Lemmikloomad koloniaal -Ameerikas

Lemmikloomad koloniaal -Ameerikas


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Koloniaal -Ameerikas hoidsid kolonistid lemmikloomi samadel põhjustel, mis Euroopas: seltsiks ja koerte puhul kaitseks, jahipidamiseks ja karjatamiseks. Kassid kontrollisid kahjureid kodudes ja lautades kuni 18. sajandini, mil neid hinnati koduloomadena.

Kolonistid pidasid lemmikloomadena aga palju erinevaid loomi, sealhulgas oravaid, metslinde, kährikuid, hirvi, hobuseid, maod, konni ja kilpkonni. Asunikud tõid Euroopast oma koerad, hobused ja kassid ning taltsutasid hiljem Põhja -Ameerikas kohatud teisi loomi - nagu hirved, saarmad ja kobrad.

Juba ammu enne esimeste eurooplaste saabumist olid põlisameeriklased pidanud ka lemmikloomi, peamiselt koeri ja kalkuneid, kuigi on tõendeid selle kohta, et ka bobcatsid olid kodustatud. Indiaanlased pidasid koeri samadel eesmärkidel nagu kolonistid, kuid kasutasid neid ka kaupade transportimiseks kelkude kaudu, mis olid kinnitatud rakmete külge, mis olid seotud nende torsode ümber. Varased kolooniaarvestused kirjeldavad sel viisil koerte kasutamist, kuid lõpuks võtsid pärismaalased eurooplastelt koerakaelarihma ja rakmeid kasutati harvemini.

Igal hõimul olid erinevad koeratõud, mida kasutati erinevatel eesmärkidel samal viisil, nagu nad järgisid üksteisest erinevaid traditsioone. Põhja -Ameerikas polnud ühtegi ameerika põliselaniku koera. Seevastu kolonistid kasutasid koeri - ja lemmikloomi üldiselt - ühtlasemalt ning Euroopa mudel muutus lõpuks standardiks kogu riigis. Tänapäeval järgivad lemmikloomade omanikud endiselt sama mudelit, mida täheldati koloniaal -Ameerikas.

Indiaanlased

Selle üle, millal ja kus koerad esimest korda kodustati, vaieldakse jätkuvalt, kuid arvatakse, et nad ei olnud Põhja -Ameerikast pärit, vaid saabusid koos paleoindlastega, kes rändasid üle Beringi maasilla (tuntud ka kui Beringia) üle 14 000 aasta tagasi. Teadlane Marion Schwartz kommenteerib:

Armastuse ajalugu?

Telli meie tasuta iganädalane uudiskiri!

Koerad on tähelepanuväärsed, kuna nad on ainulaadselt tundlikud nende inimeste kultuuriliste omaduste suhtes, kellega nad koos elavad. Koerad pole mitte ainult kultuuri saadused, vaid nad osalevad ka inimeste kultuurides. Tegelikult olid koerad esimesed loomad, kes asusid inimeste juurde elama, ja ainsad loomad, keda leidus inimühiskondades üle kogu maailma. Kuna kultuuripiirid on laialt levinud, on koerad olnud nii tavalised, et nende ajalugu tundus vähe kaalumist vajavat. Ja ometi on koerad mänginud inimelus viimase kaheteist tuhande aasta jooksul lahutamatut osa. Koerte puhul on kõige tähelepanuväärsem nende võime kohaneda nende inimeste vajadustega, kellega nad koos elavad. Koerad on osutunud hämmastavalt paindlikeks olenditeks ja see oli nii Ameerikas kui mujal maailmas. (2)

Arvatakse, et esimene koer, kes sisenes Põhja -Ameerikasse, on omamoodi dingo, kuigi see väide on vaidlustatud ja võimalik, et varajaste inimimmigrantidega saabus mitmeid erinevaid tõuge. Koeri kasutati kodude ja külade kaitsmiseks, jahipidamiseks, kaupade transportimiseks kelkude kaudu ning lääneranniku salish tõu (Pommeri suurem versioon) puhul kasutati nende karusnahast matte ja tekke. Mõned hõimud pidasid koeri lemmikloomade ja ka toiduallikana, teised eelkõige eestkostjate ja jahimeestena, kuid kõik pidasid koeri väärtuslikuks varaks.

Koeri peeti vahendajateks nähtava ja nähtamatu maailma, surelike ja jumalate valdkonna vahel.

Koeri peeti kõrgelt jumalate kingituseks ja kuigi on palju erinevaid müüte selle kohta, kuidas koer inimeste seas elama asus, on tüüpiline lugu Kesk -Lääne Cheyenne'i koerast ja suurest meditsiinist. Looja-jumal Suur Meditsiin lõi inimesed pärast maailma loomist ja näitas oma rahvale maad, mis oli kaetud maisipõldudega ja paks härjakarjadega. Cheyenne hindas kingitusi kõrgelt, kuid tal polnud vahendeid pühvlite jahtimiseks või maisi transportimiseks pärast koristamist. Mõnikord ründasid neid öösel ka teised hõimud, kes võisid neile ligi hiilida, nii et isegi väike kogus maisi ja pühvleid, mis külasse toodi, võeti kaasa. Suur meditsiin näitas neile, kuidas noori hunte lemmikloomadena kasvatada. Need loomad arenesid seejärel kodustatud koerteks, kes hoiatavad küla rünnaku eest, võivad transportida maisi ja aitavad inimestel pühvleid jälgida ja teisi ulukeid jahtida.

Mõnes hõimujutus on koer esimeste loodud olendite seas, teistes, näiteks Cheyenne'is, on see kingitus, mis on tehtud inimeste elu lihtsamaks muutmiseks. Koeri peeti vahendajateks nähtava ja nähtamatu maailma, surelike ja jumalate valdkonna vahel, kuna nad kehastasid nii metsikut kui ka kodumaist sfääri. See vaade koerale oli järsult vastuolus Euroopa arusaamaga koerast kui loodud olendist, kelle ainus eesmärk oli inimesi teenida.

Kolonistid ja nende koerad

Kristlike eurooplaste sõnul ei olnud koertel hinge - ega ka ühtegi teist looma - kui surematut hinge, mis animeeris ainult inimesi, kes vastasid pärast surma tehtud elus tehtud tegude eest ja ilmusid Jumala trooni ette kohtumõistmiseks. Seepärast ei peetud koera millekski eriliseks ning viited koertele Piiblis julgustasid seda seisukohta, kuna koerad on üldiselt seotud vaesuse ja madala sotsiaalse staatusega. Kui tuua vaid üks näide, kuigi piiblilugu Laatsarusest ja rikka mehe kohta Luuka 16: 19–31 on tõlgendatud nii, et see näitab koeri positiivses valguses (kui tervendajad, kes lakkavad vaese mehe haavu), seostatakse neid selle teoga vaesust.

Sellegipoolest ei vaadanud kolonistid koeri halvustavalt, vaid hoolitsesid nende eest sügavalt. Esimene seadus, mis puudutas koerte (või mis tahes loomade) väärkohtlemist Inglise kolooniates, oli Määrus türannia või julmuse vastu Massachusettsi lahe kolooniast 1641. Sihtotstarbelise julmuse eest looma suhtes karistati rahatrahvi või karistusega varudes ja pillides. Eriti koeri kasvatanud kolonistid tundsid nende üle suurt uhkust ja tõstsid oma omad naabrite omadest kõrgemale kaelarihmadega, mis olid sageli kaunid ja kõrgema klassi seas üsna kallid.

Nahast kaelarihmad, millel oli messingist plaat, millele oli graveeritud koera nimi, omaniku nimi ja mõnikord ka nõtke epigramm, olid Euroopas populaarsed ja peegeldusid koloniaal -Ameerika alguses. Koerte omandiõigust hakati seostama teatud rikkusega, sest nii koera kui ka oma pere toitmine sai endale lubada ning tabaluku krae töötati osaliselt välja selle omandiõiguse tõendamiseks. Tabaluku krae oli hingedega metallist rõngas, mis kinnitati koera kaela klambritega ja kinnitati väikese tabalukuga, mille võtit hoidis ainult omanik. Kui koer oleks kadunud või varastatud, saaks omanikku tõestada, esitades võtme ja avades kaelarihma, kuna tükk oli muidu koerale kahjustamata võimatu eemaldada.

Koeri kasutati jahipidamiseks, kodu valvamiseks ja verespordis, näiteks koeravõitluses või karupeksmises. Tõugude hulka kuulusid mitmesugused hagijad, buldogid, mastifid, näpunäited, setterid, spanjelid, terjerid jt. Väiksemaid tõugusid tunti kui “lohutuskoeri” ning neid eelistasid kaaslased naised ja eakad. Kõrgema klassi härrad, nagu George Washington (l. 1732–1799) ja Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826), pidasid tõuaretust ja Washington oli uhke oma koerte tundmise üle. Prantsuse kindral Lafayette (l. 1757-1834), Washingtoni liitlane revolutsiooni ajal, tunnistas seda ja kinkis Washingtonile kaks bassetikoera; tutvustades sellega Bassetit Põhja -Ameerikas. Veel üks tuntumaid Washingtoni ja koera puudutavaid anekdoote pärineb ka Ameerika Vabadussõja perioodist (1775–1783) ning räägib sellest, kuidas Washington leidis pärast 1777. aasta Germantowni lahingut oma vastase kindrali Williami koera. Howe (l. 1729-1814) ja tagastas selle talle oma komplimentidega. Washington teadis, et see on Howe koer, kaelarihma peal oleva kirja järgi.

Kui koer jäi kadunuks, kui neil puudus identifitseerimisandmed, näiteks Howe koer, postitati kohalikus koosolekumajas, kirikus või kõrtsis kuulutusi, kus pakuti tasu selle tagastamise eest, nagu tänapäevalgi. Colonial Williamsburgis pakuti koertele preemiaid 20 šillingit (üheksa päeva palk) ajavahemikus 1774-1777, mis tähendab nende koerte väärtust. Revolutsiooni ajal New Yorgis reklaamid järgivad sama mudelit, mida Briti ohvitserid postitasid paljud oma kadunud koerte tagasisaatmiseks. Tolleaegsetest kõrgema klassi härrasmeeste portreedest on sageli näha, et nad poseerivad koos lemmikjahikoeraga ja sama kõrgema klassi naised oma mugavuskoeraga. Koerad hakkavad tegelikult üsna regulaarselt ilmuma perekonna portreedel alates c. 1700 edasi.

Muud lemmikloomad

Koerad ei olnud ainukesed kodustatud loomad, kellel oli 18. sajandil kõrgem staatus; kasse hakati ka kaaslastena kõrgemalt hindama, samas kui varem
neid peeti enam -vähem utilitaarseks kahjuritõrjeks. Valgustusaeg julgustas inimesi kahtlema paljudes mineviku tõekspidamistes ja traditsioonides ning nende hulgas oli kassi nägemine peaaegu vajaliku kurjusena. Kasse seostati paganlike kultuuridega ja märgiti, et neid ei mainitud Piiblis kusagil, mistõttu neid kahtlustati. Need olid siiski kasulikud rottide ja hiirte populatsiooni kontrollimisel ning olid enamasti enam talutavad kui hooldatud.

18. sajandil sai kassist tänapäeval tuttav hellitatud koduloom.

18. sajandil sai kassist aga tänapäeval tuttav hellitatud koduloom. Pereportreed ja ühekohalised tükid kujutasid sageli inimese või pere kassi ning neid hakati ilmuma luules ja kirjanduses. Kass kui nõia lemmik tuttav oli muidugi laialt tuntud ja neid ei võetud omaks pereliikmetena juba koerte ajal, kuid Ameerika revolutsiooni ajaks olid nad koertega vähemalt võrdsel tasemel portree on mures.

Hirved olid ka portreedel ja neist sai üks koloniaal -Ameerika kõige ihaldatumaid ja populaarsemaid lemmikloomi. Hirved kandsid kaelarihmasid ja neid kõnditi rihma otsas ning nende maalidel kujutamise põhjal elasid pere kodus sama mugavalt kui kassid või koerad. Hirved kodustati sageli ja lasti lahti koloonia valduste aedades, et pidudel külalisi lõbustada, ja üks näide sellest on dr. Benjamin Jones Virginia kolooniast, kes koolitas sel eesmärgil ja ka oma vara jaoks üle saja hirve. perekond nautida. Hirvede portreed näitavad neid sellistes poosides nagu ajastu hallkoerad, kusjuures messingvärvid on sageli tabaluku tüüpi.

Teine lemmikloom, keda portreedel sageli esitleti, oli orav, kelle pojad said populaarsemaks kui tolle aja lastega kutsikas või kassipoeg. Inimesed röövisid oravapesadelt pojad, kodustasid nad ja müüsid neid turuplatsil koduloomadena. Need koduoravad olid kaelarihmaga, rihma otsas ja jalutasid täpselt nagu mugavuskoerad. Lendavad oravad olid eriti populaarsed noorte poiste seas, kes koolitasid neid linna läbides õlgadele istuma. Oravate populaarsust lemmikloomadena kurvastasid tolleaegsed naised ja emad, kes kurtsid olendeid kapide, riiete ja voodipesu läbi närides ning neid ei suudetud ohjeldada, sest nad said end puidust kastide või puuride kaudu süüa. Plekksepad said sellest kasu, luues metallist puurid, mille sees olid trenažöörid ja muud esemed, nii et orav saaks endiselt peret lõbustada, kuid jääks tagasihoidlikuks.

Kodulinnud olid eriti populaarsed noorte tüdrukute ja naiste seas, kes hoidsid kardinaale jt sageli oma viimistlusruumides välja töötatud puurides. Usuti, et linnule saab seda kordades viisi õpetada ja nii said väikesed flageolettidena tuntud flöödid populaarseks lindude omanike seas. Inimene kordas kogu päeva jooksul pilli lihtsat viisi ja arvati, et lind õpib seda laulma. Puuduvad andmed selle kohta, et see praktika oleks tegelikult õnnestunud, välja arvatud pilkava linnu puhul.

Kobrad olid samuti populaarsed, peamiselt meeste ja poiste seas ning neid õpetati kala püüdma ja koju tassima. Saarmad treeniti vette kukkunud ulukite väljatoomiseks samamoodi nagu jahikoerad varem. Eriti kaluritele meeldisid koolitatud saarmad, kes sukeldusid vee alla ja naasid koos kaladega. Kährikud, kes olid ka kodustatud, olid kõige vähem populaarsed, kuna neil oli kombeks sahvreid sisse murda ja kodudest toitu või mitmesuguseid esemeid varastada. Ükskõik kui hästi koolitatud, sobis kährik ka pere kanade tapmiseks, mis viis lõpuks selleni, et ta kukutati lemmikloomana ning teda nähti rohkem kiskja ja ebameeldivana.

Teised loomad, nagu maod ja väikesed ahvid, olid jätkuvalt populaarsed, kuigi nad esitasid oma probleeme. Maod olid naiste seas eriti ebapopulaarsed, kuigi naised ja tüdrukud olid ahvide esmased omanikud, kes olid palju rohkem tülikad puhta ja puhta kodu hoidmisel. Teine loom, eriti noorte tüdrukute seas populaarne, oli talleke, keda sageli maalidel kujutati, kandes linti kaelas. Loomulikult olid kanad ka lemmikloomad, kuigi mitte ühelgi portreel pole neid kaunistatud nagu talle ja ahvi.

Järeldus

Muutused lemmikloomade omandis, mis puudutasid kodudes peetavaid loomi, tulid tööstusrevolutsiooniga 18. sajandi lõpus ja 19. sajandi alguses. Briti tööstur Samuel Slater (l. 1768-1835) tutvustas USA-sse tekstiilivabrikuid USA. 1789. Teda abistas tööstur Moses Brown (l. 1738-1836), kes rajas 1790. aastal Rhode Islandil Pawtucketis Ameerikasse esimese vee jõul töötava veski. Tekstiilivabrikute kasutuselevõtt osutus ärimeestele üsna kasumlikuks ja soodustas uute tööjõudu säästvat tehnoloogiat, mis viis linnastumiseni, kuna inimesed kolisid tööle linnadesse. Kuna industrialiseerimine ja linnastumine kasvasid, muutusid lemmikloomade omandiõigused valikute osas piiravamaks; linnakorter ei olnud lemmikloomana koht hirvedele, hobustele ega talledele. Maapiirkondades elavad inimesed pidasid neid loomi endiselt lemmikloomadena, kuid 19. sajandil ei ilmu nad enam portreedesse ja tundub, et oravad järgisid sama populaarsuse langust.

Kolonisatsioon, laienemine lääne suunas ja edasine sisseränne mõjutasid ka seda, milliseid loomi lemmikloomadena peeti. Hirvi küttiti regulaarselt toiduna ja nende nahkade eest isegi siis, kui neid kodustati lemmikloomadena, kuid kuna looduslikud elupaigad hakkasid kahanema ja hirvede asurkonnad kolisid asulatest kaugemale, muutus hirved lemmikloomana püüdmine ja kodustamine vähem populaarseks kui ühe laskmine ja söömine õhtusöögiks. Koloniaalperioodil nii populaarne madu järgis sama rada, kuna nad aeti linnadest kaugemale ja lõpuks langesid nad rändkunstnike ja tsirkusesinejate poolt 19. sajandi keskpaigaks meelelahutusvaldkonda.

Kuna rohkem maad asustati ja rohkem inimesi oli vaja toita, hakati looma, nagu kobras, saarmas ja kährik - keda oli jahtinud naha ja liha pärast isegi siis, kui neid peeti populaarseteks lemmikloomadeks - pigem toiduallikatena. kaaslastest ja abilistest. Ameerika põliselanike külad, mida Põhja -Ameerika idarannikul oli kunagi üsna palju, hävitasid kolonistid, et teha ruumi edasistele asundustele, ja kui elanikud paigutati reservatsioonidesse, oli neil ebaseaduslik omada koeri just sellisena, nagu see oli et neil oleks juurdepääs tulirelvadele. Ameerika põliselanike koerad konfiskeeriti ja need koeratõud kadusid lõpuks Euroopa koertega aretamisest välja ja nii põhjalikult, et tänapäeval on ebaselge, millised paljud neist tõugudest isegi olid.

Tundub, et lemmikloomaliikide piirangud on tekkinud loomulikult, kuna eksootilisemad loomad muutusid raskemaks. Seetõttu said koerad ja kassid enamiku inimeste jaoks esmaseks valikuks ning nende populaarsus kasvas, kui rohkem kodusid neid kasutusele võttis. Tänapäeval on koer ja kass jätkuvalt kõige populaarsemad ja tavalisemad lemmikloomadena peetavad loomad, kuigi paljud ameeriklased peavad eksootilisi loomi jätkuvalt samamoodi nagu nende esivanemad.


Elias Legarde Muuda

Elias Legarde (või Legardo) oli juut, kes saabus HMS -iga Virginia osariiki Jamestownisse Abigail aastal. See eeldus põhineb üksnes küsitava kirjaviisiga perekonnanime kõlal (Legardo).

Saalomon Franco Muuda

Esimene juut, kes teadaolevalt elas Põhja -Ameerika põhjaosas, oli Solomon Franco, Hollandist pärit sefardi juut, kes arvatavasti asus elama Bostoni linna Massachusettsi lahe kolooniasse 1649. aastal. Franco oli teadlane ja Immanuel Perada agent Hollandi kaupmees. Ta toimetas varustuse Massachusettsi miilitsa kindralmajor Edward Gibbonsile. Pärast vaidlust selle üle, kes peaks Francole (Gibbons või Perada) maksma, otsustas Massachusettsi üldkohus 6. mail 1649. aastal, et Franco tuleb kolooniast välja saata ja määras talle riigikassa kümne nädala jooksul kuus šillingit, ülalpidamiseks, kuni ta pääseb Hollandisse. " [1] [2]

Saalomon Pietersen Muuda

Solomon Pietersen oli Amsterdamist pärit kaupmees, kes tuli linna 1654. aastal. 1656. aastal sai Pietersenist esimene teadaolev Ameerika juut, kes abiellus kristlasega, kuigi puuduvad andmed, mis näitavad Pieterseni ametlikku pöördumist, tema tütar Anna ristiti lapsepõlves. [3] [4] [5]

Jacob Barsimson Muuda

8. juulil 1654 lahkus Jacob Barsimson Hollandist ja jõudis pardale Peartree 22. augustil New Amsterdami sadamas (Alam -Manhattanil, kus täna asub Wall Street). Barsimson töötas Hollandi Ida -India kompaniis ja oli põgenenud Portugali asundustest Uude Maailma, kes oli vallutanud endise Hollandi asula ja asutas seal Portugali inkvisitsiooni.

Asser Levy Muuda

Asser Levy (Van Swellem) on esmakordselt mainitud New Yorgi avalikes dokumentides 1654. aastal seoses Brasiiliast põgenikena saabunud 23 juudiga. Tõenäoliselt oli ta enne nende saabumist. Levy oli väikese juudi kogukonna (koššer) lihunik. Ta võitles juudi õiguste eest Hollandi koloonias ja on kuulus selle poolest, et ta on taganud juutidele õiguse olla burgerideks ja teenida koloonia valvurit.

Esimene Grupp juutide põhjapoolsetes kolooniates maandus septembri alguses 1654, vahetult pärast Barsimsoni. Barsimson olevat nendega saabumisel The Battery'is kohtunud. See rühm koosnes kahekümne kolmest Portugali juudist Hollandist (neli paari, kaks lesknaist ja kolmteist last). Sarnaselt Barsimsoniga olid nad põgenenud Hollandi endise asula eest, kus rühmitus oli Hollandi Brasiiliast emigreerunud pärast seda, kui asula oli vallutanud portugallased. Inkvisitsiooni kartuses lahkusid juudid Recifest. Algselt sildusid nad Hispaania Jamaical ja Hispaania Kuubal, kuid hispaanlased ei lubanud neil sinna jääda. Nende laev, Ste. Catherine, läks hoopis Uus -Amsterdami, leppides vastu kohalike kaupmeeste ja kohaliku Hollandi reformitud kiriku soovidele. Koloonia kuberner Peter Stuyvesant üritas nende rühmituste kaebusel juute välja saata. Ta kirjutas Hollandi Lääne -India kompanii juhtidele 22. septembril 1654 kirja:

Kohale saabunud juudid tahaksid peaaegu kõik siia jääda, kuid saades teada, et nad (oma tavapärase liigkasuvõtmise ja petturliku kauplemisega kristlastega) olid väga vastumeelsed alamate kohtunike suhtes, aga ka nende inimeste suhtes, kes suhtuvad diakooniasse kõige rohkem samuti kartuses, et nende praeguse indiviidsuse tõttu võivad nad eeloleval talvel saada laenguks, oleme pidanud selle nõrga ja äsja areneva koha ning kogu maa hüvanguks kasulikuks nõuda neilt sõbralikku lahkumist, palvetame sellega seoses ka kõige tõsisemalt nii enda kui ka teie jumalateenistuste üldsuse eest, et petlik rass - sellised vihkavad vaenlased ja Kristuse nime pilkajad - ei saaks seda uut kolooniat veelgi enam nakatada ja häirida oma jumalateenistustest ja rahulolematusest oma kummarduste kõige hellimate teemade üle.

Hollandi Lääne -India kompanii juhtide hulka kuulus aga mitu mõjukat juuti, kes pagulaste nimel vahele astusid. Ettevõtte ametnikud lükkasid Stuyvesanti tagasi ja käskisid tal 26. aprilli 1655 kirjas saata juudid Uus -Amsterdami, "tingimusel et nende hulgas olevad vaesed ei muutu ettevõttele ega kogukonnale koormaks, vaid saavad toetust nende endi poolt. rahvas ":

Me oleksime soovinud teie soove täita ja täita ning paluda, et juudi rahva inimesed ei saaks enam uusi territooriume nakatada, sest me näeme sellest ette samu raskusi, mida te kardate, kuid pärast edasist kaalumist ja kaalumist märkame, et see oleks mõnevõrra ebamõistlik ja ebaõiglane, eriti seetõttu, et see riik kannab Brasiilia vallutamisel teistega märkimisväärset kahju, samuti suure kapitali tõttu, mille nad on endiselt aktsiatesse investeerinud sellest ettevõttest. Seetõttu oleme pärast paljusid arutelusid lõpuks otsustanud ja otsustanud apostillida [märkused] Portugali juutide esitatud teatud avaldusele, et need inimesed võivad reisida ja kaubelda Uus -Hollandisse ja sinna ning elada ja jääda sinna, kui nende hulgast vaesed ei muutu. ettevõttele või kogukonnale koormaks, kuid neid peaks toetama nende oma rahvas. Nüüd hakkate ennast vastavalt valitsema.

Pärast seda, kui inglased vallutasid koloonia 1664. aastal, ei sekkutud juutide õigustesse ja nad paistsid paarkümmend aastat elanud samamoodi nagu enne Briti okupatsiooni, kuigi nende arv veidi tõusis. Juutidel oli varem keelatud asuda elama Inglise kolooniatesse, kuna neil oli 400 aastat keelatud kõik Inglise maad. Oliver Cromwell (Briti kaitsja aastatel 1649–1660, oma poja Richardi kaudu) tühistas selle keelu ja peagi järgnes esimese suure juudi asunduse asutamine Newportis, Rhode Islandil. Aastal 1672 saavutas Rabba Couty tähtsuse oma apellatsioonkaebusega Inglismaa Kuninga Nõukogule Jamaica kohtute vastu vastu võetud dekreedist, mille tulemusena üks tema laevadest arestiti ja kuulutati konfiskeerituks. Tema pöördumine oli edukas ja kehtestas juutide õigused Briti alamateks. See näib olevat esimene juhtum, kus koloniaalne naturalisatsioonitoetus tunnistati kehtivaks.

Aastal 1685 lükati Saul Browni (algselt Saul Pardo) taotlus jaekaubanduses kauplemisele tagasi, nagu ka juutide oma vabadust oma usku avalikult teostada. See, et nad tegid seda privaatselt mõnes kindlas jumalateenistuspaigas, ilmneb asjaolust, et 1695. aasta New Yorgi kaardil on näidatud juudi sünagoogi asukoht Beaver Streetil, samuti see, et minister oli Saul Brown ja et kogudus koosnes kakskümmend perekonda. Viis aastat hiljem oli sünagoogi asukoht nii tuntud, et kinnisvara üleandmisel nimetati ruume maamärgiks. 1710. aastal vabastati koguduse minister Abraham de Lucena ministriülesannete tõttu tsiviil- ja sõjaväeteenistusest ning viidatakse samade privileegide kasutamisele tema eelkäijate poolt. New Yorgi Shearith Israel koguduse protokollid algavad 1729. aastal, mil see asus Mill Streetil, ja viitavad ülestähendustele, mis pärinevad aastast 1706. See kogudus asutati 1730. aastal Mill Streetil kaks aastat varem ostetud krundil. , esimene sünagoog tulevastes Ameerika Ühendriikides.

Seega näib, et nende varajaste juudi asunike usulised õigused olid tagatud 18. sajandi alguses ja neil oli ka palju poliitilisi õigusi. New Yorgi peaassamblee 15. novembril 1727 vastu võetud akt tingimusel, et kui iga juudi usku tunnistav Briti subjekt peab andma vande vande, võidakse sõnad "kristlase tõelise usu peale" välja jätta . Kolm päeva hiljem võeti vastu seadus, millega naturaliseeriti üks Daniel Nunes da Costa. 1737. aasta kibe poliitiline poleemika tõi kaasa Peaassamblee otsuse, et juutidel ei tohi lubada selle organi liikmete poolt hääletada.

1740. aastal võttis parlament vastu istandusseaduse, mis lubas konkreetselt juute kolooniates naturaliseerida. Enne seda kuupäeva oli New Yorgi kolooniaassamblee aga vastu võtnud mitmeid naturalisatsiooni akte, millest mõned olid kohaldatavad ainult üksikisikute suhtes, kuid üldisemad, mille kohaselt sai juute naturaliseerida ilma vande andmata. kristlane, "pandi ka statuudiraamatusse. Selle aja ja revolutsioonilise sõja vahel kasvas selle koloonia juudi kogukond aeglaselt, peamised sisserändajad tulid Hispaaniast, Portugalist ja Lääne -Indiast.

Prantsuse ja India sõja ajal oli Jacob Franks koos Briti sündikaadiga kuninglik agent, kes varustas Briti vägesid Ameerikas ja tema suhted krooniga ületasid sel perioodil 750 000 naela.

Kuigi enamik varasemaid sisserändajaid asus elama New Yorki, asusid mõned neist väljaspool oma piire, mõned isegi kuni praeguse Pennsylvania osariigi piirideni. Aastal 1661, kui Albany oli vaid kaubanduskeskus, kuulus Asser Levyle seal kinnisvara, kuid selle kuupäeva ja üheksateistkümnenda sajandi algusaastate vahel pole andmeid selle linna asunike kohta. Neid ei olnud seal piisavas koguses, et kogudust moodustada, kuni 1838. aastani ja neil polnud rabi enne 1846. aastat.

Rühm juute asus 1600ndate lõpus Rhode Islandi Newporti elama Roger Williamsi kehtestatud koloonia ametliku usulise sallivuse tõttu. Mujal Uus -Inglismaal oli ilmselt XVII ja XVIII sajandil aeg -ajalt asunikke, kuid puritaanide sallimatus muutis võimatuks usukogukondade loomise. Mitmete allikate andmetel võis 1621. aastal Massachusettsi osariigis Plymouthis asunud Moses Simonsonil olla juudi päritolu Hollandist. [1] [2] Huvitav isiksus on Judah Monis, kes muutus ristiusku ja täitis 1722. aastast kuni surmani 1764. aastal Harvardi kolledžis heebrea keele õppetooli.

Mainitakse ühte juuti Connecticutis 9. novembril 1659 ja teist 1670. aastal. Esimene juudi perekond, kes asus New Haveni elama, tuli 1772. aastal, kuigi mõned üksikud inimesed, kes olid muutunud ristiusku, elasid seal paar aastat varem. Esimene kogudus loodi umbes 1840. aastal, kogudused olid umbes kahekümne Baieri perekonna liikmed. Sellest kuupäevast alates suurenes kogukond aeglaselt. Juudi asulaid on ka Bridgeportis, Ansonias, Derbys, Waterburys, New Londonis ja Hartfordis. Esimene kogudus Hartfordis loodi aastal 1843. Alates 1891. aastast on osariigi erinevatesse osadesse asustatud hulk juudi põllumehi.

Massachusettsi juudi varaseim mainimine kannab kuupäeva 3. mai 1649 ja Bostoni elanike seas on viiteid juutidele aastatel 1695 ja 1702, kuid neid võib pidada ainult rändajateks, sest ükski asukas ei asunud oma kodu Massachusettsis enne Revolutsioonisõda ajas juudid Newportist minema. Aastal 1777 läksid Aaron Lopez ja Jacob Rivera koos veel viiekümne üheksa inimesega Newportist Leicesterisse ja asusid sinna, kuid see asula ei jäänud sõja lõppedes ellu. Paljud juudid, sealhulgas Hayside perekond, asusid Bostonisse elama enne 1800. aastat. Neist Moses oli Michael Hays kõige olulisem. 1830. aastal läks hulk Alžeeria juute Bostonisse, kuid nad kadusid peagi. Praeguse kogukonna ajalugu algab 1840. aastast, mil loodi esimene kogudus.

Juudi sisserändajaid Vermonti ja New Hampshire'i pole kunagi olnud väga palju, kuigi kogudusi on Burlingtonis, Vermontis ja Manchesteris, Nashuas, Concordis, Portsmouthis ja New Hampshire'is Doveris. Juutide ühiskondliku elu kohta Uus -Inglismaal ei saa öelda suurt tähtsust ja nende arv kasvas, kuid aeglaselt, kuni pärast suure vene emigratsiooni algust 1882. aastal, mil algas ülevool New Yorgist ja väljaränne läbi Kanada. oja Uus -Inglismaale.

Lääne avanemine ja sellest tulenev kahjumlik põllumajandustootmine Uus -Inglismaal tõmbas sellest Ameerika Ühendriikide osast eemale palju säästlikke põllumehi, kes hülgasid oma viljatu põllu lääneosariikide atraktiivsemate võimaluste pärast. Rahvastiku nihkumisega seoses pakub huvi asjaolu, et paljud neist mahajäetud taludest, eriti Connecticutis, on vallutanud Venemaa juudid, kes on piimakarjakasvatajatena lisanud põllumajandusringkondadele uue ja kasuliku elemendi. .

Näib, et ainult vähesed juudid leidsid 17. sajandi esimesel poolel tee Marylandi ning selle koloonia esimesed asukad tulid üksikisikutena ja mitte kunagi märkimisväärsel arvul, nagu juhtus New Yorgis , Newport, Savannah ja Charleston. Ainuüksi nimede järgi otsustades näib, et mõned juudid elasid Marylandis koloonia algusaegadest peale. Kõige silmapaistvam tegelane, kes oli vaieldamatult juut, oli dr Jacob Lumbrozo, kes oli saabunud 24. jaanuaril 1656 ja keda 1658. aastal mõisteti jumalateotuse eest, kuid vabastati üldise amnestia tõttu. Richard Cromwelli liitumine (3. märts 1658). Lumbrozole anti välja denonsseerimiskirjad 10. septembril 1663. Lisaks meditsiinitööle kuulus talle ka istandus, ta tegeles kauplemisega põlisameeriklastega ja suhtles aktiivselt Londoni kaupmeestega. Ta oli koloonias üks esimesi arste ja tema karjäär heidab palju valgust Marylandi religioosse sallivuse ajaloole ja olemusele. Oma isiksuse tõttu suutis ta eirata peaaegu kõiki seadusi, mis oleksid muutnud tema elukoha koloonias võimatuks, ja näib, et ta järgis oma usku, kuigi see oli seaduste kohaselt keelatud. Ebasoodne keskkond raskendas juutide vastuvõtmist Marylandi ja kuni 1776. aasta põhiseadusega kehtestati kõigi usulised õigused, asus kolooniasse elama vähe juute.

On registreeritud, et New Amsterdamist pärit juudid kauplesid Delaware'i jõe ääres juba 1655. aastal. Tõenäoliselt leidus mõningaid asunikke selle territooriumi kaguosas, mille William Penn 1681. aastal oma valdusesse võttis. Väga suur osa Pennsylvania varajastest kolonistidest oli Saksa juudid. The first Jewish resident of Philadelphia was Jonas Aaron, who was living there in 1703. Another early pioneer and one of considerable prominence was Isaac Miranda. He was the first to settle at Lancaster, at which place, as also at Shaefferstown, there was an early Jewish immigration. Miranda became a convert to Christianity and held several state offices. A number of Jews settled in Philadelphia in the first half of the eighteenth century, and became prominent in the life of the city. Among these were David Franks, Joseph Marks, and Sampson Levy. The Non-Importation Resolutions of 1765 contained the signatures of eight Jews, an indication of the importance of the Jewish community at this time. As early as 1747 a number of persons held religious services in a small house in Sterling alley, and afterward in Cherry alley—between Third and Fourth streets. They were mostly German and Polish Jews and their differences as to the liturgy to be followed prevented, at the time, the formation of any regular congregation. Attempts, indeed, were made in 1761 and 1773 to form one, but none was established until the influx of Jews from New York during the Revolutionary War, with the arrival of Gershom Mendes Seixas, gave the community sufficient strength to carry out this cherished object. A lot was purchased and a synagogue erected, the dedication occurring in September 1782. A number of Philadelphia Jews served in the army of the Revolution and the inestimable services rendered by Haym Salomon to Robert Morris in the finances of the Revolution make his name stand out as the most prominent character in American Jewry.

Jews have lived in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, since at least 1730, before the town and county were organized. Joseph Simon was the best known of the first arrivals. Meyer Hart and Michael Hart were among the earlier settlers at Easton, where they arrived previous to the Revolutionary War. A synagogue was established there in 1839. Shaefferstown had a few Jewish settlers at an early date, and a synagogue and cemetery in 1732. For a considerable number of years preceding the Revolutionary War a number of Jews of Pennsylvania were engaged in the exploitation and sale of western Pennsylvania lands. Among the more prominent of these were Jacob and David Franks, Barnard and Michael Gratz, Joseph Simon, and Levy Andrew Levy.

The Jewish settlement in Georgia dates almost from the very foundation of the colony and the early history of Georgia is practically the history of the growth and development of Savannah, Jewish life centering in that city. It would appear that a movement was set on foot in London to settle some Jews in the colony even before James Oglethorpe, in June, 1733, led his first band of followers to the point which soon after became the city of Savannah. The second vessel which reached the colony from England (on July 11, 1733) had among its passengers no less than forty Jewish emigrants. Although their arrival was unexpected, the liberal-minded governor welcomed them gladly, notwithstanding that he was aware that the trustees of the colony in England had expressed some opposition to permitting Jews to settle there. These first settlers were all of Spanish, Portuguese, and Prussian extraction, though within a year of their arrival others, who were apparently German Jews, also took up their residence there. These two bands of settlers received equally liberal treatment from Oglethorpe, and were the progenitors of one of the most important communities of Jews in the U.S. Many of their descendants are still living in various parts of the country. The first male white child born in the colony was a Jew, Philip (Uri) Minis on July 11, 1734.

Among the first immigrants was Dr. Nunis, who was made welcome because of his medical knowledge, and because he, with a number of others, brought sufficient wealth to the colony to enable the immigrants to take up large tracts of land. A congregation was organized as early as 1734. Three years later Abraham de Lyon, who had been a vigneron in Portugal, introduced the culture of grapes. The cultivation and manufacture of silk and the pursuit of agriculture and of commerce were the chief occupations of these early settlers. A dispute with the trustees of the colony respecting the introduction of slaves caused an extensive emigration to South Carolina in 1741, and resulted in the dissolution of the congregation. But in 1751 a number of Jews returned to Georgia, and in the same year the trustees sent over Joseph Ottolenghi to superintend the somewhat extensive silk-industry in the colony. Ottolenghi soon attained prominence in the political life of his associates, and was elected a member of the Assembly in 1761 and in succeeding years. There seems to have been little if any distinction made socially between the Jews and the other settlers, and educational and philanthropic institutions seem to have been supported by all alike.

The liberal charter which John Locke drew up in 1669 for the governance of the Carolinas should have operated to attract Jews there at an early date, since "Jews, heathen, and dissenters" were by the terms of Locke's charter granted full liberty of conscience. Although political changes modified Locke's original plans considerably, the spirit of tolerance was always retained. Nevertheless, no Jews in any numbers appear to have come to South Carolina until the exodus from Georgia from 1740 to 1771, already referred to. However, one Simon Valentine, one of four Jews who applied for citizenship in 1697, became the first documented Jewish landowner, which entitled him to vote. [3] A few others followed him, for in 1703 a protest was raised against "Jew strangers" voting in an election for members of the Assembly.

In 1748, some prominent London Jews set on foot a scheme for the acquisition of a tract of 200,000 acres (80,937 ha) (809 km 2 ) of land in South Carolina. Nothing came of this, however, though on November 27, 1755, Joseph Salvador purchased 100,000 acres (40,469 ha) (405 km 2 ) of land near Fort Ninety-six for £2,000. Twenty years later Salvador sold 60,000 acres (24,281 ha) (243 km 2 ) of land for £3,000 to thirteen London Sephardic Jews. This land was known as the "Jews' Lands." Another of the Salvadors (Francis Salvador, the nephew of Joseph) purchased extensive tracts of land in the same vicinity in 1773–74. [3] Moses Lindo, likewise a London Jew, who arrived in 1756, became actively engaged in indigo manufacture, [3] spending large sums in its development, and making this one of the principal industries of the state.

During the Revolutionary War the Jews of South Carolina were to be found on both sides and the most eminent of the revolutionists was Francis Salvador, who was elected a member of the First and Second Provincial Congresses which met 1775–76, the most important political office held by any Jew during the Revolution. [3] Two-thirds of a company of militia commanded by Richard Lushington was made up of Charleston Jews.

After the fall of Charleston in 1780 the majority of Jews left that city, but most of them returned at the close of the war. The Sephardic Jews established a congregation in 1750, and the Jews of German descent another shortly thereafter. In 1791, when the Sephardic congregation was incorporated, the total number of Jews in Charleston is estimated to have been 400.

To judge by names alone, it would appear that a few Jews wandered into Virginia as early as 1624. A small number seem also to have been there before the end of the seventeenth century, but for nearly 100 years no traces of Jewish settlement are found. At least one Jewish soldier—possibly two—served in Virginia regiments under Washington in his expedition across the Allegheny Mountains in 1754. It is probable that Jews drifted into the colony from Baltimore and other points in Maryland at an early date. By 1785, Richmond had a Jewish community of about a dozen families of Spanish-Portuguese descent, which organized a Sephardic congregation in 1791. This congregation remained in existence until 1898.

A few Jews were among the traders who settled in Tennessee, near the Holston River, in 1778, but they were mere stragglers and made no permanent settlement.

Of the remaining states of the southern group east of the Mississippi River the principal Jewish settlements have been made in Alabama and Mississippi. An occasional Jew made his way into the territory which is now Alabama during the early part of the eighteenth century. One Pallachio became prominent in 1776.

It is likely that there were a few Jews in the Natchez district of Mississippi before the close of the eighteenth century, but no congregation was organized until that of Natchez was established in 1843.

Before and during the American Revolutionary War the Jews had representatives of their people upon both sides of the controversy, though the majority joined the colonial side. On the Non-Importation Agreement of 1769 the names of not less than five Jews are found this is also the case with respect to other agreements of a similar nature. The outbreak of the Revolutionary War dissolved the congregation in New York and upon the eve of the British occupancy of the town the majority of the congregation, headed by Gershom Mendes Seixas, took all the belongings of the synagogue and removed to Philadelphia, where they established the first regular congregation, the Mickvé Israel, in 1782. The small number who remained in New York occasionally held services in the synagogue. Most of those that left for Philadelphia returned to New York after the war. Haym Solomon or (Salomon), (1740–1785) was possibly the prime financier of the American side during the American War of Independence against Great Britain. He was born in Prussia and died in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Although the Jews participated prominently in the events leading up to the Revolution, it would appear that even in the midst of absorbing political discussions they were able, in 1774, to start another congregation. They were not all, however, to be found on the colonial side during the war, for Mordecai Sheftall, Levi Sheftall, Philip Jacob Cohen, Philip Minis, and Sheftall Sheftall were in the first days of the Revolution disqualified by the authorities from holding any office of trust in the province because of the pronounced revolutionary ideas which they advocated. The community was dispersed during the Revolution, but many Jews returned immediately after the close of the war.


George Washington Bred Hunting Dogs for Speed

George Washington and Lord Fairfax, mounted on horses, on a fox hunt with a slave managing a team of hunting dogs.

Smithi kollektsioon/Gado/Getty Images

Washington, Hager adds, wanted a speedier hunting dog, and hoped to breed that speed into the hounds he already owned.

“When his good friend, the Marquis de Lafayette, heard about this, he sent General Washington a group of French hound dogs in the care of young John Quincy Adams,” he says. “These dogs were much more aggressive than Washington’s usual hounds, and were eventually bred with them. This created the new breed, although it’s important to note that Washington wasn’t thinking about the breed in any sort of legacy way. He just wanted to improve his personal collection of hunting dogs.”

According to Mary Thompson, research historian at Mount Vernon, many dog breeds were developed through selective breeding over many years.

“The fact that American foxhounds have a lighter build and longer legs than English Foxhounds suggests that Washington and others who were developing this new breed wanted a good hunting dog that was faster than the English dogs,” she says. Thompson added that American foxhounds also work more individually than as a pack, with each dog being willing to take the lead.

The American Kennel Club recognizes Washington as the father of the American foxhound, noting the breeds of Bluetick Coonhound, American English Coonhound and Treeing Walker Coonhound were also “likely influenced by his quest for a superior dog.”

Thompson adds that Washington kept many dog breeds, each with their own speciality. There were herding dogs, hounds, non-sporting dogs, terriers, toys and working dogs at Mount Vernon.

“In fact, we can document the presence and/or knowledge of breeds in every group currently recognized by the American Kennel Club among the dogs in Virginia in the 18th century,” she says. Breeds at Mount Vernon included Briards, Dalmatians, English foxhounds, French hounds, Greyhounds, Italian Greyhounds, mastiffs, Newfoundlands, pointers, spaniels and terriers.

Washington often gave his dogs names, too. Some of note: Sweet Lips, Venus, Trulove, Taster, Tippler, Drunkard and Madame Moose.

According to Thompson, many of the dog names seem to relate to singing or music: Droner, Hearkwell, Music and Singer, for example.

�h foxhound had a distinctive voice, which was important as a way to tell one dog from another when hunters were following behind them after prey animals,” she says. “Sweet Lips may have gotten her name because Washington liked the sound of her voice as she was hunting.”


Spirits of Our Forefathers - Alcohol in the American Colonies

The above statements by three of the Founding Fathers reflect the prevailing attitude toward alcohol in the 18th century and throughout much of our country's early existence. Alcohol has played a major role in our nation's history, and its use is a part of our heritage. In colonial times, Americans probably drank more alcohol that in any other era. Spirits were an integral part of daily life throughout the colonies no matter the geographic or economic differences. It was reported that the average American drank eight ounces of alcohol a day. And it didn't matter what. Americans drank beer, and cider with breakfast rum and wine with dinner claret, ratafias, creams, punches, and other concoctions in the evening. (Robinson, 2001)

"Revolutionary War era persons drank a phenomenal amount. We have here an account of a gentleman's average consumption: 'Given cider and punch for lunch rum and brandy before dinner punch, Madeira, port and sherry at dinner punch and liqueurs with the ladies and wine, spirit and punch till bedtime, all in punchbowls big enough for a goose to swim in.'" (As cited in Washington and Kitman, 1970)

There are a number of reasons for all of this tippling. Our English heritage declared that water was bad for a person's health. Given the sanitary standards of the day this was probably true. Beer consumption especially, was seen as a healthy substitute for water. Beer was considered a food, which showed social status (only the most destitute drank water) and allowed for persons to put in a full days work. Franklin while working in a printing house in London was known as the "water American", because of his affinity to water, by his fellow printers who were

Americans of the period believed it was particularly healthier to drink lukewarm alcohol during hot weather rather than drink cold water. Signs were displayed at public wells warning individuals of the dangers of cold water during the summer. The rationale for this is that when a person sweated, heat was conducted from the inside of the body. Therefore, the stomach needed warmth, which could be provided by alcohol. (Barr, 1999)

The bias against water was so great that a recent immigrant from Italy, Phillip Massei, caused a stir at a large dinner party where he asked for a glass of water. I perceived some confusion among the servants, and the water did not arrive. The host, next to who I sat, whispered in my ear, asking with a smile if I could not drink something else, because the unexpected request for a glass upset the entire household and they did not know what they were about." (As cited in Barr, 1999)

Beer usually replaced water as the daily drink. An early morning tankard of beer was typical in colonial America, even for children. This tradition, as stated earlier, came from England. The Pilgrims loaded more beer than water on the Mayflower. And, there is some evidence that they were put off at Plymouth, rather than Virginia, because the ship's crew wished to make sure they had enough beer to consume on the return voyage. (Royce, 1981)

The ingredients for beer did not grow well in New England. As a substitute, the Puritans made do with hard cider. The many apple orchards of the area were planted for its production. Men usually began the day with a quart or more at breakfast.

Beer and cider were not readily available on the frontier. Settlers west of the Allegheny Mountains converted their corn into whiskey as a substitute and to make their crop transportable. Life was hard on the frontier. The pioneers called their whiskey the "Good Creature of God", giving them the strength needed to dull the pain of the brutal manual labor of making a home in the wilderness. (Powell, 1999)

". there is unquestionably too much spirituous liquors drank in the newly settled parts of America, but a very good reason can be assigned for it. The labor of clearing the land is rugged and severe, and the summer sweats are sometimes so great that it would be dangerous to drink cold water. "(As cited in Barr, 1999)

The first businesses established on the frontier were often simple taverns located along trails and roads to take care of the needs of travelers. Tradition of the time dictated that a drink be had at every halt in a journey. One story tells of two travelers on a seventy-mile trek by coach who drank a quart of liquor at each of the eight stops that were made.

Tavern owners enjoyed higher social status than did the clergy during the colonial era. Taverns were the center of civic life. Because of this they were often required to be located near the church or meeting house. Religious services and court sessions were often held in taverns. Judges interrupted court to drink, and clergy were obligated to drink at every house call and were often seen reeling home. (Powell, 1999)

All of this drinking did not go on without some comment. John Adams stated: "If the ancients drank as our people drink rum and cider, it is no wonder we hear of so many possessed with devils." (As cited in History of Alcohol in America) But, among the founding fathers Adams stood pretty much alone. Washington, Franklin, and Jefferson all imbibed and enjoyed brewing or distilling their own alcoholic beverages.

Jefferson was one of the most knowledgeable wine connoisseurs ever to hold national office. And, he was the wine advisor for Washington, Madison and Monroe. He felt that wine was ". indispensable for my health." He further advocated the virtues of wine stating "no nation is drunken where wine is cheap and none sober, where the dearness of wine substitutes ardent spirits as the common beverage." (As cited in Insiders Guide to Virginia Wineries)

Jefferson believed that wine stimulated conversation. There must have been quite a bit of talking at Monticello because there are records that he and his guests consumed 1,203 bottles of wine in just over two year's time. (Garr, 1997) Jefferson, though, thought of himself as a man of moderation.

". you are not to conclude I am a drinker. My measure is a perfectly sober one of 3 or 4 glasses at dinner, and not a drop at any other time. But as to those 3 or 4 glasses I am very fond." (As cited in Garr, 1997)

Jefferson's interests in wine went far beyond just drinking. He was also involved in viticulture. He planted vineyards at Monticello and encourage others to take up the practice. Jefferson's attempts were not successful since the phylloxera louse, which was not discovered until the 1860s, attacked his grapes.

The sober picture we have of Washington is not correct if we are to believe anecdotes of his day. It was said that he could dance the night away with four bottles of wine under his belt. And, that his Revolutionary War personal expense account for alcohol from September 1775 to March 1776 amount to over six thousand dollars. (Washington & Kitman, 1970) He was a devout lover of beer in particular a dark porter was always in ample supply at Mount Vernon. A typical Washington hosted dinner "included several wines, beer, cider." (Mount Vernon An Illustrated Handbook, 1974)

With all the drinking that went on during this era, one tends to agree with Adams' statement and wonder how we fought a war, won our independence, and established a government. Perhaps the Spirit of '76, which inspired our forefathers, was indeed spirits.

Viited

Barr, Andrew. Drink: A Social History of America. 1999, Carroll & Graff Publishers, Inc.

Garr, Robin. "Jefferson and Wine". 1997, www.winelovers page.com/wines/tjeff.

"History of Alcohol in America" (Cider). www.2020 site.org/drinks/cider.

Mount Vernon An Illustrated Handbook. 1974, Mount Vernon Ladies Association.

Powell, Stephen. "The Devils Drink: 1999, www.bluemoon.net/

Robinson, Matthew. : How To Toast Like Our Founding Fathers", 2001, Claremont Institute Publications, www.claremont.org/publications/Robinson 010118.cfm.

Royce, James E. Alcohol Problems: A Comprehensive Survey. 1981, New York Free Press.

"Thomas Jefferson: Food and Wine Connoisseur", The Insiders Guide to Virginia Wineries. www.blueridge/sb-wineries.

Washington, George and Kitman, Marvin. 1970, George Washington's Expense Account. 1970, Simon and Schuster.


Spinning Patriotic Sentiment in Colonial America

“As for me, I will seek wool and flax, and work willingly with my hands and indeed there is occasion for all our industry and economy.”
—Abigail Adams, in a 1774 letter to her husband, John Adams

Did you know that the humble spinning wheel was once a symbol of patriotic fervor in America? Colonial women in the years before the Revolution created their own homespun cloth as a way to disrupt the British monopoly on the textile market. In fact, spinning played such an important role in the conflict that the Daughters of the American Revolution chose a spinning wheel as a symbol for their organization.

It all started with Britain’s attempt to protect one of their biggest industries, textiles. Colonists imported most of their textiles from Britain, and wool production in the colonies was discouraged since Britain saw America as a supplier of raw materials for England’s factories. England could then sell the manufactured goods to the colonies at a handsome profit.

But early Americans had other ideas. By the end of the 1600s, America was exporting wool, which outraged England and led to the Wool Act of 1699, prohibiting the colonies from exporting wool, wool yarn, and wool cloth.

The passage of the Wool Act lit the fires of resentment in the colonies and many people resisted by making cloth from flax and hemp—and producing their own essential clothing instead of buying British imports.

The homespun clothing movement really gained steam when the Daughters of Liberty turned to their spinning wheels. This group of patriotic women organized mass spinning “bees’’ in town squares, churches, and private homes. Once the war started, they gathered to spin and sew uniforms for the Continental Army.

During Sheep-to-Shawl at Philipsburg Manor, interpreters demonstrate 18th-century spinning and weaving techniques similar to those used by the Daughters of Liberty. Although the owners of Philipsburg Manor sided with England during the Revolution and bought their textiles from Britain, it’s certain there were patriotic spinners among the manor’s many tenant farm households!


Regions

Over time each region developed its own cuisine. It was influenced by their environment, religious practices, and British imports.

    : Growing seasons were short so they depended more on British Imports, Corn crops, Wild Game, and Seafood. Puritans dominated the population so their recipes tended to be simple. : Growing seasons were longer and they were called the &ldquobreadbasket colonies&rdquo due to the number of crops that were grown in their soil. Due to Quaker influence, cream cheese and various fruit butter were developed. : the Growing season was year-round and the population was more diverse. There was a clear difference in the diets of the wealthy and the poor.

5b. Indentured Servants

The growth of tobacco, rice, and indigo and the plantation economy created a tremendous need for labor in Southern English America. Without the aid of modern machinery, human sweat and blood was necessary for the planting, cultivation, and harvesting of these cash crops. While slaves existed in the English colonies throughout the 1600s, indentured servitude was the method of choice employed by many planters before the 1680s. This system provided incentives for both the master and servant to increase the working population of the Chesapeake colonies.

Virginia and Maryland operated under what was known as the " headright system ." The leaders of each colony knew that labor was essential for economic survival, so they provided incentives for planters to import workers. For each laborer brought across the Atlantic, the master was rewarded with 50 acres of land. This system was used by wealthy plantation aristocrats to increase their land holdings dramatically. In addition, of course, they received the services of the workers for the duration of the indenture.

This system seemed to benefit the servant as well. Each indentured servant would have their fare across the Atlantic paid in full by their master. A contract was written that stipulated the length of service &mdash typically five years. The servant would be supplied room and board while working in the master's fields. Upon completion of the contract, the servant would receive "freedom dues," a pre-arranged termination bonus. This might include land, money, a gun, clothes or food. On the surface it seemed like a terrific way for the luckless English poor to make their way to prosperity in a new land. Beneath the surface, this was not often the case.

Only about 40 percent of indentured servants lived to complete the terms of their contracts. Female servants were often the subject of harassment from their masters. A woman who became pregnant while a servant often had years tacked on to the end of her service time. Early in the century, some servants were able to gain their own land as free men. But by 1660, much of the best land was claimed by the large land owners. The former servants were pushed westward, where the mountainous land was less arable and the threat from Indians constant. A class of angry, impoverished pioneer farmers began to emerge as the 1600s grew old. After Bacon's Rebellion in 1676, planters began to prefer permanent African slavery to the headright system that had previously enabled them to prosper.


Brewing in the Seventeenth Century

Beermaking at 17th-century Jamestown

Oh we can make liquor to sweeten our lips
Of pumpkins, of parsnips, of walnut-tree chips.


On May 24, 1607, the newly-arrived colonists at Jamestown had their first feast. George Percy reported that among the potables was beer, and, although the Virginia Company had expressed concern as early as 1606 concerning "that odious vice of drunkenes," alcohol consumption was a way of life for the colonists long before they founded the first permanent English settlement in the New World. Beer, cider and other relatively weak fermented beverages were almost universally consumed from the earliest days of Virginia's history. The colonists, in addition to importing the beer from the Mother Country, quickly began practicing the art of brewing themselves.

Beer, the result of the slow fermentation of malted and hopped liquid, is divided into three basic categories. Stout is a dark, heavy beverage with a relatively high alcoholic content. Lager, produced by a yeast which is activated at a relatively low temperature (40° F), is the lightest form of beer. In between these two extremes in both color and alcohol content is ale, which is produced by yeast which ferments best at about 60° F. Ale, because it was produced at a temperature which was more easily maintained, was the brew of choice in colonial times.

Producing a drinkable ale was not easy, and the colonists were not always successful, as the complaint from a 17th century inhabitant of Jamestown confirms: "I would you could hang that villain Duppe who by his stinking beer hath poisoned . . . the colony." Unlike the sophisticated scientific methods employed in today's breweries, the beer-maker of the 17th century relied on taste, smell and touch. In England, one of a housewife's duties was the production of beer for her family and servants. Beer, from the Middle Ages well into the 17th century, was produced commercially by both men and women.

Many ingredients were added during the brewing process. The first step in making beer was choosing water of a pleasing taste. Fortunately for the consumer, all the boiling which took place in subsequent steps would destroy any dangerous bacteria. The grain, which gave the beverage its body (barley was the usual ingredient, although corn, oats, wheat and rye could also be used) had to be malted (sprouted then dried in kilns) before being added to the mixture. Sugar of some type, usually in the form of molasses or honey, provided nourishment to the yeast. Hops, the fruit of a vinelike plant related to the mulberry tree, gave the ale its characteristic scent and flavor.

To make beer, malt was soaked in a large wooden mash tub at low temperatures then separated out of the liquid and ordinarily used for animal food. The liquid, called "wort," was transferred to the keeler, a large copper pot to which was added hops and other ingredients. After boiling the mixture for several hours, the brewer cooled it to about 70° F and sprinkled on the yeast, which began to digest the sugar in the solution and excrete it as alcohol. Bacteria and foreign yeast could spoil a brew, so it was important to keep the keeler covered. Stirring took place periodically, traditionally done with a bunch of broomstraw which was impregnated with yeast and quickened the action.

When fermentation was complete, the beverage would be either consumed right away or transferred to barrels for storage, leaving as much as the sediment behind in the keeler as possible.

Bonnett, Kendra. A Report on Drinking and Beer Brewing in the Seventeenth Century.


American History Timeline: 1651–1675

The American Revolution would not commence until 1765, when the Stamp Act Congress, representing the 13 colonies, disputed the right of the British parliament to tax the colonists without providing them with representation in the House of Commons. The American Revolutionary War would not begin until 1775. During the period from 1651 to 1675, however, attempts by the British government to control commerce in the American colonies gradually created an atmosphere in which rebellion was almost inevitable.

Oktoober: England passes the Navigation Act that forbids goods to be imported from the colonies to England in non-English ships or from locations other than where they were produced. This action causes supply shortages hurting colonies and eventually leads to the Anglo-Dutch War, which lasts from 1652–1654.

April 4: New Amsterdam is given permission to form its own city government.

18. mai: Rhode Island passes the first law in America which prohibits enslavement, but is never enforced.

After the death of Maine's founder Ferdinando Gorges ( c. 1565–1647), the Massachusetts Bay Colony revises its borders to the Penobscot Bay, absorbing the growing colony of Maine.

Juuli: The first battle of the Anglo-Dutch Wars (1652–1654) breaks out.

In defiance of England, Massachusetts Bay declares itself independent and starts minting its own silver coins.

The New England Confederation—a union of Massachusetts, Plymouth, Connecticut, and New Haven colonies formed in 1643—plans to help England in the ongoing Anglo-Dutch Wars. The Massachusetts Bay colony flatly refuses to participate.

The first Jewish immigrants arrive from Brazil and settle in New Amsterdam.

Oktoober: The new governor of Maryland, William Fuller (1625–1695), nullifies the 1649 Toleration Act which gave Catholics the right to practice their religion. The colony also removes Lord Baltimore from authority.

25. märts: The Battle of the Severn, considered by some historians the last battle of the English Civil War, is fought in Annapolis, Maryland, between Puritan loyalists and moderate protestant and Catholic forces loyal to Baltimore the Puritans take the day.

1. september: After a last maritime battle between the Dutch colonists led by Peter Stuyvesant (1592–1672) and forces from the Swedish government, the Swedish surrender, ending royal rule by Sweden in America.

10. juuli: Lord Baltimore is returned to power in Maryland and appoints Josias Fendall (1628–1687) as the new governor.

The first Quakers, Anne Austin and Mary Fisher, arrive in Massachusetts Bay from their colony in Barbados and are arrested and imprisoned. Later in the year, Connecticut and Massachusetts pass laws to allow for the banishment of Quakers.

Quakers who arrive in New Amsterdam are punished and then banished to Rhode Island by Governor Peter Stuyvesant.

September: Massachusetts colony passes laws that do not allow for religious freedom of Quakers including the holding of their meetings.

Quaker Mary Dyer (1611–1660) is arrested in New Haven and convicted for preaching Quakerism and is among those banished to Rhode Island.

Two Quakers are punished by hanging when they return to the Massachusetts Bay Colony after being banished.

Lord Baltimore is removed from power by the Maryland assembly.

The Navigation Act of 1660 is passed requiring only English ships with a three-quarters English crew be allowed to be used for trade. Certain goods including sugar and tobacco could only be shipped to England or English colonies.

The English crown, in protest to the rules against Quakers, orders them released and returned to England. They are later forced to stop the harsh penalties against Quakers.

23. aprill: Connecticut governor John Winthrop Jr. (1606–1676), secures a royal charter for the colony after nearly a year of negotiation in England.

The Massachusetts Bay Colony's charter was accepted by England as long as they extended the vote to all landowners and allows for freedom of worship for Anglicans.

The Elliot Bible, the first complete Bible to be printed in America, is published at the Harvard College in Cambridge—in the Algonquin language. The Algonquin New Testament had been published two years earlier.

The Carolina colony is created by King Charles II and has eight English noblemen as proprietors.

8. juuli: Rhode Island is given a royal charter by Charles II.

27. juuli: The second Navigation Act is passed, requiring that all imports to the American colonies must come from England on English vessels.

The Hudson River valley Indians surrender part of their territory to the Dutch.

The Duke of York is given a charter to control lands that include the Dutch area of New Netherland. By the end of the year, a naval blockade by the English of the area causes Governor Peter Stuyvesant to surrender New Netherland to the English. New Amsterdam is renamed New York.

The Duke of York grants land called New Jersey to Sir George Carteret and John, Lord Berkeley.

Maryland and later New York, New Jersey, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia pass laws that do not allow for the freeing of enslaved Black people.

New Haven is annexed by Connecticut.

The King's commissioners arrive in New England to oversee what is occurring in the colonies. They demand that colonies must comply by swearing allegiance to the King and allowing for the freedom of religion. Plymouth, Connecticut, and Rhode Island comply. Massachusetts does not comply and when representatives are called to London to answer to the King, they refuse to go.

The territory of Carolina is extended to include Florida.

Maryland prohibits the growing of tobacco for a year due to a glut of tobacco on the market.

31. juuli: The Peace of Breda officially ends the Anglo-Dutch War and gives England formal control over New Netherland.

Massachusetts annexes Maine.

1. märts: The Fundamental Constitutions, written partly by the English philosopher John Locke (1632–1704), are issued in Carolina by its eight proprietors, providing for religious tolerance.

Charles Town (present-day Charleston, South Carolina) is established on the Albemarle Point by colonists William Sayle (1590–1671) and Joseph West (died 1691) it would be moved and re-established in its present location in 1680.

8. juuli: The Treaty of Madrid (or Godolphin Treaty) is completed between England and Spain. Both parties agree that they will respect each other's rights in America.

Governor William Berkeley (1605–1677) of Virginia convinces the Virginia General Assembly to change the rules from allowing all freemen to vote to white males who owned enough property to pay local taxes.

Plymouth forces King Philip (known as Metacomet, 1638–1676), chief of the Wampanoag Indians, to surrender his weapons.

French explorer Simon François d’Aumont (or Daumont, sieur de St. Lusson) claims the interior of North America for King Louis XIV, as an extension of New France.

First copyright law is passed in the colonies by Massachusetts.

The Royal Africa Company is given a monopoly for the English trade of enslaved people.

Feb. 25: Virginia is granted by the English crown to Lord Arlington (1618–1685) and Thomas Culpeper (1635–1689).

May 17: French explorers Father Jacques Marquette (1637–1675) and Louis Joliet (1645–

1700) set off on their expedition down the Mississippi River exploring as far as the Arkansas River.

The Dutch launch a naval attack against Manhattan to try and win back New Netherland during the Third Anglo-Dutch War (1672–1674). Manhattan is surrendered. They capture other towns and rename New York to New Orange.

19. veebruar: The Treaty of Westminster is signed, ending the third Anglo-Dutch War with the American Dutch colonies reverting back to England.

4. detsember: Father Jacques Marquette establishes a mission at present-day Chicago.

Quaker William Penn (1644–1718) is granted rights to portions of New Jersey.

King Philip's War begins with retaliation for the execution of three Wampanoag Indigenous people. Boston and Plymouth unite to fight against Indigenous tribes. Nipmuck tribal members unite with the Wampanoags to attack settlements in Massachusetts. The New England Confederation then reacts by officially declaring war on King Philip and raising an army. The Wampanoags are able to defeat settlers near Deerfield on September 18th and Deerfield is abandoned.


1750–1775 : Diplomatic Struggles in the Colonial Period

Colonial era diplomacy focused on two issues: the European balance of power and the colonists’ appropriation of land from the Native Americans.

Rivalry in Europe, between the French and the British in particular, often influenced the course of events in their North American colonies.In an effort to increase their political and economic power, the British and the French competed to acquire the better share of the available land and control over the new trading opportunities the colonies presented.

At the same time, the European colonial governments tried to find ways to coexist with the original inhabitants of North America, often making alliances with some tribes while alienating others. Sometimes, as in the case of the French and Indian War (which in Europe was referred to as the Seven Years’ War), European politics regarding balances of power resulted in conflict in the colonies. As wars in Europe became more heated, fighting broke out between the French and the British in the American colonies. Both sides called upon Native American allies to assist them, exacerbating tensions between the tribes, as well as tensions between the tribes and colonists. Ultimately, the British Government found it necessary to pour additional troops and resources into protecting its possessions in the Americas and taxed their colonists to pay for these resources. These taxes eventually became a rallying cry for the American independence movement.