Rogue arheoloog, Atlantis ja Chac-Mool

Rogue arheoloog, Atlantis ja Chac-Mool


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1890. aastate lõpus, kui Ameerikast oli kujunemas tööstuslik raskekaalu, avastasid selle teadlased ja maadeavastajad Maa iidse mineviku uuesti ja kaardistasid meie planeedi ümber unustatud tsivilisatsioone. Üks neist maadeavastajatest oli Augustus Le Plongeon, prantsuse ameeriklane, kes pärast Stephensi ja Catherwoodi teoste lugemist Reisijuhtumid Kesk -Ameerikas, Chiapas ja Yucatanis , asus uurima Mehhikot ja Yucatani poolsaare Maya linnu.

Kogenud fotograaf ja maamõõtja Augustus saabus 1875. aastal Mehhikosse (Yucatani pealinn) Méridasse ja plaanis koos abikaasa Alicega külastada mitmeid maiade varemeid. Enne kui nad kuhugi minna said, tuli organiseerida relvastatud eskort kaitseks bandiitide, maiade mässuliste ja Yucatecani miilitsate vastu, kes pidasid kastisõda, mis oli piirkonna ebastabiilseks muutnud juba mitu aastat. Kuigi nad olid ohtlikud, reisisid nad Uxmalisse ja hiljem Chichen Itzasse ning tegid mõned varasemad fotod nende piirkondade hoonetest.

Chichen Itzas lasid Augustusel töötajad koristada suured osad kesksest akropolist, et paremini pildistada seisvaid hooneid. Need pildid inspireeriksid hiljem mitmeid tuntud teadlasi, sealhulgas Ameerika arheoloog Edward Thompson, kes Carnegie Instituudi toel viis läbi iidsed linna esimesed ulatuslikud väljakaevamised ja konsolideerimised.

Varaste tsivilisatsioonide sümbolid ja hieroglüüfid

Maiakeelest uudishimulik oli Augustus lasknud kohalikel õpetajatel juhendada teda Yucatani maia keeles, et aidata tal uurida dekoratiivseid sümboleid ja hieroglüüfe, mis hõlmasid mitmeid hooneid ja seinamaalinguid. Kõrgetasemeline vabamüürlane, kes oli palju reisinud kogu Lähis-Idas ja Egiptuses, uskus Le Plongeon, et dünastiaaegseid egiptlasi mõjutasid maiade varased maadeavastajad ja inimesed Atlantisest ning ta kirjutas ulatuslikult tema teooriatest.

Augustus Le Plongeon ja töölised seisavad Chichen Itza peapüramiidi lähedal asuva skulptuurikogu juures, (1875.)

1890ndatel ja 1900ndate alguses, enne süsinik-14 dateerimistehnikate kasutuselevõttu, tegid teadlased võrdleva analüüsi abil kindlaks varajaste tsivilisatsioonide tausta ja uskusid, et Maya kujunemisperiood oli sama, mis kristlikul ajastul, umbes 1500 eKr. Enamik tolleaegseid silmapaistvaid arheolooge kirjutas Le Plongeoni kohe maha ja diskonteeris tema tööd kui lollust. Kuid Le Plongeon võis tegeleda millegi sellisega, mida saame täna hinnata.

Ancient Engineering: tähtkujud ja energiajoondused

Maiad austasid nende ajalugu ja pühitsesid varasemaid põlvkondi. Märkimisväärsed püramiidikompleksid ja hooned ehitati olemasoleva arhitektuuri vundamentidele ja tippudele, et säilitada õige tähtkuju ja energiline joondus. Tänapäeval on meil alles algeline arusaam sellest, miks neid tavasid säilitati, mis keskendusid hooajalisele istutamisele, koristamisele jne. Kuid hiljutised uuringud on avastanud jahmatava avastuse!

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Maiad rakendasid nende püramiididesse konstrueeritud teadust, mis kogus ja võimendas looduslikke maad kiirgavaid geomagnetilisi välju. John Burke oma raamatus Seed teadmiste, rohkuse kivi , mõõtis neid telluurvälju (maavoolusid) ja avastas, et püramiidikompleksid kavandati ja ehitati nende keeriste kohale. Ilmselgelt olid esialgsed maiad tehnoloogiliselt ja teaduslikult arenenud ning tuhandete aastate jooksul arenesid välja võimas ja kultuuriliselt rikas tsivilisatsioon, mis mõjutas suurt osa iidsest maailmast.

Maiade suur antiikaeg-Le Plongeon istub Chichen Itzas Chac-Mooli skulptuuril, mis on tõstetud üle kümne jala sügavuselt. "Maja unistusest". (Autori kaudu)

Le Plongeon uskus, et need varajased maiad moodustasid aluse inimestele, keda me täna hindama oleme hakanud, ja asusid tema tõlgenduste kohaselt tänapäeva Yucatani Mehhikosse enam kui 11 500 aastat tagasi. Reliikviate kaitsmiseks mineviku eest matsid preestrid nende perioodide esemeid ja olulisi dokumente, sealhulgas suure kuju.

Kadunud kuju minevikust

Leht Plongeon sai Chichen Itza vanas varemes uksepulga dešifreerimisel teada, et peamise akropoli lähedal asuva väikese püramiidikujulise hoone „Kotkaste ja jaaguaride platvorm” alt leiab ta olulise kuju minevik.

Tal ei olnud rohkem kui puuoksi ja paar töölist, kaevas ta üle kolme jala (10 meetrit) maha ja leidis suure lamava mehe kuju. Graniidist nikerdatud ja ligi 800 naela (363 kg) kaaluv figuur kannab ebatavalist korki, kummalised külgpaneelid on kaetud üle kõrvade ulatuvate hieroglüüfidega. Tema pea on eestpoolt 90 kraadi pööratud ja ta toetab ennast küünarnukkidel. Kui käed toetuvad keskosale, hoiavad tema käed väikest ümmargust kaussi. Mitmed arheoloogid on määranud selle kuju Kesk -Mehhikos leiduva tolteekide kultuuri juurde, kuna nende pealinnast Tulast avastati sarnane lamav skulptuur. Suur plaat või sümboolika katab kuju rindkere ülemise poole ja on identne nendega, mis leiti püramiidi B peal Tula massiivsetel skulptuuridel.

Kes oli Chac-mool? -Chac-mooli kuju, nagu see täna ilmub Mehhikos, antropoloogia rahvusmuuseumis. (Autori kaudu)

Le Plongeon nimetas kuju "Chacmooliks" või võimsaks sõdalaseks, kes sümboliseerib tapetud sõdurit, kes kannab jumalatele annetusi. Toores kunstiteos nikerdas skulptor kiirustades tüki lihtsa, ilmetu näoga ja kehaga, mis ei ole tüüpiline väga rafineeritud skulptuuridele, mis leiame Maya algusest. Miks Le Pleongeon figuuri Chacmooliks nimetas, on uudishimulik. Figuur ei kanna midagi, mida võiks pidada sõdalase riietuseks. See on kuningas, aadlik või preester minevikust. Kas see näitaja võib olla muinasjutuline Kukulkan, teadmiste tooja, suure veeuputuse ellujäänu, kes naasis tsivilisatsiooni käivitamiseni?

Palliplatsi marker Mixco Viejo postklassikaliselt saidilt Guatemalas. Sellel skulptuuril on kujutatud Kukulkan, lõuad agape, ja tema sõrest väljub inimese sõdalase pea. (Simon Burchell/ CC BY-SA 3.0 )

Kukulkani kultus

Arheoloogid usuvad, et Kukulkani kultus hõlbustas suhtlemist ja rahumeelset kaubandust paljude erinevate sotsiaalse ja etnilise taustaga rahvaste vahel. Algselt keskendus see iidsele Chichen Itza linnale, kuid levis Guatemala mägismaale ja teistesse Kesk -Ameerika osadesse. Asteekidel oli sarnane kuju nimega Quetzalcoatl ja nad nimetasid Teotihuacanis tema järgi püramiidi.

Detail sõdurite templist Chichen Itzas, millel on Chac-mooli kuju. (Bjørn Christian Tørrissen/ CC BY-SA 3.0 )

Kuigi nimi Kukulkan on kogu Kesk -Ameerikas hästi tuntud, on meil vähe dokumente, mis ütleksid meile, kes ta oli ja paljastaks tema pärandi. Mõni on spekuleerinud, et roog, mida tema keskosa peal hoiab, võis sisaldada vedelat elavhõbedat ja selle metallilise peegelduse kaudu kasutati taevast vaatamiseks või ennustamiseks.

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Ükskõik, mis lamamisasendi eesmärk on, on see näitaja oluline Maya ja võib-olla ka teiste Meso-Ameerika kultuuride jaoks. Chac-Mooli väikseid reproduktsioone (kujukesi) on leitud kogu Yucatanist ja tänapäeva Mehhikost, mis näitavad meile, et see kuju oli jumalik ja seda võidi kasutada religioossetel tseremooniatel.

Näiteid Chac-Mooli skulptuuridest on leitud laialdaselt kogu Mesoamericast alates Michoacanist Mehhikos kuni El Salvadorini. Varaseimad näited pärinevad Mesoamerika kronoloogia Terminal Classic perioodist (u.Kr 800–900). Kuigi Le Plongeon leidis suurima Chac-Mooli, avastati Chichen Itzast veel neliteist ja Chalast kaksteist Chac-Mooli. Chichen Itzas kinnitati arhitektuurilises kontekstis kindlalt ainult viis neljateistkümnest, Castillo, Chac-Mooli templi, Põhja kolonnaadi, väikeste laudade ja sõdalaste templis. Ülejäänud leiti olulistesse rajatistesse või nende lähedusse. Väiksem Tula Chac-Mool on peaaegu identne Chichen Itza versiooniga, välja arvatud tema käe külge seotud nuga.

Veri verejumal

Sajandeid hiljem kasutasid Chac-Mooli degenereerunud Meso-Ameerika tsivilisatsioonid, sealhulgas maiade hilisemad põlvkonnad, et esindada verejumalat. Asteekide versioonis sai keskosa küljes olevast taldrikust Cuauhxicalli (kivist kauss inimeste südamete vastuvõtmiseks) ja see oli vastutav kümnete tuhandete meeste, naiste ja laste usulise kultusurma eest, märkides selle üheks madalaimad perioodid inimkonna ajaloos.

Inimohver, nagu on näidatud Codex Magliabechiano, Folio 70.

Algamas uut maailma

Kuna arheoloogid leiavad jätkuvalt vanemaid maiade asulaid kogu Kesk -Ameerikas, on üks punkt selgeks saanud. Just maiad ja mitte olmeekid olid suured õpetajad ja mõjutasid paljusid tänapäeva Mehhiko, Hondurase ja Guatemala piirkonna elanikke. Chac-Mool võis olla üks paljudest olulistest tegelastest, kes järgnes sellele, mis näis olevat olnud suur veeuputus (ja maa muutus), mis hävitas suure osa inimpopulatsioonist kogu Meso-Ameerikas. Natiivmüüdid kirjeldavad tegelast (või figuure), kes levitasid teavet põllumajanduse, astronoomia, kultuuri arengu ja teaduste kohta, et aidata ellujäänutele uut maailma käivitada. Ma usun, et kui jätkame meie jaoks jäetud Maya hoonekomplekside kaevamist ja dešifreerimist, avastame selle väite kohta uusi tõendeid ja mõistame paremini neid ja teisi olulisi isikuid, kes on minevikku mõjutanud.


Sisu

Atlantise saatus põhineb Ron Gilberti, Aric Wilmunderi, Brad P. Taylori ja Vince Lee SCUMM-i lugude süsteemil, [1] kasutades seega sarnast mängu teiste LucasArtsi poolt 1980ndatel ja 1990ndatel välja töötatud nupuvajutusega seiklustega. [2] Mängija uurib mängu staatilist keskkonda, suheldes sprite-põhiste tegelaste ja objektidega, mida nad võivad kursori abil konstrueerida ja anda käske mitmete etteantud tegusõnadega, näiteks „Pick up”, „Use” ja „Talk to” . [3] Vestlused mängimatute tegelastega arenevad valikuliste küsimuste ja vastuste seerias. [4]

Mängija saab juba varakult valida kolme erineva mängurežiimi vahel, millest igaühel on ainulaadsed stseenid, lahendatavad mõistatused ja külastatavad asukohad: meeskonna tee, mõistuse tee ja rusikatee. [5] Team Pathil ühineb peategelase Indiana Jonesiga tema partner Sophia Hapgood, kes toetab kogu mängu. [5] Wits Pathil on arvukalt keerulisi mõistatusi, samas kui rusikatee keskendub suuresti tegevusjärjestustele ja rusikavõitlustele, millest viimane on kahes ülejäänud režiimis täiesti valikuline. [5] LucasArtsi tiitlitele ebatüüpiline on see, et mängija tegelane võib mängu teatud punktides surra, kuigi ohtlikud olukorrad olid kavandatud kergesti äratuntavaks. [6] Skoorisüsteem, Indy Quotient Points, jälgib lahendatud mõistatusi, ületatud takistusi ja leitud olulisi esemeid. [6]

Lugu Atlantise saatus toimub 1939. aastal, Teise maailmasõja eelõhtul. [7] Arheoloogiaprofessor ja seikleja Indiana Jones üritab külastaja härra Smithi palvel leida oma töökoha Barnett College'i arhiivist väikest kuju. Pärast seda, kui Indy on sarvedega kujukese kätte saanud, avab Smith selle võtme, [8] paljastades sädeleva metallhelme. Seejärel tõmbab Smith relva välja ja põgeneb koos kahe esemega, kuid kaotab selle käigus oma mantli. Sees olev isikutunnistus näitab, et "Smith" on natside agent Klaus Kerner. [9] Mantli sees on ka vana ajakiri, mis sisaldab artiklit ekspeditsioonist, kus Jones tegi koostööd noore naisega nimega Sophia Hapgood, kes on vahepeal arheoloogiast loobunud, et saada selgeltnägijaks. [10]

Kartes, et ta võib olla Kerneri järgmine sihtmärk, sõidab Indy New Yorki, et teda hoiatada ja salapärase kuju kohta rohkem teada saada. [11] Seal katkestab ta tema loengu Atlantise kultuurist ja hukkumisest, [12] ja mõlemad naasevad Sophia korterisse. Nad avastavad, et Kerner rüüstas Atlantise esemeid otsides tema kontorit, kuid Sophia ütleb, et ta hoiab enda juures oma kõige väärtuslikumat eset, kaelakee. [13] Talle kuulub veel üks läikivatest helmestest, mida nüüd nimetatakse müstiliseks metallist orichalcumiks, ja asetab selle medaljoni suhu, kutsudes esile Atlantise kuninga Nur-Ab-Sali vaimu. [14] Ta selgitab, et natsiteadlane dr Hans Ubermann otsib Atlantise jõudu, et seda sõjapidamise energiaallikana kasutada. [15]

Seejärel saab Sophia Nur-Ab-Salilt telepaatilise sõnumi, mis juhendab neid leidma Platoni kadunud dialoogi. Hermokraat, raamat, mis juhatab nad linna. [16] Pärast teabe kogumist leiavad Indy ja Sophia selle lõpuks Barnetti kolledži kogust. [17] Parandades Platoni "kümnekordset viga", mis on valesti tõlgitud egiptuse keelest kreeka keelde, määrab dokument kindlaks Atlantise asukoha Vahemeres, 300 miili kaugusel Kreeka kuningriigist, mitte 3000, nagu dialoogis mainiti. Kriitika. [18] [19] Samuti öeldakse, et kadunud linnale ja selle kolooniatele pääsemiseks on vaja kolme spetsiaalset graveeritud kivi. [20] Sel hetkel peab mängija valima meeskonna, mõistuse või rusikate tee vahel, mis mõjutab kivide omandamise viisi. Kõigil kolmel teel kohtub Jones Monte Carlos artefaktide edasimüüjaga, alustab arheoloogilisi kaevamisi Alžiiris, uurib Atlantise labürinti Kreetal Knossos ja Sophia satub natside kätte. Teised asukohad hõlmavad väikese Atlantise koloonia jäänuseid Theral, [21] vesinikupalli ja natside allveelaeva.

Üksikud stsenaariumid lähenevad sel hetkel, kui Indiana asub Thera lähedal Atlantise veealuse sissepääsu juurde ja asub kadunud linna uurima. Ta nuputab, kuidas kasutada erinevaid Atlantise seadmeid ja isegi toota orichalcumi helmeid. Selle teadmisega päästab ta Sophia vanglast ja nad suunduvad Atlantise kesklinna, kus tema medaljon juhatab nad Nur-Ab-Sali koju. Atlantise kuninga vaim võtab Sophia [22] täielikult enda valdusesse ja ainult triki abil vabastab Indy ta kaelakee ja hävitab selle, vabastades ta seega. Vahepeal märkavad nad kõikjal groteskselt deformeerunud luid. Nad liiguvad edasi ja jõuavad lõpuks suure kolossi juurde, mille linnaelanikud ehitasid, püüdes end jumalateks muuta. Nad lootsid, et kümne orichalcumi helme kasutamine korraga võimaldab neil saadud jõuga vett kontrollida, hoides eelseisva katastroofi vältimiseks merepinna madalal. [23]

Teadmatult käivitab Indiana masina, mille peale Kerner, Ubermann ja natsiväed tungivad kohale ja teatavad kavatsusest kasutada masinat jumalateks saamiseks. Masin vastutas varem nähtud muteerunud luustike loomise eest, kuid natsid usuvad, et see töötab nende kallal tänu aaria omadustele. Kerner nõuab esmalt platvormile astumist, väites, et on jumalateenistuseks kõige sobivam. Pärast seda, kui Jones mainis Platoni kümnekordset viga, otsustab Kerner kümne asemel kasutada ühte helmest. Ta muudetakse kohutavalt deformeerunud ja sarvedega olendiks ning hüppab ümbritsevasse laavasse. [23] Indiana on sunnitud järgmisena platvormile astuma, kuid ähvardab Ubermanni igavese hukkamõistuga, kui ta on jumalaks saanud. Kartes oma viha, kasutab Ubermann masinat enda peal ja toidab seda saja helmega. Ta on muudetud roheliseks eeterlikuks olendiks, kuid tema kuju muutub ebastabiilseks ja ta lendab piinatud karjega laiali.

Kaks alternatiivset halba lõppu näevad, et üks peategelastest läbib teise ümberkujundamise, kui Indiana ei suutnud veenda Ubermanni masinat kasutama või kui Sophia ei vabanenud oma vanglast ja Nur-Ab-Sali mõjust. Õnnelikus lõpus alistab Atlantis endiselt aktiivse vulkaani purske, kui duo linnast põgeneb. Viimases stseenis on kujutatud Indiana suudlevat Sophiat põgenemisallveelaeva peal, et ennast lohutada tõendite puudumise tõttu nende avastamiseks. [24]

Omal ajal järg Indiana Jones ja viimane ristisõda: graafiline seiklus otsustati, oli enamik Lucasfilmi mängude töötajatest hõivatud muude projektidega, näiteks Ahvisaare saladus ja Dig. [25] [26] Disainer Hal Barwood oli varem loonud ainult kaks arvutimängu, kuid ta sai projekti eest vastutada oma kogemuste tõttu mängufilmide produtsendi ja kirjanikuna. [25] [26] Ettevõte soovis algselt, et ta looks mängu, mis põhineb sellel Indiana Jones ja ahvikuningas/Elu aed, tagasilükatud stsenaarium, mille Chris Columbus kirjutas kolmandale filmile [26], mis oleks näinud Indiana otsimas Aafrikast Hiina esemeid. [26] [27] Pärast stsenaariumi lugemist otsustas Barwood aga, et idee on ebakvaliteetne, ja palus selle asemel luua mängule originaalse loo. [26] Koos töökaaslase Noah Falsteiniga külastas ta George Lucase töökoha Skywalker Ranch raamatukogu, et otsida võimalikke süžeeseadmeid. [26] Lõpuks otsustasid nad Atlantise, kui vaatasid skeemi "mõnest odavalt kohvilauaraamatust maailma lahendamata saladustest", mis kujutas linna kolme kontsentrilise ringina. [26] Falstein ja Barwood pidasid algselt loo süžeeseadmeks müütilist mõõka Excaliburit, kuid idee jäeti kasutamata, sest see poleks Indiana Jonesile kergelt põhjust andnud kuhugi mujale kui Inglismaale. [28]

Loo kirjutamine hõlmas ulatuslikku uurimistööd paljude pseudoteaduslike raamatute kohta. [29] Inspiratsiooni mängu mütoloogiast, nagu linna kirjeldus ja metallist orichalcumi välimus, ammutati peamiselt Platoni dialoogidest Timaeus ja Kriitika, ja Ignatius Loyola Donnelly raamatust Atlantis: Antediluvi maailm mis taaselustas huvi müüdi vastu XIX sajandil. [25] Orichalcumi maagilised omadused ja mängus kujutatud Atlantise tehnoloogia võeti osaliselt üle vene spiritist Helena Blavatsky väljaannetest jõu vril kohta. [25] Jumalaid tootnud hiiglaslik koloss põhines võimsust koondaval seadmel, mida nimetati "tulekiviks", mida varem kirjeldas Ameerika selgeltnägija Edgar Cayce. [25]

Kui Barwood ja Falstein said loo ligikaudse ülevaate valmis, kirjutas Barwood tegeliku stsenaariumi [30] ning meeskond hakkas mõistatusi välja mõtlema ja keskkonda kujundama. [25] Peakunstniku William Eakeni välja töötatud Atlante'i esemed ja arhitektuur tehti sarnaseks Minose tsivilisatsiooni omadega, mäng aga omakorda tähendab, et minolased olid inspireeritud Atlantisest. [31] [32] Barwood kavatses Atlantise kunstile omada "võõrast" tunnet, kusjuures masinad näisid töötavat pigem veel tundmatu füüsika kui maagia abil. [32] Taustad visandati esmalt pliiatsiga, neile anti kiht põhivärvi, seejärel teisendati need ja viimistleti 256 värviga. [33] Enamasti joonistati need hiirega Deluxe Paintiga, kuigi umbes kümme protsenti olid arendustsükli lõpus skaneeritud maalid. [31] Regulaarsete kujundusmuutuste tõttu pidid kunstnikud sageli pilte üle vaatama. [32] Tegelasanimatsioonid olid täielikult rotoskoopitud koos Steve Purcelli videoga Indiana jaoks ja Collette Michaudiga Sophia ettepanekute jaoks. [26] Peamine kunstimeeskond, kuhu kuulusid Eaken, James Dollar ja Avril Harrison, pidas Barwoodi vahel nõu, et aidata lahendada mängu graafilisemaid mõistatusi, näiteks katkine robot Atlantises. [31] [32]

Falstein soovitas kolme erineva tee lisamist ja lisas veel umbes kuus kuud arendusaega, peamiselt kogu lisadialoogi tõttu, mis tuli Indiana ja Sophia vaheliseks suhtlemiseks ellu viia. [26] Kokku kulus mängu lõpuleviimiseks umbes kaks aastat, mis algas 1990. aasta alguses [26] ja kestis kuni disketi väljaandmiseni 1992. aasta juunis. [34] Ainus aspekt, millega Barwood üldse ei tegelenud, oli tootmine 1993. aasta mais CD-ROM-il välja antud täiustatud "talkie" väljaande häältega, mille asemel käitus Tamlynn Barra. [26] [35] Ligikaudu 8000 dialoogirida ülekandesalvestused kestsid umbes neli nädalat ja need tehti Ameerika televisiooni- ja raadiokunstnike föderatsiooni näitlejatega. Harrison Fordil polnud võimalik Indiana Jonesi häält salvestada, seega kasutati asendusnäitlejat Doug Lee. [36] "Talkie" versioon lisati hiljem 2009. aasta märulimängu Wii versiooni lisamängurežiimina Indiana Jones ja kuningate staap, [37] ja levitatakse digitaalse sisu edastamise tarkvara Steam kaudu samal aastal Windows XP, Windows Vista ja Mac OS X pordina. Wii ja Steami versioonidel on täiustatud heliriba MIDI -versioonid koos häälte ja tekstiga. [38] [39]

Paketi illustratsioon Atlantise saatus oli inspireeritud Indiana Jones Drew Struzani filmiplakatid. [31] Eaken joonistas selle kolme päeva jooksul pärast lahkarvamusi turundusosakonna ja välise kunstijuhiga, millist kontseptsiooni kasutada. [26] [31] [32] Clint Bajakian, Peter McConnell ja Michael Land lõid mängule heliriba, korraldades John Williamsi peateema "The Raiders March" erinevatele kompositsioonidele. [1] DOS-versioon kasutab järjestikmuusikat, mida taasesitab kas sisemine kõlar, AdLib või Sound Blaster helikaardi FM-süntees või Roland MT-32 helimooduli näidispõhine süntees. [40] Mängu väljatöötamise ajal kirjutasid William Messner-Loebs ja Dan Barry Barwoodi ja Falsteini loo põhjal sarja Dark Horse Comics, mis seejärel kandis pealkirja. Indiana Jones ja Atlantise võtmed. [41] Eaken mainis ühes intervjuus arendusmeeskonna tunniajaseid kohtumisi, mille eesmärk oli välja pakkuda parem tiitel kui Atlantise saatus, kuigi töötajad ei osanud kunagi mõelda ühele ja lõpetasid alati selliste nimedega nagu "Indiana Jones Does Atlantis". [31] [32] Lõplik pealkiri oli Barwoodi idee, kes pidi kõigepealt veenma ettevõtte juhtkonda ja turundusmeeskonda, et nad ei nimetaks mängu lihtsalt "Indy järgmiseks seikluseks". [26]

LucasArts töötas välja täiustatud väljaande porti Sega CD jaoks, [42] kuid väljalase tühistati lõpuks seetõttu Ahvisaare saladus ei saanud platvormil suurt kaubanduslikku edu. [43] Arkaad-stiilis mäng Indiana Jones ja Atlantise saatus: tegevusmäng kujundas Attention to Detail, ilmus peaaegu samaaegselt seikluskaaslasega ja järgib lõdvalt oma süžeed. [44]

Vastavalt Rogue Leaders: Lugu LucasArtsist, Atlantise saatus oli "kommertshitt". [51] Noah Falstein teatas, et see oli LucasArtsi kõigi aegade edukaim seiklustiitel 2009. aastaks, mil selle aja jooksul oli selle müük ületanud 1 miljoni ühiku. Ta meenutas, et mängu mängijapublik oli 30% naissoost, mis on kõrgem näitaja kui enamik LucasArtsi tiitleid enne selle avaldamist. [52]

Arvustajad saidilt Mänguinfo, Arvutimängude ülevaade, Mängude ajakiri ja Ajakiri Game Players nimega Atlantise saatus aasta parim seiklusmäng ja hiljem sai IGN selle "klassikaks". [53] [26] [54] Patricia Hartley ja Kirk Lesser Draakon nimetas seda "kohutavaks" ja "mõtlemapanevaks". Nad kiitsid süsteemi "Meeskond, mõistus, rusikad" mängu kordusväärtuse suurendamiseks, kuid uskusid, et meeskondlik valik oli parim. Arvustajad võtsid selle kokku kui "kohustuslikku ostu". [45] Lim Choon Wee of the New Straits Times kiitis mängu graafikat ja arcade stiilis järjestusi. Esimese kohta kirjutas ta: "Tähelepanu detailidele on suurepärane, suurepäraste värvide ja särava animatsiooniga." Ta kordas Hartley ja Lesseri arvamust, et "Team" oli mängu parim viis. Wee lõpetas oma arvustuse helistades Atlantise saatus "suurepärane mäng, isegi löömine Ahvisaare saladus 2." [55]

Charles Ardai Arvutimängude maailm 1992. aasta septembris kiitis ta oma seadet "õige gravitatsiooni, rumaluse, ehtsa stipendiumi ja müstilise mõmmi kombinatsiooni sisaldamise eest" ning nimetas seda "piisavalt tugevaks süžeeks, et pidada oma kõrval ükskõik millist Indy Ta kiitis väga mängu Team, Wits, Fists süsteemi, mille kohta ta kirjutas: "Kunagi varem pole mäng pööranud nii palju tähelepanu sellele, mida mängija soovib." Talle meeldis ka selle graafika ja mitmekesine asukoht. Kuigi ta viitas Ardai võttis kokku pikseldatud tegelaskujud ja hääle puudumine Atlantise saatus kui "ülevoolav, naljakas, hästi koostatud ja nutikas mäng", mis parandas oma eelkäijat, Viimane ristisõda. [56] QuestBusters kiitis ka mängu, öeldes, et see "pole mitte ainult parim seiklus, mille LucasArts on kunagi teinud. vaid on ka ilmselt kõigi aegade toredam graafiline seiklus. Arvustaja kirjutas "Atlantis särab 256 värvitoonis "ja et" muusikud ja heliefektide spetsialistid väärivad mütsiotsat ", öeldes, et heli" täiendab filmi mängimise efekti ". Ta kirjeldas mõistatusi üsna loomingulistena ja kindlasti õiglastena" mitu lahendust. Arvustaja jõudis järeldusele, et mäng oli "kohustuslik ost kõigile seiklejatele" ja "saab minu hääle." Aasta parima otsingu "eest, mis on seotud Ultima allilm, "mis mõlemad määratlevad oma žanrite tipptaseme uuesti". [57]

Järgmisel aastal märkis Ardai, et "erinevalt paljudest hiljutistest CD-ROM-i uuendustest, mis on olnud piinlikud ja amatöörlikud", on CD-ROM-i versioonil "kvaliteeditempel kõikjal", millele on lisatud dialoogi ja heliefekte. tummfilm ja sellest kõneleja. Pärast sellise mängu kogemist on raske monitorilt teksti lugemise juurde tagasi pöörduda. " Ta jõudis järeldusele, et "LucasArts on teinud laitmatut tööd. Must-see". [58] 1994. aasta aprillis ütles ajakiri, et "ketta versioon Atlantis on lõbus, kuid paljuski on see lihtsalt järjekordne seiklusmäng ", kuid kõne muutis CD -versiooni" Indiana Jonesi filmi peeneks lähenduseks, kus peategelane on teie ", lõpetades" Kui soovite mõjuvat põhjust osta CD-ROM, ärge otsige enam. "[59] Andy Nuttal Amiga vorming kirjutas: "Mõistatused on väga läbimõeldud ja sisaldavad mõningaid peeneid, peeneid elemente, mis annavad teile lahendamisel tõelise löögi." Ta märkis, et mäng on "täis elemente, mis on tõeliselt naljakad". Tema ainus etteheide puudutas mängu lineaarsust võrreldes Ahvide saar 2 kuid ta lõpetas, öeldes: "See on igatahes väike punkt ja see ei tohiks teid edasi lükata selle ostmisel, mis on üks parimaid Amiga seiklusi üldse." [48] ​​2008. aastal Retro Gamer Magazine kiitis seda kui "meisterlikku lugude jutustamist ja lummavat seiklust". [26]

1992. aastal Arvutimängude maailm nimega Atlantise saatus aasta ühe parima seiklusmängu hulka. [60] See esitati 1993. aasta mänguarendajate konverentsil auhinnale. [61] 1994. aastal PC Gamer USA nimega CD-ROM versioon Atlantise saatus kui kõigi aegade 38. parim arvutimäng. Toimetajad kirjutasid, et disketiväljaanne oli "kohutav mäng", kuid CD-ROM-i väljaanne paranes sellega, "seades [hääletusele" uue tööstusstandardi ". [62] Samal aastal PC Gamer UK nimetas selle kõigi aegade 13. parimaks arvutimänguks. Toimetus nimetas seda "luksuslikuks pidulauaks nii seiklustele kui ka Indy fännidele". [63] 1996. aastal Arvutimängude maailm kuulutas Indiana Jones ja Atlantise saatus 93. parim arvutimäng, mis kunagi välja antud. [64] 2011. aastal nimetasid seiklusmängijad nime Atlantise saatus 11. parim seiklusmäng, mis kunagi ilmunud. [65]

1998. aastal PC -mängija kuulutas selle 41. parimaks arvutimänguks, mis eales välja antud, ja toimetus nimetas seda "verstapostiks selle žanri suurima eksponendi LucasArtsi jaoks ja see on seiklejatele igal pool mängimiseks vajalik". [66]

Pärast mängu ilmumist mõtlesid Joe Pinney, Hal Barwood, Bill Stoneham ja Aric Wilmunder välja loo seiklusžanri oletatavale järeltulijale. [67] Pealkirjaga Indiana Jones ja Raudne Fööniks, see pandi paika pärast Teist maailmasõda ja sellel esinesid natsid, kes otsisid varjupaika Boliivias, püüdes Adolf Hitlerit filosoofide kiviga ellu äratada. [29] Mäng oli arendamisel 15 kuud, enne kui seda Euroopa arvutimessil esitleti. [29]

Kui aga Saksa koordinaatorid avastasid, kui laialdaselt mäng mängis neonatsismi, teavitasid nad LucasArtsit mängu turundamise raskustest oma riigis. [68] Kuna Saksamaa oli seiklusmängude oluline väline turg, kartis LucasArts, et madalamad tulud ei hüvita arenduskulusid, ja tühistas seejärel mängu. [68] Süžee kohandati hiljem Lee Marrsi neljaosaliseks Dark Horse Comics sarjaks, [67] mis avaldati igakuiselt detsembrist 1994 kuni märtsini 1995. [69] [70] Intervjuus kommenteeris Barwood, et arendusmeeskond peaks on loole eelnevalt põhjalikumalt mõelnud, nimetades seda tundetuks ega kahetse pealkirja tühistamist. [68]

Teine järelmäng nimega Indiana Jones ja saatuse oda oli planeeritud, mis keerles ümber Longinuse oda. [68] Arendus telliti väikesele stuudiole, kuid lõpuks peatati, kuna LucasArtsil puudusid kogemused väliste meeskondade järelevalvega. [68] Elaine Lee muutis loo lõdvalt ümber veel üheks neljaosaliseks koomiksisarjaks, mis ilmus aprillist juulini 1995. [71] [72]


Üksikasjalik ülevaade raamatust

Kui kodutu mees Jack Curtis päästab noore politseinik Amy Tomi elu hullumeelsusest, tappes mehe enesekaitseks, päästab ta tahtmatult veel kuue inimese elu-kõik nooruslikud, kuulsad ja edukad New Yorgi elanikud, kes olid surma.

Kuid surmale ei anta tema auhinda ära.

Kuna ohvrite arv kasvab pidevalt, teevad Jack ja Amy meeleheitliku katse päästa võimalikult palju elusid, enne kui on liiga hilja.

Spioonid ei tule paremaks kui Adam Gray.

USA valitsuse ülisalajase Persona projekti juht agent on valitsuse kõige väärtuslikum vara.

Tänu eksperimentaalsele tehnoloogiale saab Adam enda kanda võtta igaühe iseloomu ja mälestusi, olgu see siis Vene relvakaupmees, kõrgete panustega mängur või tuumateadlane. Ta saab teada iga saladuse, mida nad teavad.

Sellegipoolest on kõige ohtlikumad saladused, mida Adam teab, tema enda omad.

As he goes on the chase of a terrorist hell-bent on killing millions, Adam realizes that, despite his ability to get into the minds of others, his own memories are a mystery.

Masked in his past is the key to a destructive conspiracy, one whose masterminds won’t rest until they cover up their crimes.

Grim. Courageous. Unshakeable. Merciless. Damaged. Lethal.

None of those words can adequately describe Leviticus Gold.

Instead, try "celebrity". From rock star to actor, from author to explorer, from sportsman to fashion icon, raconteur to libertine and hedonist, he has tried it all.

When a shocking murder however takes place in the middle of a flight, the Jack of all trades and master of none now attempts to wear a new hat—one of a detective.

He is quite determined to catch the killer. Why wouldn’t he, given that he is the prime suspect?

Murder On The Orient Excess is a short story by international bestselling author, Andy McDermott.

The Hunt for Atlantis: Nina Wilde, a committed archaeologist, is convinced that she can find the lost city of Atlantis. And she is willing to go to all extremes just prove her theory.

With the help of sequestered billionaire Kristian Frost, his stunning daughter, Kari, and former SAS bodyguard Eddie Chase, Nina embarks on a dangerous mission to prove the existence of the ancient civilization.

The Tomb of Hercules: Archaeologist Nina Wilde and her ex-SAS bodyguard, Eddie Chase, once again find themselves in the midst of another dangerous mission, one that entails proving the existence of a tomb containing the remains of the mythical hero Hercules.

Should they find it, it will without question be the biggest discovery in history.

The Secret of Excalibur: American Archaeologist Nina Wilde and her fiancé, ex-SAS bodyguard Eddie Chase, are hoping to unwind and share some intimate time together when their plans are immediately thwarted after a meeting with an old acquaintance.

A global race has begun to reclaim the mighty and legendary sword of King Arthur, for it is believed that whoever carries the sword will wield immeasurable strength and dominance.

His name is Alex Reeve, codenamed Operative 66.

An ex-special ops soldier and one of the UK's most lethal assets, Reeve is part of the covert SC9 - an elite security service tasked with defeating the country's most dangerous enemies.

Reeve now however finds himself on the wrong side of things.

Accused of treason, he becomes a fugitive, with his team members under strict instructions to do everything they can to eliminate the 'rogue asset'.

Why is the loyal soldier being targeted? Who exactly stabbed him in the back?

Reeve is facing overwhelming odds, given how all state machineries are being used to pursue him.

But if there is one man capable of not just surviving but also uncovering the truth, then it’s Operative 66.


Rogue Blades Author: In a Dark Place: The Influence of Robert E. Howard on the Malazan World

At first glance, and given the subject of this essay, it might seem I am invoking an echo of Robert E. Howard’s sword-and-sorcery tales. That first warrior might well be Conan, leading a band of Cimmerians into the Border Kingdom. At least until we come to the last sentence, the question asked. What runs through their minds?

Howard would have an answer. It was a theme he revisited again and again. In his mind, there was something pure, unsullied, in the barbarian. And something insipid, corrupt and decadent in civilization. If the Celtic or Pictish warrior was the hero, the villains were Romans. At times, he would twist and turn away from that theme, muddy the waters a bit, even occasionally drawing on some ancient, pre-human, primal horror against which humanity must contend. And eventually, he would crown a barbarian king of one of those civilized nations, ruling by the notched edge of his axe, and in so doing, impose the barbarism of tyranny—a cold, singular justice to cut through all the grey shades of complexity that comes with civilization.

As a twelve-year-old, jumping with both feet into the fantasy realms of Howard, Burroughs and Leiber, I was fine with all that. Civilization? Who needs it. I spent most weekends out in the wilds of Manitoba, all year round, as my family fished the lakes and rivers to keep the freezer stocked with enough food to keep us from going hungry. I wandered through untamed places where Picts might lurk in the thickets, where at any moment the prow of a Viking ship might come into view where the river bends, iron weapons glinting as painted shields were readied.

And in seeing the ongoing destruction of those wild places, the relentless taming of the world in which I lived, I shared Howard’s disgust for all things civilized. Although utterly unknowing at the time, I was living another man’s nostalgia, in the same manner that young fans of J.R.R. Tolkien lived his, through reading THE HOBBIT and THE LORD OF THE RINGS. All too young, we became imbued with melancholy, a sense of things lost, the regrets piling up. We were innocents bemoaning the loss of innocence. It was heady stuff.

It is difficult for me to gauge the full measure of Howard’s influence on me, since it goes way beyond my career as a writer of Epic Fantasy. That damned map in the Conan books planted the seed of my becoming an archaeologist, of minoring in both history and classics, writing essays on the fall of Rome and the ‘Barbarian Invasions’ of Europe in the 5th and 6th centuries A.D.

The hidden legacy of the past infused Howard’s map of the Hyborian Age. The connections to history were obscure, yet detectable. Everything was steeped in mystery, so many secrets lost. How I pored over that map!

That sense of mystery haunts me to this day. The notion of fallen civilizations sent me into landscapes all over the world, wandering among ruins, and in those ruins, why, my imagination simply catches fire. From this come all the questions of ‘What if.’ What if the Picts were the original indigenous population of the British Isles? What if the Romans had been driven from the beaches of England in 55 B.C.? What if Caesar bought the big one at Alesia? What if the Varangian Guard had thrown back the Turks at the walls of Constantinople? What if Atlantis wasn’t just a story?

I can imagine Howard studying old history books, perhaps in his small hometown’s crappy library, and I’m there with him, riding the same waves of wonder and conjecture and lingering over every turning point in history. What if the Christians hadn’t burned down the Great Library at Alexandria?

And walking the sites of past civilizations, past cultures, witnessing the seeming madness of the final days of the Mayan civilization, my mind’s eye filling with scenes of blood sacrifice and unmitigated slaughter, standing at the edge of cenotes where they threw young women into the water, drugged and weighed down in some travesty of Joseph Campbell’s illustrious cycle of life and death. And still the rains refused to come.

Archaeology is all about fragments, the barest remnants of past lives and past worlds. If I could conjure up Howard’s ghost, I’d lead him onto a scrubby hill in Puglia, to wander among shattered Greek pottery from the 5th century B.C., along with the occasional Neolithic potsherd from the people their colony displaced. I’d show him the caves nearby with their Byzantine frescos and forgotten altars. I like to think he’d be smiling, fascinated by whatever detail I offered, and in his ethereal gaze there would be strange peoples wandering the landscape, the flames of burning settlements, pirates plying the coast, Turkish warships bombarding the citadel of Otranto, and heroes emerging from the smoke and ashes.

It’s what lies beyond the tales themselves, whispering between every word. When I eventually set to creating the Malazan world, alongside my co-conspirator, Ian C. Esslemont, we conjured up the almost ineffable impulses that both drive and haunt archaeologists, and we made that the heart of the fictional world we created. There is a quality to ruins, to abandoned places, to ancient sites of ritual, worship and evocation. To walk such places is to fall into silence, the eyes scanning the ground, reading the signs, to pause again and again, seeking that elusive sense of… something.

In our creation of the Malazan world, we took that midagi and made it this thing.


Sisu

“ ” Saint Paul's Epistle to the Galatians had transmitted God's promise to the Jewish patriarchs, as an unbroken patrimony, to the Christians, and in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries you could hardly throw away an orange peel in the Holy Land without hitting a fervent excavator. General Gordon , the biblical fanatic later slain by the Mahdi at Khartoum , was very much to the fore. William Albright of Baltimore was continually vindicating Joshua's Jericho and other myths. Some of these diggers, even given the primitive techniques of the period, counted as serious rather than merely opportunistic. Morally serious too: the French Dominican archaeologist Roland de Vaux gave a hostage to fortune by saying that "if the historical faith of Israel is not founded in history, such faith is erroneous, and therefore, our faith is also." A most admirable and honest point, on which the good father may now be taken up.

While — in modernity — the archeology of the near and middle east has become a serious and respectable academic field in itself, without which our understanding of the spurious and man-made nature of various religious texts would be severely diminished, prominent scholars in the field of "biblical archaeology" such as Professor of Ancient History and Archaeology Eric H. Cline , author of Biblical Archaeology: A Very Short Introduction (published by Oxford University Press and winner of the 2011 Biblical Archaeology Society's "Best Popular Book on Archaeology"), Α] takes the time to warn and warn again of the rampant interest in the field from well-funded pseudoscientific cranks out to prove whichever of the abrahamitic myths they happen to subscribe to personally, stating: Β]

While biblical archaeologists working today are generally more interested in learning about details of daily life in the ancient biblical world than proving or disproving the accounts in the Bible, many lay people have these priorities reversed. They want to know: Did the Flood take place? Did Abraham and the Patriarchs exist? Were Sodom and Gomorrah destroyed by fire and brimstone? Did the Exodus occur? These were some of the original questions in biblical archaeology that intrigued the earliest pioneers of the field. They still resonate today but are far from being answered by biblical archaeologists.

In fact, solutions and answers to such questions are more frequently proposed by pseudo-archeologists or archaeological charlatans, who take the public's money to support ventures that offer little chance of furthering the cause of knowledge. Every year, "scientific" expeditions embark to look for the Garden of Eden, Noah's Ark, Sodom and Gomorrah, the Ark of the Covenant, and the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel. These expeditions are often supported by prodigious sums of money donated by gullible believers who eagerly accept tales spun by sincere but misguided amateurs or by rapacious confidence men.

These ventures, which usually originate outside the confines of established scholarly institutions, engender confusion about what is real and what is fake. By practicing pseudo-archeology rather than by using established archeological principles and real science, the archaeological charlatans bring discredit to the field of biblical archaeology.

Eminent biblical scholar Michael Coogan and author of The Old Testament: A Very Short Introduction (published by Oxford University Press) also chimes in to underscore the inherent fail in pursuing pseudo-archaeology to try and prove the patently false myths recorded in scripture: Γ]

Correlating the meager textual references with the extensive archaeological discoveries has been controversial, to say the least, and similar problems exist for almost every excavated site whose ancient identification is known. As a result, it is now clear that archaeology cannot "prove" the Bible's historicity.

A textbook example of this exact crankery is the slow but steady stream of nonsensical Noah's Ark sightings every few years.


The Harmful Pseudoarchaeology of Mythological Atlantis

Having made its recent debut, Lost City Explorers is a brand new comic series by Aftershock Comics. In this series, siblings Helen and Homer Coates find themselves reeling from the sudden death of their archaeologist father, Dr. Tom Coates, who they believe has died in an underground work accident. That is until they find out from a former colleague of his that he didn’t die in an accident, as they were told, but rather disappeared after opening up a doorway into a city hidden beneath New York City. After searching their father’s basement office, Helen and Homer find out that the hidden city their father was searching for just might be the city of Atlantis. Together, and with help from partners and friends June, Maddi, and Edwin, the siblings set off to find out the truth behind their father’s disappearance and find out if Atlantis really exists. Atlantis has a long history of mystery, adventure, and exploration behind it, and it’s exciting to imagine this legendary city sitting underneath New York City! But Atlantis has another history, a darker history, that readers might not know about. And it’s this history of racism and colonialism that we really need to be aware of. Now that Atlantis is back in the forefront of comics thanks to Aquaman and the rumored forthcoming appearance of Namor in the MCU, it’s time to talk about it, and how the popularization of a historical Atlantis was motivated by racist ideologies of the 19th century.

This article is not an indictment of the comic itself, its creators, or even the inclusion of Atlantis. Rather, its purpose is to challenge the unquestioning acceptance of a particular kind of historical Atlantis, which has implications far beyond the imaginative. The overall storyline is a fun, adventurous read. If you’re interested in comics full of adventure, myth, and exploration than you’ll like Lost City Explorers. The characters are diverse and enjoyable, and the illustrations simple but effective. There was just enough detail in each page to give you the sense of a cityscape, office building, subway, cavern, etc. without going overboard into details that could distract you from what was happening. And where you needed extra artistic detail (e.g. anything related to Tom Coates’s work and Atlantis, such as the walls in Coates’s office in issues #1 and #2 with detailed drawings of maps and artifacts), it was there.

For the most part, I liked that the extra details were seemingly used in a way to connect the storyline to reality and encourage readers to become their own researchers. For example, many of the detailed images of maps and artifacts we see on the walls of Coates’s office have actually been used by explorers, historians, and authors engaged in the search for Atlantis. Other details, however, served as stark reminder of the colonialist uses of Atlantis, such as the depiction of a human skull wearing a First Nations headdress in issue #5, which made it difficult for me to truly get lost in the storyline.

This is why we really need to talk about Atlantis itself. It is, after all, the core of the series. And it’s a bit problematic. As an archaeologist who spends a lot of my time examining pseudoarchaeology, the myth of Atlantis is a story I’m quite familiar with. Most people are, thanks to things like Disney’s Atlantis: kadunud impeerium, DC’s Aquaman, and the popular television show Stargate: Atlantis, in addition to other documentaries and books produced about the city. But there’s one important fact about Atlantis’s history which is conveniently left out of the books and documentaries — Atlantis was never a real city. And because of growing concerns around the increase in misappropriations of the past by nationalistic and supremacist movements in particular, this is a fact archaeologists are paying more attention to and trying to make better known.

Atlantis comes from the writings of Greek philosopher Plato. Sometime between 380 and 360 B.C., Plato wrote The Republic, Timaeus, ja Critias. All of these books feature fictional, allegorical conversations in which Plato, Greek philosopher Socrates, and a few other characters discuss the state of justice as a thought experiment. A “what if” conversation. What if Athens is the perfect society, the pinnacle of justice? What if there existed a city that was the exact opposite of Athens, what would it be like? That’s where Atlantis comes in, invented by Plato as the antithesis to Athens. Atlantis is described as having been technologically advanced, orderly, and law-abiding in its early days when it belonged to the god Poseidon. But over time as the city began to grow it became corrupt and unruly. Wanting to expand their empire, the Atlanteans began to spread out and conquered parts of Libya, Egypt, and Europe. But the mighty Athenians lead a resistance against the disorderly Atlanteans, beating them and liberating the occupied lands. After the Gods decided that Atlanteans had lost their way, they sent three powerful earthquakes to Atlantis and the city sank and disappeared into the ocean.

So if the city of Atlantis was always a fictional story, what changed? Why today do we think Atlantis was a real place? It’s a transformation spanning several centuries, beginning with Europeans finding out about the Americas and culminating in Ignatius Donnelly’s Atlantis: The Antediluvian World.

When Donnelly published Atlantis: The Antediluvian World in 1882, Atlantis was truly transformed from myth into reality. Inspired by the works of archaeologists, historians, and scholars before him, Donnelly was convinced Atlantis was real and he was determined to add some science to the argument to convince everyone that it was real. The purpose of Atlantis: The Antediluvian World was not to reveal Donnelly had found the ruins of Atlantis, because he hadn’t. Instead it was more of a “Hear me out for a moment” kind of book. Donnelly made 13 claims about Atlantis, all revolving around his core theory that human civilization had originated in Atlantis (in fact, this was literally #3 on his list). But his idea of “civilization” only included select nations around the world (#4 on the list). He described how his evidence from fields including geology, botany, history, linguistics, and archaeology could link these nations to Atlantis. If these theories could be proven true, Donnelly said, then the mystery behind the origins of human civilization would be solved. As an added bonus, the opening chapters of the Book of Genesis would also be be proven true (“antediluvian” means “the time before the biblical flood”). And since not a lot was known about human origins at this point in time, it was an easy argument to buy. Atlantis: The Antediluvian World quickly became hugely popular and built the foundation for the Atlantis theories we see today.

Donnelly had laid the groundwork on how and where to find the proof that Atlantis had not only existed, but that it was the origin of human civilization. He called on others to take up the challenge to find the physical proof of his claims, and many did. Unfortunately, Atlantis became intertwined with human evolution and the idea of superior (those descended from Atlanteans) versus inferior (those not descended from Atlanteans) nations. In 1888 Helena Blavatsky, founder of the Theosophical Society, published The Secret Doctrine, which was inspired by Donnelly’s arguments with an added splash of esotericism and spiritualism. Sisse The Secret Doctrine, Blavatsky discussed her theories of evolution and what she called the “root races”, in which Atlantis was considered the fourth root race. She believed Atlanteans were the ancestors to the fifth and most superior race – the Aryans.

The Secret Doctrine had been drafted with help from Edward Fawcett, whose brother Percy Fawcett disappeared in 1925 while searching the Amazon for the city of Z, which he believed was a colony of Atlantis. In the early 1930’s, Edgar Cayce claimed to have been able to psychically connect to what Theosophists called the Akashic Records, which allowed him to see detailed images of Atlantis and Atlanteans. Atlantis also played a large role in 1930’s Nazi Germany when Heinrich Himmler and Herman Wirth founded the Institute for the Study of Atlantis. The institute’s purpose was to find proof Atlantis had once existed to prove the superiority of the Aryan race, because Himmler believed Blavatsky’s claims about Atlantis. Today, Atlantis and the idea of hyperdiffusion is still continually brought up in both discussions looking for explanations of the achievements of people in the past and discussions of nationalistic superiority.

Comics and graphic novels impact society. They can reflect current trends, interests, and issues in society and also draw interest to trends, interests, and issues in society in an almost cyclical relationship. As interest in a topic rises, it appears more often in comics. In turn, that increased appearance of a topic in comics will draw the attention of those who might not know much about it. Comics can also become positive learning tools and foster critical thinking skills of their readers. This becomes especially important as comics and graphic novels today are concerned with accuracy, whether through accurately portraying a historical event or the cultural and societal experiences of their characters. That’s why, after knowing about the racist and colonialist history of the myth of the city of Atlantis, it became difficult for me to appreciate the way Atlantis was presented in Lost City Explorers.

From Brasseur de Bourbourg and Le Plongeon to Donnelly and Blavatsky and the modern theories of today, we see direct reference to and inspiration from these pseudoarchaeological arguments throughout Lost City Explorers. Most notably in Coates’s journal entries at the back of each issue, describing “evidence” for the existence of Atlantis in a style very similar to Donnelly’s Antediluvian World. The problem is that these theories were built off the idea of one group of people being superior to another. Early Atlantis proponents like de Sigüenza y Góngora, Brasseur de Bourbourg, and Le Plongeon all laid the groundwork for Donnelly by claiming that there was no way the Indigenous peoples of Mexico could be responsible for their own incredible architecture and mythologies. They erased and rewrote the histories of Mexico to incorporate Atlantis, because Atlantis was easier to believe than the fact that Indigenous peoples were responsible for their own histories.

Donnelly expanded these ideas even further in his book, the ideas of which become part of the storyline in Lost City Explorers. In fact, we see direct reference to this idea of cultural erasure through a statement from Coates’s colleague Dr. Leigh Whipple in the very first issue, who tells Helen and Maddi that there was an ancient civilization on Manhattan “even before Native Americans settled here.” Now that the Lenape and Wappinger Nations histories have been erased, readers are able to use the information in the journal entries to understand a new history, one that is designed to lead them to believe Atlantis is underneath Manhattan.

Just like Donnelly, the five journal entries are drawing together various lines of evidence and trying to find some connection between them to convince the readers that Atlantis was real. For example, entry one suggests the idea of shared traits by arguing that cultures all around the world have similar stories regarding earthquakes and floods (the idea of shared memory is #5 on Donelly’s list). Other lost cities are mentioned, like Brasseur de Bourbourg’s Mu, and Lemuria, which was described by Blavatsky in The Secret Doctrine as being the third root race and ancestral to Atlantis. The entry also includes mention that Egyptian fables and First Nations myths share too many details to be coincidence (Donnelly’s #7 states that Egyptian and Peruvian mythology represent the original religion of Atlantis), and shared beliefs revolving around floods (Donnelly’s #13) are mentioned repeatedly throughout the five journal entries.. The entries attempt to tie these all to Plato’s description of Atlantis, stating we must take his accounts at face value and that the use of science will help fill in the blanks to prove these accounts true (#2 on Donelly’s list).

And we do see lots of talk of real-life science in the entries being used to support the storyline. Gluons and electro-magnetic radiation (mentioned in journal entry one) are real fields of scientific study. Dr. Masaru Emoto (mentioned in journal entry five) was a real researcher who actually conducted research, which has now been discredited, into the effect of vibrations on water molecules and who claimed water could react to human consciousness. As I mentioned earlier, many of the maps shown in Coates’s office at the end of issue #1 and beginning of issue #2 were developed and used by real historians and explorers looking for Atlantis. Honestly, I think it’s really cool that Lost City Explorers strives for accuracy in their pages. But that’s also what frustrates me. The comic writers put in a lot of effort to include actual science and theories about Atlantis. But in Lost City Explorers it doesn’t matter that these theories are all pseudoscientific and pseudohistorical, what matters is that they’re being presented to the readers as legitimate. And the writers add legitimacy to them by presenting them alongside legitimate scientific fields of study, like gluons and electro-magnetic radiation. If readers spend even a little bit of time of Google, it becomes easy to believe Lost City Explorers is based on truth. In fact, in 2018 57% of Americans believed ancient, highly advanced civilizations like Atlantis once existed. And because these theories now appear to be legitimate, it becomes easier to ignore the cultural erasure, colonialism, and racism they have contributed to.

My disappointment in Lost City Explorers is in the way the line between fiction and non-fiction is being blurred and opening the door of misinformation for their readers. I find myself thinking a lot about how comics in North America have a history of reflecting the world around them. Wonder Woman in the 1940’s and 50’s reflected the women’s rights movements of the time, as did Captain Marvel in the 1970’s. The introduction of the X-Men in 1963 reflected the Civil Rights Movement. Like many other comics, Lost City Explorers is simply reflecting the world we live in. We live in an incredibly diverse society, and in response we see wonderfully diverse characters in this series. But we also live in a society which finds itself still under the shadow of colonialism, where history continues to be challenged, erased, and retold. We see that reflected in the 57% of Americans who believe in the existence of civilizations like Atlantis, and in response we see a comic series about Atlantis built off the very theories which give us that 57%.

Now that Lost City Explorers is being adapted for television, we’ll see even more of that 57% being reached by these stories. Comics aren’t static they’re changing and readapting themselves all the time. My hope is that creators spend some time learning a bit more about Atlantis as they move along, and re-adapt their stories to be more conscientious of the ways in which Atlantis has been used through history. Because detaching Atlantis from this history perpetuates the harms it has caused. Talk to archaeologists and historians, as there are many of us who would genuinely love to talk about Atlantis. Because there’s no reason comic creators can’t use Atlantis in both an entertaining and conscientious way. For example, why not put Atlantis in its own universe? It doesn’t need to be used as a justification for the awesomeness of people. Atlantis sounds like an awesome city in and of itself, so why not give it its own world to exist within? Like Maya Angelou once said, “Do the best you can until you know better. Then when you know better, do better.”


Sisu

Born in France to American parents, and raised in Colorado and Montana, United States, Childress went to University of Montana–Missoula to study archaeology, but left college in 1976 at 19 to begin travelling in pursuit of his archaeological interests. [1] [3] After several years in Asia and then Africa, Childress moved in 1983 to Stelle, Illinois, a community founded by New Age writer Richard Kieninger Childress had been given one of Kieninger's books while touring Africa. [1] Childress chronicled his explorations in the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s in his Lost Cities and Ancient Mysteries series of books.

Childress's first book, A Hitchhikers Guide to Africa and Arabia, was published in 1983 by Chicago Review Press. In 1984, Childress moved to Kempton, Illinois, and established a publishing company named Adventures Unlimited Press, [1] [4] which is a sole proprietorship. His company published his own works and then those of other authors, presenting fringe-scientific theories regarding ancient civilizations, cryptozoology, and little-known technologies. [1] [4] In 1992, Childress founded the World Explorers Club, which occasionally runs tours to places he writes about, and publishes a magazine called World Explorer. [1]

Childress has appeared on NBC (The Mysterious Origins of Man), Fox Network (Sightings ja Encounters), Discovery Channel, A&E, and History (e.g. Ancient Aliens), to comment on subjects such as the Bermuda Triangle, Atlantis, and UFOs. Since first entering the industry in 1984, Childress has been involved in two lawsuits regarding publishing one, concerning the Kennedy assassination, failed after expiry of a statute of limitations and the other, involving an unpublished master's thesis about UFOs written in 1950, was settled out of court. [1] Childress writes humorously about these suits in his 2000 autobiography A Hitchhiker's Guide to Armageddon. Childress has been interviewed on several radio programs. [5]

Patrick D. Nunn, a professor of geography at the University of the Sunshine Coast has noted that Childress is a proponent of pseudoscientific claims such as the lost continent Mu and megaliths on the Pacific islands built by levitation. Nunn has written that "the disappearance of Mu is very convenient because it means that theorists like Childress can say what they like and appear convincing to people who are comparatively uninformed, as many naturally are, of the huge body of scientific information on Pacific geology and cultures." [6]

Historical archaeologist Charles E. Orser (editor of International Journal of Historical Archaeology) has criticized Childress's writings:

Pseudo-archaeologists continue to perpetuate the idea that Atlantis was a racialized place. David Hatcher Childress, one of the most flagrant violators of basic archaeological reasoning, has provided perhaps the most outrageous racialized vision of Atlantis. In discussing Tiahuanaco in Bolivia—as a palace built long before any Native South Americans were present—Childress proposes that the majestic site could only have been constructed by the "Atlantean League." The league was composed of mythic seafarers who "sailed the world spreading a megalithic culture, and wore red turbans over their blond hair" (Childress 1986: 139, emphasis added). Nowhere did Plato, the only actual source on Atlantis, mention the blond hair of the Atlanteans. Plato did mention that the men and women of Atlantis, being semi-divine, were inherently good . . . The correlation between goodness and whiteness is thus obvious in Childress's formulation and in much else that has been written about Atlantis.

Childress's company has published nearly 200 books (many translated into foreign languages) over the course of two dozen years. Childress himself has authored and co-authored over a dozen books, from his first in 1983 to his most recent in 2013. His influences include Erich von Däniken, Thor Heyerdahl, and Charles Berlitz. [1]


Vaata videot: El Cuento de Chac Mool