall University Thundering Herd win the NCAA I-AA National Championship at Marshall Stadium.

1993 - March 12-14 - Snow storm paralyzes West Virginia

1995 - March 1 - Monarch Butterfly (Danaus plexippus) adopted as state butterfly

  • Coal industry sets a record for production with 174 million tons.
  • May - First woman to be nominated by major party, Charlotte Pritt wins the Democratic primary election for Governor.

1997 - Monongahela Silt Loam adopted as state soil.

1998 - November 3 - Marie Redd, a professor at Marshall University elected to the state senate from Cabell County, first female African-American to serve in the senate.

  • Homer Hickam, who grew up in the mining town of Coalwood in McDowell County and retired from NASA as a Payload Training Manager for the International Space Station, became a best-selling author with his book" Rocket Boys," upon which the award-winning 1999 motion picture "October Sky" was based.
  • august - Agriculture Secretary Glickman declares West Virginia a farm emergency area because of a drought.
  • September 1 - First National Bank of Keystone closed by the US Comptroller of the Currency, with $515 million in assets unaccounted for.

21st Century West Virginia History Timeline

  • January - Peace talks between Israel and Syria held at Shepherdstown.
  • August 25 - Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope dedicated.
  • Charleston-born composer George Crumb won a Grammy for Best Contemporary Composition. His work "Star-Child" was recorded with West Virginia Symphony Maestro Thomas Conlin conducting.
  • 8. juuli - 1200 to 1500 persons are left homeless in McDowell county as a result floods. Gov. Bob Wise declared a state of emergency in Wyoming, Mercer, Raleigh, Boone, Fayette, McDowell, Doddridge, and Summers counties.
  • Charleston native and George Washington High School graduate Jennifer Garner was awarded a Golden Globe for her performances on ABC's hit television drama "Alias."
  • May 5 - President Bush declares McDowell, Mingo, Wyoming, and Mercer counties disaster area following severe flooding.
  • 26. detsember - Andrew "Jack" Whittaker, Jr., claims a $112 million lottery prize in the Powerball Lottery.

2006 - 13 miners trapped in mine, one survived

  • Explosion at Massey Energy Co. mine killed 29 miners Sen. Robert Byrd died (longest-serving senator and longest-serving member in history of U.S. Congress -
  • Sen. Robert Byrd died (longest-serving senator and longest-serving member in history of U.S. Congress

2011 - $209 million in restitution, civil and criminal penalites by mine owner agreed to for mine explosion - largest settlement in a government investigation of a mine disaster

Sources include:
Jeff Miller's West Virginia Page
Martinsburg-Berkeley County
West Virginia History Center -
African-American History
West Virginia Tourism Wild & Wonderful


USS West Virginia

When the Japanese planes came swarming down on Pearl Harbor, the USS West Virginia, also known as “Wee Vee,” was situated among the outboard ships, which ended up absorbing most of the damage as compared to inboard ships such as the USS Tennessee.

As the bombs and torpedoes wreaked havoc at Pearl Harbor, the West Virginia was struck by torpedoes a total of nine times, a quarter of all torpedo strikes achieved by the Japanese on the fateful day of December 7th, 1941. Six of the torpedoes struck portside of the West Virginia, which was sitting in 40 feet of water. As water flooded in, causing the battleship to list 15 degrees, Lieutenant Commander John Harper jumped into action. He quickly ordered preventive measures that saved the USS West Virginia from capsizing.

Fires broke out across the ship, a result of both the explosives and the inferno caused by the destruction of the USS Arizona, which was leaking oil. This leakage can still be seen from the USS Arizona Memorial today, as drops of oil known as the “black tears of the Arizona” rise to the surface. As flames consumed Wee Vee, her crew sought safety aboard the USS Tennessee, directly inboard of the West Virginia. Immediately after regrouping, damage-control parties bravely set about efforts to save their ship. Using hoses from the Tennessee, they fought the flames consuming the ship. After burning for 30 hours, the West Virginia sank to the bottom, taking 66 sailors with her.

The water flooding the hull of the West Virginia was later pumped out, and the ship was refloated and patched up sufficiently to be able to travel to the Puget Sound Navy Yard, where she was completely refurbished and repaired. Ultimately, Wee Vee sailed back to Pearl Harbor—where she was nearly destroyed—and continued fighting in the Pacific for the remainder of World War II. After participating in various battles throughout the Pacific, the USS West Virginia was present in Tokyo Bay on September 2nd, 1945 for the formal surrender of the Japanese.


USS West Virginia (BB 48)

USS Lääne-Virginia (BB 48) was a Colorado Class battleship that was the most seriously damaged of the ships sunk at Pearl Harbor to return to combat duties, taking part in the last year of the war in the Pacific.

The Lääne-Virginia was laid down in 1920, launched in 1921 and was completed in 1923, at which date she was one of the most modern battleships in the world. She became the flagship of the Battleship Division of the Battle Fleet (Pacific fleet) in 1924. During the inter-war years her anti-aircraft guns were modified and her 3in guns were replaced with 5in/25 guns, giving her two different types of 5in gun as well as space for .50in calibre machine guns.

On 7 December 1941 the Lääne-Virginia was moored in position F-6 at Pearl Harbor, with the Tennessee inboard (between her and the quay). The Lääne-Virginia was hit by six 18in torpedoes and two bombs. The torpedo hits caused massive flooding but she was saved from capsizing partly by two seamen in Repair III who began to counterflood before receiving orders and partly by Lt. Claude V. Ricketts, the assistant fire control officer. The captain, Mervyn S. Bennion was mortally wounded by a bomb fragment from a hit on the Tennessee, and died just before fires forced the crew to abandon ship. Later in the day fire control parties volunteered to come back on board and the fires were out by the afternoon of 8 December. The Lääne-Virginia sank, but thanks to the efforts of her crew she didn't capsize.

Despite the heavy damage it was decided to try and save the ship. The holes in her side were patched, she was pumped out and on 17 May 1942 she was refloated. She reached dry dock on 9 June and underwent enough repairs to allow her to sail to Puget Sound Navy Yard, Washington State, under her own power.

The repairs took nearly three years to compete and amounted to a near-total rebuild. Her superstructure was almost totally rebuilt. The cage masts were replaced by shorter tower masts. The two funnels were gathered into one. Both the 5in/25 and 5in/51 guns were removed and replaced with dual purpose 5in/38 guns. A large number of 40mm Bofors guns and 20mm Oerlikon guns were added for close-in anti-aircraft fire.

The Lääne-Virginia finally re-joined the fleet in September 1944, in time to take part in the invasion of the Palau Islands. She then joined the Northern Attack Force Fire Support Group (FG78, Rear Admiral Weyler) for the return to the Philippines. The bombardment of targets on Leyte began on 19 October, and the troops landed on 20 October.

This meant that the Lääne-Virginia was present at the Battle of Surigao Strait (25 October 1944), the last clash between battleships. This was part of the Battle of Leyte Gulf, the Japanese surface fleet's last battle of the war. The Japanese hoped to draw the main American carriers and fast battleships away from Leyte Gulf. Other Japanese forces would then get into the gulf and cause havoc in the vulnerable invasion shipping.

Part of the plan worked. Admiral Halsey took his fast carriers north to intercept the Japanese carriers. This meant that the invasion fleets were protected by escort carriers and old battleships. The battleships were involved in the one-sided battle of Surigao Strait. Admiral Nishimura's Force C with two battleships, one cruiser and four destroyers came up against Admiral Kincaid's six old battleships, eight cruisers and a large force of destroyers and torpedo boats. By the time the Japanese came within gun range they were down to one battleship, one cruiser and one destroyer. The West Virginia's radar guided 16in guns were able to open fire at long range. The three more modernised battleships, West Virginia, Tennessee ja California fired 225 rounds of 14in and 16in shells, with the Lääne-Virginia responsible for 93 shells. The second Japanese battleship, Yamashiro, was sunk and the cruiser limped away only to be sunk later. The destroyer was the only Japanese ship to escape and she was sunk soon afterwards.

In November West Virginia, Colorado, New Mexico ja Maryland formed Task Group 77.2 (Rear Admiral Weyler). This group operated in Leyte Gulf in support of the ground troops. Pärast Maryland was damaged the remaining three ships became TG 77.12 (Read Admiral Ruddock). This group took part in the invasion of Mindoro (December 1944).

At the start of 1945 the battleship force was reorganised, ready for the invasion of Luzon via Lingayen Gulf (Operation Mike I). The Lääne-Virginia formed part of Unit 1, TG 77.2 (Oldendorf), along with Mississippi ja Uus -Mehhiko. The Lääne-Virginia spent most of January and the first half of February supporting the fighting on Luzon.

The Lääne-Virginia joined the fleet supporting the invasion of Iwo Jima on 19 February, just as the first landings were being made. She remained there until 4 March.

All ten active 'old' battleships came together to form Task Force 54 (Rear Admiral Deyo) for the invasion of Okinawa. This task force was split into five pairs. Lääne-Virginia ja Idaho formed Group 4. The pre-invasion bombardment began on 26 March. The American battleships came under attack from coastal batteries and more dangerously from kamikaze aircraft. The Lääne-Virginia was hit by one kamikaze aircraft on 1 April but the damage was minor (although four men were killed). The ship's crew were able to repair the damage and the ship stayed with the bombardment force. On 17 June the Lääne-Virginia was hit by another kamikaze, becoming the last battleship to be damaged in that way.

The Lääne-Virginia entered Tokyo Bay at the end of August and witnessed the surrender ceremony. She remained at Tokyo until 20 September and then began the journey back to the US. Three 'magic carpet' trips followed, taking troops from Pearl Harbor back to the US. After that the ship entered the mothball fleet, remaining in reserve until she was sold for scrap in 1959.