George'i köök

George'i köök


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George Kitchen sündis aprillis 1876. Derbyshire'is Fairfieldis. Suurepärane spordimees sai temast 14 -aastaselt professionaalse golfimängija. Ta mängis ka kriketit ja töötas mõnda aega treenerina Dulwichi kolledžis.

Lõpuks otsustas Kitchen keskenduda jalgpallile ja mängis Stockporti maakonna väravavahina, enne kui liitus Evertoniga 1898. aastal. Ta debüteeris klubis Bury vastu oktoobris 1901.

Nagu Tony Matthews märkis raamatus Who's Who of Everton (2004): "Endine Inglismaa kohtuprotsessist pärit George Kitchen, 6 jalga 1 tolli pikk ja 13 kaalu kaaluga, oli väravavahile ideaalne ehitis."

Pärast 90 mängu mängimist Everton Kitchenis liitus ta 1901. aasta augustis West Ham Unitediga. Syd King oli temaga lepingu sõlminud Matt Kingsley asemele, kes oli müüdud Queen's Park Rangersile. Ta liitus meeskonnaga, kuhu kuulusid Tommy Allison, Fred Blackburn, Billy Grassam, Billy Bridgeman, Arthur Featherstone, George Hilsdon, Harry Stapley, Lionel Watson, Frank Piercy, David Gardner ja Len Jarvis.

Hooaja avakohtumine oli Swindon Towni vastu. West Ham võitis mängu 1: 0 10 000 toetaja ees. George Kitchenist sai esimene väravavaht, kes oma debüüdil värava lõi. Kitchen oli meeskonna karistuslöök ja ta lisas sellel hooajal veel kolm. Vaatamata sellele varasele võidule alustas West Ham hooaega kehvasti ja kaotas esimesest 13 mängust 9.

Kitchen oli kuus hooaega West Ham Unitedi meeskonna regulaarne liige: 1904-05 (31 esinemist), 1905-06 (39), 1906-07 (25), 1907-08 (41), 1908-09 (41) ja 1909-10 (28). Kitchen viidi 1912. aastal Southamptoni ja pärast 39 esinemist otsustas ta jalgpallist pensionile jääda, et saada golfi profiks.

George Kitchen suri Hampshire'is 1965.


Koos Jezebeli ja Alberta Wrightiga põrgu köögi ajalukku

Seda on nimetatud "ilupaikaks, peaaegu nagu väike mini Oz", aga ka "nurgakeseks 9th Avenue'l". Kirjeldatud kui "selline nagu teie vanaema maja, kuna see muutis teid hubaseks, aga tundis end samal ajal hoorahoonena" ja "sama musikaalne ja meeldejääv kui Rio karneval", aga ka "väga elegantne ja armuline". Vähesed kohad võivad nõuda nii elavaid ja kapriisseid kirjeldusi kui see, ja veel vähem saavad seda teha peaaegu 25 aastat.

Me räägime Jezebelist, legendaarsest hingetoidurestoranist, mis avati 1983. aastal aadressil 630 9th Avenue, W45th Street nurgal. Toit oli nii laialdaselt tunnustatud, et 1992. aasta New York Timesi ülevaates ütles Bryan Miller, et Jezebelil on „parim hingetoit 110. tänavast lõuna pool (võib -olla ka ülalpool”).

Restoran, mille omanik ja haldaja on Alberta Wright, oli aastakümneid New Yorgi söögikoha põhiosa ja seda kiitsid peaaegu kõik, kes sinna läksid. Restorani näona jalutas Alberta ringi ja hängis koos oma külalistega, täpselt sama suureks vaatemänguks kui tema loodud restoran.

"Ta oli lihtsalt vapustav, tal oli stiil, ta oli kõik, mida võiksite oodata haldjast ristiemast. Mäletan, et ta kõnniks Issey Miyake'i seljas ja ära, nagu oleks lihtne, ”ütles kohalik Hell’s Kitchen ja Jezebeli väljavalitu Rick Rodriguez. "Sa olid tema majas ja ta võõrustas sind."

Restoran ei olnud tuntud ainult oma toidu poolest. Olles varem omanud vintage butiiki W72nd tänaval ja Columbuse avenüül, samuti nimega Jezebel, oli Alberta disainimeister, kellel oli pilk esitlusele. "Minu ema oli täiuslik kunstnik," ütles tema poeg, näitleja Michael Wright, "tal oli tähelepanuväärne võime igat liiki esteetilist ilu kokku põimida. ”

Michael ja Rick rääkisid lugusid sellest, kuidas ta reisiks Euroopasse imelise aastakäigu otsimiseks või läheks Aafrikasse ja ostaks kaelakee valmistamiseks helmeid. Rick mäletab Alberta kiindumust siidist klaverirätikutesse, eriti eriti suurtesse helmestega ääristega. Ta riputas need lae alla Jezebeli ümber või pani need lauale ja kattis klaasiga nagu kunstinäitus, mida imetleda. Ta ütles, et see oli selline koht, kus naine uuris ühe salli kohta diskreetselt ja seejärel 1500 dollarit hiljem jalutas naeratades välja.

"See, mida te tõesti sisse ostsite, oli selle võlu," ütles Rick, "Steinway klaveril oli hämmastav narmasklaas, selle kohal vapustav kristall -lühter ja hämmastav kandelina. Sellel oli rahvusvaheline keerdkäik, natuke siit natuke sealt, natuke tellist natuke brac. See oli tõesti tema kingitus, tema sisimas oli ta kunstiline juht. ”

Alberta oli pärit Lõuna -Carolinas Charlestonist, osaliste tütrest, sügavast lõunast ja Michael ütleb, et ta sai inspiratsiooni suurtest istanduste kodudest, mis tema keskkonda pipardasid juba lapsena.

„Minu vanaema koristas istanduste omanike maju ja ema külastas nende kodusid ning ta võttis selle tundlikkuse ja täitis oma ruumi kõikide nende imeliste valgete linadega. Ta sai idee sellest, kui rikkad ja hästi varustatud anglosaksid elasid. See oli nagu armuline lõunapoolne istanduskodu, kuid seda juhtis üks orjadest, kui soovite, ”ütles Michael.

Kui ma esimest korda läksin, võtsin Dolly õe Stella Partoni ja talle meeldis kiik !! Olin selle koha peal haaratud.

Üks visuaalsetest inspiratsioonidest, mille ta oma lapsepõlveümbrusest võttis, olid kiiksud. Lõunas on kiiged sageli veranda elu peamine osa, osaliselt kliima ja jaheda lõõgastava tuule tõttu. Neid kasutati ka valvsa pere jaoks turvaliste kohtadena, et võimaldada nende tütrel kohtuda tulevase kosilasega. Ja Alberta Wright armastas neid nii, et ta täitis nendega Iisebeli. Kaunistatud kettidel lagedest rippudes paigutati mõnede laudade kõrvale istumisasenditena õõtsumiskiikesed ja need said löögi.

W42ST lugeja Greg meenutab oma külastusi väga heldimusega. "Kui ma esimest korda läksin, võtsin Dolly õe Stella Partoni ja talle meeldis kiik !! Olin kohast haaratud. ” Teisel lugejal on vähem meeldiv mälu: „Kukkusin maha ja väänasin pahkluu! Aga see oli nii hämmastav koht ... PARIM okra ja praetud kana. ” Toidufotograaf Robin Riley mäletab, et oli pärast muuseumis veedetud päeva veranda kiigel õnnelikult purjus. Kohalik apteegiomanik Steve Kaufman tundis Albertat hästi ja ütles: „Tähistasime seal mu naise 40. sünnipäeva. Alberta tegi sellest nii erilise õhtu. Minu naisele meeldis laua ääres kiigedel istuda. Samal päeval kohtusime ka Chris Rockiga. ”

Kuulsuste osas polnud Jezebel neile võõras. "Iga inimene, keda võis uskuda, tuli nende uste kaudu sportlastest, poliitikutest," ütles Michael, "Stevie Wonder käis seal sageli, kohtusin ka Mohammed Aliga ja rääkisime tema seksikaartidest. Hillary Clintonil oli seal paar vastuvõttu. Ta armastas seda kohta, ta armastas mu ema ja järelikult kutsuti meid Valgesse Majja. Nii sõitsime emaga limusiiniga Washingtoni, et Clintonitega õhtusööki süüa. Ta [Alberta] oli just selline naine. See oli kogu esitlus, see, mida lõhnasite, mida nägite ja mida kuulsite, tegi sellest suurepärase söögikogemuse. See on söögituba ja see peaks olema, ja ta muudaks selle selleks. ”

Rita Ewing, Knicksi mängija Patrick Ewingu endine abikaasa ja Massage Envy Midtown West'i omanik, meenutab Alberta “sooja kreoolset hingestatust” ja seda, kuidas ta koos paljude teiste naistega minestas Michaeli, kes oli tol ajal Jezebeli peremees. „Sellest sai Knicksi kodumängude järgne rituaal, kui mängijad ilmusid restorani koos vastasmeeskonna mängijatega-nagu Scottie Pippen Bullsist, kes oli koos meiega. Kõige sagedamini satuvad väljakul istunud kuulsused ka mängujärgsesse Jezebeli, nii et see oli kindlasti Who's Who. Toit oli nii hea, et mäletan, et üks kord (häbiväärselt) küsisin tasuta maisileivakorvi. ”

Alberta teadis, et New Yorgis legendaarse restorani pidamiseks on vaja luua kaks asja - mugavustunne ja eksklusiivsustunne. Ta armus sellesse asukohta põrguköögi kurbuse ja alandlikkuse tõttu ning soovis selle siduda seiklusega leida salajane koht. Kui taimed ja sallid katsid aknaid, olite tema maailma sees kookon.

"See oli nii maagiline koht sellest hetkest, kui uksest sisse astuti - kui oleks võimalik välisuks üles leida," meenutas restorani endine ettekandja Anne Davis. "Meile helistati kogu aeg, kus küsiti, kus restoran asub, kuna esiküljel oli ainult üks väga väike tahvel. Inimesed helistasid kohe väljast, teadmata, et seisavad otse ees. “Sarnane kogemus oli Mark Fable'il, kes kasvas üles üle tänava Poseidoni pagariäris ja on omaniku Lili Fable'i poeg. "Ma arvan, et minult küsiti vähemalt 500 korda:" Kas sa tead, kus on Jezebel? "Mõnikord seisab see otse restorani ees."

"Kui oleksite nurga taga, ei saaks te kunagi teada, mis seal sees on, see oleks võinud olla toidupood," ütles William Castiglione, kes mäletas, et käis seal koos oma ülemusega ja täitis taskud maapähklivõiga taffy kommiga Mary Janes et Alberta oli laitmatutes klaasist kandikutes restoranis laiali. "See oli nii massiivne, kuid suutis end kuidagi nii väiksena tunda, et teil oli alati oma privaatsus."

Restoran oli nii edukas, et sünnitas 1990ndate alguses teise Jezebeli asukoha - Pariisis, kus Alberta oli palju aega veetnud. Kodule lähemal avas ta aga Jezebeli kõrvalköögis kana tükikese, et pakkuda odavat ja lihtsat, kuid siiski maitsvat kana.

Kuigi see oli vaid väike aken ja varikatus, oli see sama populaarne. Rick Rodriguez mäletab üht palavat suvepäeva, kui nägi Lisa Rinna ja Harry Hamlini pikas järjekorras kana ootamas.

Schmackary’s omanik Zachary Schmahl meenutab kanatükil ploki ümber tekkivat joont. Need suleti just siis, kui ta hakkas oma korteris W49th Street küpsiseid müüma. Zachary ütles: „Ma nägin vaba poodi ja mõtlesin endamisi:„ See oleks ideaalne koht Schmackary jaoks! ”Kes teadis umbes kaheksa kuud hiljem, et ma avan just selle koha ja varsti tekib mul oma rida väljaspool poodi? ”

Zachary avastas, et üks tükike kanafileest oli „ventilatsiooniava“, mis tõi praetud kana värske lõhna massidele nautimiseks välja, “meenutab ta. "Mäletan, et lõhnasin selle kana klotside järele."

Kui Schmackary’s poe üle võttis, lisas Zachary: „Veetsime mõned nädalad kraapides laest aastaid stalaktiite. Üks asi, mille suutsime päästa ja taaskasutada, oli köögis olev hiiglaslik kapuuts. Mulle tegelikult meeldis mõte lõhn tänavalt välja lasta, nii et me täiustasime nende ventilatsiooniava - ja selle asemel, et praetud kana täidaks W45th & amp; 9 nurka, asendati see magusa küpsiste lõhnaga. ”

Hoia ühendust sellega, mis on HOT's Hell's Kitchenis kuum?

Kahjuks suleti Jezebel 2007. aastal ja kanatükk 2010. aastal, kuid Alberta töötajad mõtlevad sellele ajale hea meelega. Endine ettekandja Anne Davis meenutab: „Igal õhtul pärast sulgemist lubati meile juua. Me istuksime seal, loendades oma ööbimist ja nautides tasuta jooke. Siis suundusin koju ja peatusin igal õhtul Westway Dineris, et järele tulla friikartulitele (vist alkoholi imama). ” Shareef Jenkins, kes töötas viimasel aastal Jezebelis, ütles: „Pr. Alberta oli armastav ja hooliv ning muutis kõik perekonna osaks. See tundus väga nagu vanaema kodus töötamine. ”

Pärast restorani sulgemist armastas abstraktne kunstnik Duane Bousfield seda restorani nii palju, et otsustas osta oma väikese mälestuseseme. “Neil oli müügil kõik oma lõunamaised võlud, nii et ma sain karnevaliklaasi ja paar vaasi. Sain ka Mint Julep kokteilikannu komplekti, mille kinkisin oma allkorruse naabritele. Seal oli unistuste maailm. ”

Alberta pärand on Ameerika üks esimesi mustanahalisi restoranipidajaid ja üks esimesi, kes on traditsioonilise lõunamaise toiduga kalli keerdkäigu võtnud. Ta sillutas teed restoranidele, nagu endine põrguköök B Smith ja Harlemi tuntud Red Rooster. Tema raamatus 2020 Tõus: mustad kokad ja Ameerika toidu hing, Etioopia-rootsi peakokk Marcus Samuellson ütles: „Seal on nii palju Albertasid, terve rida musti kuningannasid, kellele ei öelda, mida nad teha ei saa-nad on võluvad, töökad, andekad-isegi kui enamik neid ei tunnustata. Mul oli väga vedanud, et sain Alberta juhendajaks. Tegelikult poleks ma ilma temata Harlemis. "

Meenutades võrreldamatut kokka Alberta Wrighti selle eest, kuidas ta oma restoranis oma kodus õhtusöögi tundma paneks #womensmonth pic @nytimes pic.twitter.com/QoSLfiZohb

- Marcus Samuelsson (@MarcusCooks) 18. märts 2017

"Ühel päeval lõpu poole," ütles Shareef Jenkins, "kakskümmend kuulsamat mustanahalist näitlejat, nagu Danny Glover ja Samuel L. Jackson, tulid hommikusöögile proua Alberta armastuse tõttu. Mõistsin sel hetkel kõigi kallistuste ja juttudega, kuidas seda kohta hoida, kui tähtis ja vajalik ning ajalooline ja maagiline oli Iisebel. ”

Jezebeli ruumist sai 5 salvrätiburgerit. Sel ajal oli naabriks Robert Guarino (kes praegu juhib 9. salongis 5 salvrätiburgerit, Nizza ja Marseille'i). Ta ütles meile: „Mul oli au tutvuda Albertaga 10 aasta jooksul pärast Marseille avamist. Oli rõõm olla naabrid ja sõbrad. Alberta oli tõeline põrguköögi originaal. Mulle jäi kõige rohkem meelde tema fantastiline huumorimeel. Alberta oli üks tõelisi pioneere, kes tegi HK -st sellise, nagu see on täna. ”

Tema poeg Michael elab endiselt tänaval ja ütleb, et tema ema oli tema parim sõber ja suurim inspiratsioon. Nad rändasid koos mööda maailma Balilt Belize'i. Kui naine otsustas Pariisis restorani avada, ühines ta temaga. "Ta oli suurim naine, keda ma kunagi tundsin," ütles ta. "Ta oli, nagu prantslased ütlevad, le grande dame. Ta oli restoranide Pavlova. Ta oli maagiline. ”


Kuidas see kõik algas: Köögibrigaadi lühike ajalugu

Alates 14. sajandist hakati rändvägesid toitma kokkade hulgast. Rahu ajal korraldasid valitsejad turniire, et hoida oma sõdalasi valmis tulevasteks lahinguteks. Sõjaväekokad järgisid rüütleid lossidesse ning lõpuks said neist kuningate ja aadlike kokad, korraldades tohutute ja keeruliste söögikordade ja pidude korraldamise.

Kaubandusgildid töötasid varsti välja need kokkade hoolikalt kontrollitud monopolid, mis tagasid liikmeskonnale püsiva töö. Kallid ja eksklusiivsed gildid võtsid kasutusele vormiriietuse, jäigad hierarhiad ja ammendava õpipoisiõppe süsteemid. Kuni pärast Prantsuse revolutsiooni ja sellele järgnenud restoranide tõusu töötas see kokkade kast ainult aristokraatia heaks.

Klassikaline kaherealine valge jope on esteetiline-see sai alguse ajast, kui kokad olid kuninga teenijad ja arvatavasti võis neid kutsuda teenima nii lahingus kui ka aadliperekonnas. 1820. aastateks kandsid kokad vormiriietust, mis väidetavalt põhines Türgi armee sõdurite kandmisel. Valge sai lõpuks puhtuse ja hea kanalisatsiooni rõhutamise standardiks.

Koka kõrge valge toki päritolu kohta on arvukalt põhjendamatuid legende. Üks versioon omistab selle Kreeka õigeusu preestrite kantavatele torukujulistele mustadele mütsidele. Antony Car ême, 18. sajandi kokk Tallyrandis ja erinevates Rothschildides, on samuti pälvinud toki kööki toomise. Väidetavalt naise mütsist inspireerituna sisestas ta oma mütsile krõmpsuva papptoru ja stiil hakkas kinni. Traditsioonilised jäigad, plisseeritud sokid on umbes 8 tolli pikad, kuid peakokad kannavad neid kuni 12 tolli. Minu kulinaariakoolis räägitakse, et ülikõrged peakatted võimaldavad juhendamist vajavatel alluvatel kokka kiiresti rahvast täis köögis märgata. (Loomulikult levitasid naistudengid alternatiivset teooriat.)

19. sajandi lõpus, pärast Prantsuse armeekarjääri, töötas andekas kokk Georges-Auguste Escoffier Londoni Savoy hotellis välja kaasaegse brigaadisüsteemi. Maksimaalse efektiivsuse saavutamiseks korraldas ta köögi rangeks volituste, vastutuse ja funktsioonide hierarhiaks. Brigaadis, mida peenelt söögikohad laialdaselt omaks võtavad, on kindral täitevkokk või koka kokk, abiks a sous kokk. Alluvad on peokokad, igaüks vastutab tootmisjaama eest ja teda abistab demikokad ja komisjon (õpipoisid). Jaamakokkade arv võib olla ammendav, sealhulgas taldrik (kastmed), luuletaja (kala), grillardin (grilltoidud), rammusam (praetud tooted), pöörlev (praed), garde sõim (külm toit), patissier (saiakesed) ja turniir (ringimees, jaama reljeef).

Tänapäeval kasutavad enamik restorane Escoffieri köögibrigaadi lihtsustatud varianti. Tavaliselt koordineerib peakokk köögitegevust, kehtestab standardid, haldab kulusid ning juhib koolitust ja tööd. Sous peakokk näeb, et toit valmistatakse, jagatakse portsjoniteks ja esitatakse vastavalt peakoka standarditele. Koordinaadid juhivad jaamu ja koostavad menüüelemente vastavalt spetsifikatsioonidele, abiks assistendid ja õpipoisid.

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Märkus lugejatele: Julge ja tsenseerimata, Austini kroonika on olnud Austini sõltumatu uudisteallikas peaaegu 40 aastat, väljendades kogukonna poliitilisi ja keskkonnaalaseid muresid ning toetades selle aktiivset kultuurimaastikku. Nüüd vajame rohkem kui kunagi varem teie tuge, et jätkata Austini varustamist sõltumatu vaba ajakirjandusega. Kui tõelised uudised on teie jaoks olulised, kaaluge palun annetust 5, 10 või mõne muu raha eest, mida saate endale lubada, et aidata meie ajakirjandust stendidel hoida.


Mis on munakoogi ajalugu?

Munamuna on jook, mida enamik inimesi kas jumaldab või põlgab, seal leidub harva kesktee. Pole raske mõista, miks mõned inimesed on rikkaliku ja kreemja pühadejoogi suhtes ettevaatlikud. Toore muna, piima ja suhkru kombinatsioon võib tunduda kummaline, kuni mõistate, et külmutamata jäätisel on samad põhikomponendid. Need, kes langevad armastava munakoogi poolele, ootavad talve, mil toidupoe jahutid täidavad kõiki jooke, millest nad unistada oskavad. Alates kõrvitsa munapuderist kuni mahepõllumajanduseni ja lõpetades piimavaba “soja” nuiaga ning jah, isegi munapuderimaitselisel jäätisel on igal aastal palju maitsvaid võimalusi röstimiseks.

Enamik kulinaariaajaloolasi nõustub, et munakoog sai Suurbritannia varasel keskajal alguse kui "vara", kuid peale selle on piduliku joogi päritolu kohta palju erinevaid arvamusi. Oxfordi inglise sõnaraamatu kohaselt oli posset „jook, mis oli valmistatud kuumast piimast, kalgendatud ale, veini või muu sarnasega, sageli magustatud ja vürtsitatud”. Edasi võisid mungad lisada vahustatud munad. Väidetavalt viskasid nad segusse ka viigimarju. Me teame kindlalt, et posset oli kõrgemas klassis populaarsem tol ajal kalli piima, munade ja šerri hinna tõttu. Oma kopsaka hinnasildi tõttu kasutati possetti hea tervise ja õitsengu nimel sageli röstsaiadel.

Kuna munakoogi populaarsus välismaal hakkas vähenema, leidis see Ameerika kolooniates uue järgija. Paljudel Ameerika peredel oli oma talud, mis varustasid neid piima ja munadega, mis olid vajalikud kena munapudru vahustamiseks. Sherry ja Madeira ei olnud kolooniates kerge tulema. Need liköörid asendati odavama ja laialdasemalt kättesaadava viski ja lõpuks rummiga. Köögiprotokollide kohaselt serveeris George Washington Mount Vernoni külastajatele munakoogitaolist jooki koos šerri, rummi ja rukkiviskiga. 19. sajandiks seostati munapuder pühadeajaga, traditsioon, mis kestab siiani.

Ameeriklased armastavad munapulbrit nii palju, et see põhjustas 1826. aastal mässu. Enne seda aastat järgisid West Pointi kadetid iga -aastast traditsiooni oma jõulupühade ajal naelu munakoogiga lubada. Traditsioon oli vaidlustatud, kui äsja ametisse määratud ülempolkovnik Sylvanus Thayer keelas alkoholi tarbimise, ostmise ja ladustamise West Pointis. Selle asemel, et Thayeri uutest reeglitest kinni pidada, smugeldasid kadetid lähedalasuvatest kõrtsidest alkoholi. Mõned reisisid isegi üle Hudsoni jõe, et olla kindlad, et neil on piisavalt viskit, et nad öö läbi saada. Thayeril oli tunne, et kadetid võivad tema korraldusi eirata ja saatis kaks ohvitseri ebatavalist tegevust jälgima. Öö võttis raevuka pöörde, kus olid katkised aknad, kaklused ja rohkem kui paar pohmelli. Lõpuks saadeti 19 kadetti välja ja ehk pole üllatav, et West Pointis ei korraldata enam suurt pühade tähistamist. Ägedaid sündmusi tuntakse igavesti Eggnogi mässuna.

Nimi “munapulber” on samuti müstiline. "Nog" võib viidata "nuginitele" - puidust kruusid, mida kunagi kasutati jookide, näiteks postilaua serveerimiseks. See võib tuleneda ka Norfolki sõnast tugevate õlide kohta. Mõiste esineb Isaac Weldi raamatus Reisid läbi Põhja -Ameerika osariikide ning Ülem- ja Alam -Kanada provintsid aastatel 1795, 1796 ja 1797. Weld kirjutas oma raamatupidamises: “Ameerika rändurid võtsid enne oma teekonda jätkamist igaüks rikkaliku mustandi, vastavalt igale tavale, munapudru, segust, mis koosneb uuest piimast, munadest, rummist ja suhkrust. koos … ”

Väljaspool Ameerika Ühendriike leiate muid munakoogile sarnaseid jooke. Mehhikos on Puerto Rico vanillimaitseline jook, mida tuntakse rompope nime all. Inimesed naudivad kokkit, jooki, mis sarnaneb munakoogiga ja millele on lisatud kookospiima. Kui te pole traditsioonilise munapudru joomise pärast hull, võite proovida sellega süüa teha. On palju loomingulisi viise, kuidas lisada munakoogi magusalt vürtsikas maitse magustoitudesse või küpsetistesse, nagu on näidanud mõned minu toidublogisõbrad allpool. Need munakoogist inspireeritud ideed haaravad tõeliselt pühadeaja maitset. Tervist!


Georges Auguste Escoffier

Escoffieri sära meisterkokana oli sepistatud sõjapõlengutes. Võttes oma esimese köögitöö, olles vaid 13 -aastane, töötas ta edasi kokk taldrik Pariisis kummitava Le Petit Moulin Rouge'i juures demi-monde.

Prantsuse-Preisi sõja puhkemisega 1870 määrati ta ametisse Chef de Cuisine armee jaoks Reini jõe ääres Metzis, veetes hiljem kuus kuud sõjavangina vangistatud marssal MacMahonile ja tema kaaskonnale süüa tehes. Pariisi naastes pääses ta piiramisest viimase rongiga Versailles'i.

Escoffier tegi oma nime koostöös César Ritziga, juhtides kööki oma uues Grand Hotelis Monte Carlos. Siin tutvustas Escoffier prix fixe Komplektne menüü, mille eesmärk on juhtida tema jõukaid, kuid kogenematuid kliente haute köögi peensustest.

Temast sai rahvusvaheline kuulsus. Kunagi unustamata armees oldud aega, propageeris ta toiduvalmistamisel lihtsust ja värskust, säilitatud toitude kasutamist, mida ta arvas, et kasvav maailma elanikkond vajab ellujäämiseks, ning raiskamise vältimist. Pühendunud katoliiklane hoolitses selle eest, et igal õhtul antaks kohalikele prantsuse nunnadele vaeste toitmiseks oma köögist varutoitu. Oma töötajate poolt armastatud, tegi ta palju vaeva, et muuta professionaalsed köögid - mis olid siis tuntud oma vägivalla ja alkoholismi poolest - tsiviliseeritumad ja inimlikumad töökohad. Ta suri 1935. aastal 88 -aastaselt.


Turnspit Dogs: The Rise And Fall Of The Vernepator Cur

Pöördekoer tööl puidust küpsetusrattaga võõrastemajas Newcastle'is, Carmarthenis, Walesis 1869. aastal.

Ann Ronani pildid/Trükikoguja/Getty Images

Walesis Abergavenny's iidses normannide lossi territooriumil asuvas vanas jahimajas väljub väike, väljasurnud koer käsitsi valmistatud puidust vitriinist.

"Viski on viimane säilinud eksemplar pöördekoopa koerast, kuigi täidisega," ütleb Sally Davis, Abergavenny muuseumi kauaaegne hoidja.

The Canis vertigus, või pöördekarp, oli 16. sajandi Suurbritannia iga suure köögi oluline osa. Väike keedukoer aretati jooksma rattaga, mis pööras röstitud sülje koobastes köök -kaminates.

"Viski," taksodermilise pöördega koer Walesis Abergavenny muuseumis. Köögiõed peida pealdis

"Viski," taksodermilise pöördega koer Walesis Abergavenny muuseumis.

"Neid nimetati köögikoeraks, toiduvalmistamiskoeraks või vernepator curiks," ütleb Londoni Kennelklubi raamatukogu ja kogude juht Caira Farrell. "Esimene mainimine neist on 1576. aastal esimeses koerte raamatus, mis kunagi kirjutatud."

Pöördekast aretati spetsiaalselt selleks, et sõita rattaga, mis keeras liha nii, et see küpseks ühtlaselt. Ja nii sai pöördekarp oma teise nime: vernepator cur, ladina keeles "koer, kes keerab rooli".

Veel 16. sajandil eelistasid paljud inimesed küpsetada liha lahtise tule kohal. Avatud tulega röstimine nõudis kokalt pidevat tähelepanu ja sülje pidevat pööramist.

"Alates keskajast on britid rõõmuga küpsetanud veiseliha, seapraadi, kalkunipraadi," ütleb raamatu autor Jan Bondeson. Hämmastavad koerad, koerte uudishimude kabinet, raamat, mis juhatas meid esmalt pöörde koera juurde. "Nad irvitasid idee üle liha ahjus röstida. Tõelise briti jaoks oli õige viis röstida see lahtise tule ees, kasutades pöördkoera."

Kui liha oli vaja röstida, tõsteti üks neist koertest kamina lähedal seinale kinnitatud puidust ratasesse. Ratas oli kinnitatud keti külge, mis jooksis alla süljele. Kui koer jooksis, nagu hamster puuris, keeras sülg ümber.

"Turnspit -koeri peeti köögiriistadeks, pigem masinatükkideks kui koerteks," ütleb Bondeson. "Tule möirgamine. Sülituse kõlksumine. Väikese koera jalgadest kostuv laks. Rattad pandi seinale üsna kõrgele, kaugel tulest, et koerad üle ei kuumeneks ja ei minestaks."

Koera kiiremaks jooksmiseks treenimiseks visati rooli hõõguv süsi, lisab Bondeson.

Aastal 1750 oli igal pool pööre. Aastaks 1850 oli neid vähe ja 1900. aastaks kadusid. Universaalne ajalooarhiiv/Getty Images peida pealdis

Koerte kirjeldused maalivad üsna räpase pildi: väikesed, madala kehaga, lühikesed, kõverad esijalad, raske pea ja rippuvad kõrvad. Mõnel oli hall ja valge karusnahk, teisel must või punakaspruun. Koerad olid tugevad ja tugevad, võimelised töötama tundide kaupa ja aja jooksul arenesid nad eraldi tõuks. See oli zooloog Carl Linnaeus, kes pani neile nimeks Canis vertigus, Ladina keeles "uimane koer", sest koerad pöörasid kogu aeg.

Veel köögisõdedelt

The Kitchen Sisters, Davia Nelson ja Nikki Silva on Peabody auhinnaga pärjatud sõltumatud produtsendid, kes loovad raadio- ja multimeediajutte NPR-le ja avalikule ringhäälingule. Nende varjatud köökide seeria rändab mööda maailma, kirjeldades vähetuntud köögirituaale ja traditsioone, mis uurivad, kuidas kogukonnad toidu kaudu kokku saavad-tänapäeva Sitsiiliast kuni keskaegse Inglismaani, Austraalia tagamaast kuni California kõrbeoaasini.

Varjatud köögid: Köögiõed

Londoni aiad: eraldised inimestele

Enne koeri keeras kaminasülge köögitöötajate madalaim inimene, tavaliselt väike poiss, kes seisis kuumuse eest kaitsmiseks märja heinapalli taga, keerates raudsülge tundideks. Poiste käed villisid. Kuid 16. sajandil andsid poisid teed koertele.

Shakespeare mainib neid oma näidendis The Vigade komöödia. Ta kirjeldab kedagi kui "kitsendatud koera, kes sobib ainult rattaga sõitmiseks".

"Kitsendatud tähendab, et neil on saba ära lõigatud," ütleb Sally Davis Abergavenny muuseumist. "See oli viis, kuidas nad eristasid aadli koeri ja tavalistele inimestele kuuluvaid koeri. Need väikesed kärbitud segadused olid need, kes pandi ratastesse."

Külastame Londoni ajalooliste kuninglike paleede peavarahoidjat Lucy Worsleyt Henry VIII kodus Hampton Court Palace'is, kus hiiglaslikus vanas köögis möllab tuli. "Charles Darwin kommenteeris koeri kui geenitehnoloogia näidet," ütleb ta meile. "Darwin ütles:" Vaata sülitatud koera. See on näide sellest, kuidas inimesed saavad loomi aretada vastavalt konkreetsetele vajadustele. " "

Londoni ajalooliste kuninglike paleede peavarahoidja Lucy Worsley üritas George Innis röstida koera süljega, mille roolis oli koer. Cocol ei läinud roolis liiga hästi. Köögiõed peida pealdis

Londoni ajalooliste kuninglike paleede peavarahoidja Lucy Worsley üritas George Innis röstida koera süljega, mille roolis oli koer. Cocol ei läinud roolis liiga hästi.

Pühapäeval oli pöördekoera koeral sageli puhkepäev. Koertel lubati perega kirikusse minna. "Mitte murest oma vaimse hariduse pärast," ütleb Bondeson, "vaid sellepärast, et koerad olid kasulikud jalgade soojendajatena."

Ameerikas töötavate pöördepunktide kohta on tegelikult mõned andmed. Pennsylvania asutaja William Penni abikaasa Hannah Penn kirjutas Inglismaale, paludes saata tema rataste jaoks mõeldud koeraratas. Mujal Philadelphias Benjamin Franklini oma Pennsylvania Teataja oli kuulutusi turnpitpit koertele ja ratastele. Ja ajaloolaste sõnul tegutses Philadelphias asuva Statehouse Inni köögis pöördlaud.

"Statehouse Inn oli koht, kus kõik vanad poliitikaaslased oma veiselihaviilu ja õlle järele rippusid," ütleb autor ja toiduajaloolane William Woys Weaver. "Aastal 1745 kuulutas Statehouse Inni omanik, et tal on müügil turnpitti koerad. Ilmselt kasvatas ta ka neid."

Koeri kasutati Ameerika suurtes hotelliköökides sülje pööramiseks. "1850ndatel oli [Loomade julmuse ennetamise ühingu] asutaja šokeeritud sellest, kuidas pöördekoeraga koeri Manhattani hotellides koheldi," ütleb Weaver. "See halb koerte kohtlemine viis lõpuks SPCA asutamiseni."

Sool

Pitsaühendus: võitlus maffiaga toidu kaudu

1750. aastal olid Suurbritannias kõikjal pöörded. Kuid 1850. aastaks olid need muutunud napiks ja 1900. aastaks kadusid. Odavate sülituspööramismasinate, mida kutsuti kellapistikuteks, kättesaadavus tõi kaasa pöördlaua koera surma.

"Pöördekastiga koer sai vaesuse häbimärgistamiseks," ütleb autor Bondeson. "Nad olid koledad väikesed koerad, kellel oli üsna nüri olemus, nii et keegi ei tahtnud neid lemmikloomadena pidada. Pöördekasti koerad surid välja."

Koeraratas umbes 1890, joonistatud E.F. King's Kümme tuhat imelist asja. Jan Bondesoni nõusolek peida pealdis

Tagasi Abergavenny muuseumi juurde on viimane viski, viimane allesjäänud pöördepunkt, püsiv seade. Sally Davis arvab, et sinine värvitud taust ja kunstlillede pihusti on märk sellest, et keegi temast tõesti hoolis. "Aga see, kuidas ta poseerib," ütleb Sally, "taksidermia. Ma arvan, et tõenäoliselt oli see nende esimene käik, ma ei tea."

What kind of dog today is the closest to a turnspit dog? Bondeson thinks possibly it's the Queen of England's favorite dog, the Welsh corgi. "The downtrodden, lumpen, proletariat turnspit cooking dogs may well be related to the queen's pampered royal pooches."


Nessmuk and a Knife for Chad

Regrettably Dale sort of disappeared off the map together with some money paid on orders. I have nothing to do with that, other than I helped people find him. The worst of all of this is that Dale's is still the Nessmuk to beat

I kept this page up because no matter whatever happened after, everything Chad said at the time is true. I'd go out with Dale's Nessmuk and I'd come back despite all of the people who have disappeared around here over the decades - and I can tell you why the knife will work. I already have in so many emails.

All of these years later - and since I'm updating my email, I see more years have passed than I like on the original file. The simple bottom line is that I kept the page up because while it describes someone who caused me and others problems - it was written by a person I admire. And we can all still learn from - Chad.

So what follows is a review as it should be written about a knife which was as good as Chad says. I have one.

In order to appreciate the knife that is the subject of this essay, you must first understand the man to whom it is dedicated, George Nessmuk Sears. Here is a short biography of the man, taken from www.rtpnet.org/robroy/boo. /SEARS.HTM which also has an on-line version of his Letters.


George Washington Sears

('Nessmuk')

(1821-1890)

George Washington Sears, under the pen name of "Nessmuk," wrote many letters to Forest and Steam magazine in the 1880s. These popularized canoeing, the Adirondack lakes, self-guided canoe camping tours, the open, ultra-light single canoe, and what we today call environmentalism. It was a happy union of technology and art, nature and life.

Before Sears, canoeing was mostly after the model of "Rob Roy" McGregor, in decked canoes, sometimes sailed, or in heavy guide canoes. In later years, the familiar canoe of today developed from the birch-bark model, but covered in canvas. After 1945, the aluminum canoe sold in the millions. In an alternate path, the old decked canoe reappeared in the form of the modern kayak, usually plastic now.

Sears also wrote a general book on camping, Woodcraft, 1884, which has generally remained in print since then. A book of poems, Forest Runes, appeared in 1887. It has not been republished, and copies are scarce.

Sears was born in Oxford Plains, Mass., Dec. 2, 1821, the oldest of 10 children. A young Narragansett Indian named Nessmuk ("wood drake" befriended him and taught him hunting, fishing, and camping. Later he took that as his pen name, and also as the name of a couple of his canoes. In his youth he was a commercial fisherman and sailor, but fell ill, probably from tuberculosis. He wrote that he taught school in Ohio, "bullwhacked" across the plains, mined silver in Colorado, edited a newspaper in Missouri, was a cowboy in Texas, a "webfoot" in Oregon, and camped and hunted in the then wilderness of Michigan. His family moved in 1848 to Wellsboro, Penn., his home for the rest of his life..

At the age of 59, a little more than 5 feet tall, weighing less than 105 pounds, and weak with acute pulmonary tuberculosis, Sears decided to see if the Adirondack lakes and forests could improve his health. William Henry Harrison ("Adirondack" Murray, pastor of Park Street Church, Boston, had published a book in 1869, Adventures in the Wilderness, which praised the North Woods as a health resort for consumption sufferers. (Later, Saranac was to become the site of one of the most famous American sanitoria for tuberculosis care.).

Since Sears was so small and weak, he could not carry the usual heavy guide canoe over the carries between the lakes of the Fulton Chain. His experiences hiring a guide showed that was most suitable for rich people. Thus he investigated ultralight canoes. He persuaded J. Henry Rushton of Canton, N.Y. (a small town northwest of the Adirondacks, near the St. Lawrence River) to build him a single canoe he could carry. It was delivered by railroad car and horse cart to the lake.

Forest and Stream magazine had been founded in New York City by Charles Hallock in 1873. It and Nessmuk had a mutual admiration society and both gained wide readership. The magazine was folded into Field and Stream in 1930.

Sears died in Wellsboro, Penn., May 1, 1890. He received many honors, including having a mountain in northern Pennsylvania named after him.

The Nessmuk Knife

Nessmuk favored a trinity system of cutting tools, his little double bit hatchet, a light fixed blade and a substantial Moose pattern folder. Nessmuk s views towards knives are arch-typical of the classic outdoorsmen he preferred thin knives, keen edges and a useable length. Nessmuk, like other classic outdoorsmen, recognized that a hatchet or small axe was the tool of choice for chopping, and wrote with disfavor of large, thick Bowie knives. Instead, a smaller knife designed for cutting efficiency was highly favored.

It is in this vein that Dale Racquette Chudzinski designed his Nessmuk inspired knife. With its sine wave profile, humped back and thin steel, Dale s version is the most authentic I have seen. As soon as I saw pictures of this knife, I knew I had to use it. Dale sent me the first two versions he has made of this knife, one a stag handled semi convex Scandinavian profile, and the other a full tang, wood handled version with a forged full flat grind.

It is the stag handled version that is the subject of this essay, as the full tang model is boxed up and ready to ship out for a custom leather sheath.

Specifications/ Initial Observations:

The knife has an overall length of 9 inches, the blade is 4.25 and the handle 4.75 . The point of balance is a finger width back from the tang/handle junction. This type of neutral balance makes for a good handling knife in this size class. For a larger knife, where chopping is a major performance goal a blade heavy balance is optimal. In very small knives, a more handle heavy balance is usually used. For a medium size belt knife, like this, a neutral balance is very nice.

The handle is ultra premium crown stag, and this is a beautiful example, with a lovely character. There is something about carbon steel and stag that really appeals to me. A knife like this has a warmth that no modern micarta and uber-steel tactical knife can hope for.


The fit and finish of the knife is excellent, which is what I expect from a custom maker. There are a few forge marks left in the steel. I could have asked Dale to polish these out (to his credit Dale asked me how I wanted the knife finished), but I chose to leave the forge marks in, as I feel they add something to the overall appearance of the knife.

The blade is forged from 3/32 15n20 Swedish band saw steel. 15n20 is a fairly simple carbon steel, being alloyed with .75% carbon, a dash of manganese and 2% nickel. The blade is heated to workable temperature in a charcoal forge, and hand hammered to shape. This knife is made by hand, with files and abrasives. Over 95 percent of the work is done without electricity.

The forged blank is heat treated by triple quenching in oil, then triple tempering at 375 degrees, for a tough, easy to sharpen blade. The knife is then hand finished, using files, and abrasives, and a whole bunch of elbow grease.

Dale was kind enough to provide me with these pictures of my knife being made.




Testing by the maker:

Since this was a prototype blade, Dale tested out the heat treat before sending it to me. In addition to using it for some general shop chores, he took it out back and gave it a good beating to make sure the heat treat was right on.

Dale used the knife to chop and baton through some hard Elm branches, and reported that the knife performed flawlessly.

Performance Evaluation:

Initial Sharpening:

Dale shipped the knife to me with a good useable field edge. Knowing that I am a bit picky about edges, he left it for me to decide what kind of edge profile I wanted on the knife, and we agreed on this before he shipped me the knife. As a side note, he shipped the full tang model with the edge in ready to go, .025 behind the edge, with a bevel height of .060 sweeping to .075 at the tip. Razor sharp.

I began applying the edge by using 800 grit sandpaper on a piece of foam to refine the edge, then used a fine ceramic hone from a Spyderco Sharpmaker freehand to finish. The 15n20 steel sharpened very easily very similar to a carbon steel Opinel. In all, it took less than four minutes to bring the edge to a smooth shaving finish. The ability to be sharpened easily is a desirable trait for a for a field knife.

At this point the knife would fillet copy paper, as well as cut thin ribbons on a push cut, and is a good starting point. With a keen edge on the knife, I can concentrate on how other factors, such as the primary grind, stock thickness and handle ergonomics effect performance. An edge that is not at optimal sharpness will swamp out other factors on the light cutting tasks that I start with.

Kitchen Work:

As always, the first and most frequent place I use a knife is in the kitchen. For me, food prep is a great way to get a feel for a knife. One of the first things I noticed about this knife, was how comfortable the stag handle is. The natural handle material has a warmth in the hand, and it is very nicely shaped. Using either hand, it fit perfectly. The texture of the stag kept it secure in the hand, more secure than I had expected.

There is no guard on this knife to get in the way during close cutting work. The handle shape, combined with the wide blade made the knife a joy to use with a pinch grip, holding the knife with spine in the web between the thumb and forefinger with the fingers gripping the flats of the blade. This is a highly useful grip position, and is very frequently used in food prep, and also for wood work to obtain a high degree of control during fine work.

Another noticeable advantage to the stag handle was that its natural curvature, presents the blade at a slight angle, which adds a shearing effect, improving slicing performance.

I used the knife for two weeks in the kitchen, preparing about 15 meals with it. I cut a variety of foods including meats, breads, lots of vegetables, and opening various packages.

The knife performed very well, as well as a dedicated kitchen knife. The primary reason for its high performance is how thin it is. At just 3/32 thick, it glides through vegetables, and the keen edge makes short work of meat. I sharpened the knife just about every day, just a few swipes with a fine ceramic hone. The knife had not dulled at all, I just like to start preparing a meal with a fresh edge, it is a mental thing with me. Despite being used on nylon cutting boards, as well as maple, and being used for a variety of tasks, the edge showed no signs of damage, no chips or dents at all. Granted, the work I was doing is fairly low stress, but I have seen several blades chip in the kitchen, usually from sloppy handling.

As an example, slicing pepperoni sausage, it was easy to get paper thin slices, or to vary the slice thickness to whatever I wanted. The combination of a comfortable handle, and a great blade shape make for a very controllable knife. Pepperoni is a great trail food, and one that is often overlooked, or dismissed as being just for pizza. Pepperoni is a very concentrated food, both in terms of energy and taste. It will add important fat calories, and just a few slices into a soup, stew or other meal will quickly improve the flavor with its peppery garlic goodness. I also like it as a sandwich filler, on a good asiago cheese faccacio (Italian flat bread) and fresh sliced tomatoes and some fresh chopped basil.

The width of the blade also made it a champion peanut butter spreader, as well as for scooping up freshly cut vegetables to be put on the plate, bowl or stove.

The kitchen is also a great place to observe the corrosion resistance of a knife, as acidic foods such as fruits are cut, you can literally watch the effects with many knives.

Here, the Nessmuk knife took on a beautiful gray patina very quickly. I was slightly surprised that it did not form small spots of surface rust, as many carbon steel knives do under similar circumstances. Something I have noticed in the past, is that forged knives seem to have a different reaction to than similar knives made using the stock removal method. One guess is that during the forging process, the surface of the steel loses some of its carbon content, causing it to be slightly more resistant to corrosion. In any event, the forged 15n20 steel has a higher corrosion resistance than I expected, forming a rey patina instead of red surface rust spots.

Utility Tasks:

Moving on to some utility work, I used the Nessmuk knife to slice up some 3/16 corrugated cardboard. Cardboard is a good test for edge retention, it is a fairly abrasive material, and will work down an edge in short order. It is also fairly consistent, so it gives me an idea of how one knife steel compares to another in terms of wear resistance.

For a quick comparison, I used a French Opinel #8 twist lock knife with an olive wood handle. The humble Opinel does not get the respect it deserves from many people who dismiss it because of the low cost. They don t know what they are missing, the thin flat ground steel blade slices like a demon, and they are easy to modify to suit our own taste. The twist lock is not as strong as modern frame or axis locks, but it is certainly suitable for my uses. It requires two hands to open, and is not very tactical but it has a class all it own. The one here is an olivewood handle that I reformed to fit my hand perfectly, and ground the tip of the blade into a drop point format. I used the Opinel for a comparison blade for the simple reason that it was the knife that was in my pocket at the time. However, if I was to search for a knife to use as a benchmark, the Opinel would still be a nice choice.

The Nessmuk knife did very well here, it push cut through the cardboard very well, about as easily as the Opinel, and the edge holding was very similar. I stopped using each knife when it would no longer smoothly push cut through the material. As you can see, the piles are pretty similar. In use, it was easy to tell the advantage of the long, well shaped handle of the Nessmuk knife, it really is a nice knife to use.

Again it proved easy to sharpen, just a few minutes freehand on a fine ceramic hone put the edge back to hair popping sharp. As I planned to try a little wood working with the knife, I stropped it out, edge trailing, on a leather strop charged with weenol metal polish. This left the edge with a high polish, very well suited to the push cuts of wood work

Wood Work:

The blade is a bit wide for use as a dedicated wood carving knife for intricate wood carving, which is something that very narrow knives like a Mora knives excel at. The design of this knife is more of a woodsman s tool for general field chores. For an example, I pointed out a large stake out of maple. Stake pointing is a familiar chore to any one that has spent a few nights in the woods, from pointing out cooking sticks, making tent pegs, or just wasting time in front of a nice fire.

The Nessmuk knife performed very well, this was a task it really excelled at. The handle is easy to use in a variety of grips, and is comfortable in all of them. The thin, keen edge bit into the wood well, was easy to control, and left a nice smooth finish. It cleaved through knots with no damage to the edge, and peeled bark off like a champ. For this type of chore, the Nessmuk knife really shines.

While the knife, by virtue of its size and weight is not designed as a chopping tool, it is still performs respectably. By holding on to the end of the stag handle (at the crown) I was able to get some good wrist snap action, able could chop through maple and lotus branches about wrist thick with no trouble in just a few minutes.

Sheaths:

Dale s original plan for sheaths was to make them from buckskin he tanned himself. Dale made me such a sheath for my Cold Steel Red River, and it is nice. For these knives, and for a smaller utility knife that he has designed and will be introduced soon, Dale is probably going to outsource the sheath work to a custom maker. One thing I am confident of, is that Dale will choose a sheath maker whose quality will match his own.

Dale provided a serviceable leather sheath, as shown above, with the Stag handle, and I am sending the Full tang out for a sheath of a very special design.

Järeldus

Dale set out to create a tribute to Nessmuk, and he succeeded in spades. This is a wonderful knife, and I am proud to own it. As a student of the classic outdoorsmen, this is a knife I will treasure.

This is a knife that Nessmuk would have loved, the thin stock, keen edge and beautiful handle are all features he would appreciated.

Most of the pain being a thing of the past, I'd still agree with Chad's

For a hand forged knife, his prices offer an incredible value. For a base model Nessmuk knife, either full or Scandinavian bevels, the price is only $100 plus shipping. Naturally, premium handle materials will add to the price, and Dale is perfectly willing to use the customers handle materials if they have a special piece of wood or stag that they would like to use. Once a sheath maker has been contracted, these will be available with the knives at Dale s cost.


About Each Season

The Emmy Award-winning series, A Taste of History, presents its eleventh season! Join Chef Walter Staib as he prepares spectacular colonial cuisine over an open hearth fire with recipes like roasted mutton, gaisburger marsch, and chicken leek pie.

In the eleventh season, Chef Staib travels by stagecoach down the Santa Fe Trail, explores the oldest city in America, and learns about sustainable oyster farming on the Chesapeake Bay. The Galápagos Islands and the highlands of Ecuador are just a few of the exciting international destinations featured in this season!

The Emmy award-winning series, A Taste of History, presents its tenth season! Join Chef Walter Staib as he prepares spectacular colonial cuisine over an open hearth fire with recipes like veal kidney mushroom pie and baked stuffed flounder with sorrel and summer squash. In the tenth season, Chef Staib explores the unique flavors along the Texas-Mexico border and visits historic sites like George Washington’s Headquarters at Valley Forge and Eastern State Penitentiary in Philadelphia. Learn how 17th century ale was brewed and the history of America’s native spirit of bourbon in this eye-opening season. International locations such as the first major salt producer in the world are highlighted, along with a distinctive Asian fusion cuisine in Jamaica

Chef Walter Staib’s Emmy award-winning series, A Taste of History, recreates 18th century culinary heritage by cooking spectacular colonial recipes over an open hearth fire. In this season, Chef Staib returns to Thomas Jefferson’s Monticello and visits the site of America’s first permanent English settlement in Jamestown, Virginia. Joined by his son, he also travels to Nicaragua in a touching tribute to his late wife. Other notable locations include Pennsbury Manor, the south coast of Jamaica, a rainforest in St. Lucia and more! Stuffed kohlrabi, lavender-marinated duck, oyster toast, and lemon meringue pie are just a few of the many extravagant 18th century recipes created.

After winning four more Emmy Awards for Season Seven, Chef Walter Staib takes us on the most exciting journey through history yet with A Taste of History’s Eighth Season. Diving deep into the 18th Century, Josephine Bonaparte’s Caribbean childhood is retraced during the exploration of St. Lucia. Alexander Hamilton’s life and work are explained from his political career in Philadelphia all the way to his humble beginnings on the island of Nevis. Deep in the heart of Jamaica, Chef Staib provides a rare glimpse into the culture and history of the Maroons of Accompong, a tribal village that has been autonomous since 1739! In the US, Chef Staib takes you to George Washington’s Distillery in Mount Vernon to show the distilling process. The Battle of Yorktown is featured and the story of how Washington and LaFayette sent Cornwallis and his army packing is told on the grounds where the battle was fought. Back home in Philadelphia, the history of Christ Church is discussed from its construction in 1695 to the congregations of today and the Muhlenberg Family history is explained. Ellis Coffee and the history of the Riverwards is explored and just a few blocks south of City Tavern on Second Street, one of the city’s longest running traditions is featured: the colorful spectacle that is the Mummer’s! For all of this and much more, stay tuned for A Taste of History’s Season Eight!

Join Chef Walter Staib for an exciting Season Seven of A Taste of History. Follow Chef Staib as he takes you to Barbados, the only place George Washington traveled to outside of the America. Witness the great work of Charles Thomsons Great Seal of the U.S. Jump in to the Modern father of Psychiatry in Philadelphia, Dr. Benjamin Rush also a signer of Declaration. Chef Staib will then bring you over to Cognac to meet the Hennessy family. Enjoy a mouthwatering Sinful Feast at Elizabeth Powel house. Join Chef Staib at the 11th presidents James Polks original home in Columbia, Tennessee. This season is packed with history at its finest.

In the sixth season of A Taste of History, Chef Staib makes it personal. He tours viewers through his 18th century restaurant, City Tavern, and goes on a voyage home to the Black Forest to cook with his mom in her kitchen. Chef Staib also travels to London to Ben Franklins house, the Great Wall of China, St. Lucia, France and much more. He goes to The Jefferson Pools in Hot Springs, Virginia, to nutmeg groves in Grenada, battlefields along the Delaware and cooks local, historic dishes, such as roast leg of venison, braised rabbit, gingerbread and poached pears, to name a few.

In season five, Chef Walter Staib delves into historic locations near and far, including a trek to South Africa, a journey to Americas western plains to experience native American culture and cuisine, and a flight to Kyoto and Kobe, Japan to learn about the ancient art of sushi and beef. Chef Staib cooks Johnny cakes in Nassau, does a tribute to the Liberty bell, the Start Spangled Banner and to the King of Prussia. He travels back in time with recipes including short ribs with red polenta, roasted veal shank, Hungarian goulash, liver dumplings, Kobe beef and for dessert, corn and cranberry pancakes, Martha Washingtons chocolate mousse cake and apple strudel.

Chef Walter Staib brings the 18th century to life in his cooking show. Watch all thirteen episodes of season four as he visits Malaysia, Jamaica, Guyana the homes of John Adams and James Monroe and recaps the first five presidents. He cooks sophisticated recipes, such as tripe a la mode, rib roast and stuffed veal breast and Martha Washington’s ‘excellent cake.’ Staib also presents simple mainstays, including beef brisket and potato, cauliflower casserole.

Chef Walter Staib cooks in the kitchens of George Washingtons Mount Vernon Garden & Estates, James and Dolley Madisons Montpelier, Charles Thomsons Historic Harriton House, John Bartrams Gardens, and visits the shores of Jamaica & Exuma to bring the cuisine of the 18th century alive! Inspired by his visits to historical locations, he cooks roasted, stuffed grouse, veal kidney dijonaise, curried tofu with shrimp, roasted leg of lamb, beef olives, mashed potatoes and more.

Best known as the acclaimed chef and proprietor of Philadelphias City Tavern, Walter Staib brings American history to life. From Colonial Williamsburg to the historic Harriton House, he explores Americas culinary beginnings and gets to know such notables as Charles Thomson, Dr. Philip Syng Physick, Betsy Ross, General Lafayette and more through the food they ate and the recipes they prepared. Chef Staib cooks meals inspired by his historical heroes over an open hearth, including Virginia ham, citrus marinated salmon, crow roast of pork, vol au vent with sweetbreads and more.

In the first season, Chef Walter Staib premieres his show at telling tales and cooking famous recipes of the Revolutionary War in America. From ladling up Pepperpot Soup at Washingtons Crossing to stuffing cabbage in Thomas Jeffersons kitchens at Monticello, Chef Staib travels deep into history to bring forth the recipes of the past. He learns about Martha Washington, Ben Franklin, the wines of Madeira, the spices of the West Indies and more.


Why'd you fire Brad's wife?

On February 27, 2017, Bradley Reid Byrd kicked off one of the biggest social media scandals of the year when he posted a rant on his personal Facebook page, followed up by a direct question on Cracker Barrel's Facebook page about a week later. The topic? "Why did you fire my wife?"

Literally all of Cracker Barrel's social media accounts were deluged with angry comments from customers who were taking up the cause of getting #JusticeForBradsWife, says Eater. Even Instagram photos of delicious-looking pancakes were flooded with comments about how Brad's wife wasn't going to be enjoying them any time soon, and it kept going on and on.

Some even started a Change.org petition on the Byrd's behalf, but here's the thing — Inc. says the silence that came from the official Cracker Barrel camp was precisely the right response. While Brad claimed his wife's termination came just days before she was due to receive a vacation payout, Cracker Barrel continued to keep mum over the whole thing, because there's a good chance that she wasn't fired for no good reason whatsoever, and releasing the real story on the internet is the last thing that people would actually want. at least, the people who were actually fired. Puts it in perspective a bit, doesn't it?


Ask George: Where Does the Term "86'd" Come From?

Every Friday, dining editor George Mahe answers a culinary query.

We’ve all heard the term “86,” indicating that a restaurant is out of something. Where did that term originate?—Jason R., St. Louis

Editor's Note: This article was updated from an earlier version.

When I first asked that same question, I was told this: that the standard height of a door frame was 8 feet 6 inches, and when an obnoxious guest was shown the door, he was “86’d.” That pacified me until I later heard that it took 86 ladles to empty a pot of soup on an Army mess line. After that number of ladles, the soup was 86’d.

Then I did some research and realized the genesis of the term isn’t clear at all.

First, another soup pot reference. The term originated in the soup kitchens of the Great Depression, where the standard pot held 85 cups of soup, so the 86th person was out of luck.

Many say the term has military roots. The term originated during the Korean war, a reference to the F-86 fighter jet when an F-86 shot down an enemy plane, it was 86’d.

The United States also has a Uniform Code of Military Justice that has an Article 86: Absence Without Leave, a.k.a AWOL.

The term was derived from military shorthand. Rotary phones had T on the 8 key and O on the 6 key, so to throw out (TO) something was to 86 it.

Or it may have originally been a bartender’s term. Alcohol in the Old West was 100 proof. When a patron would get too drunk, the barkeep would serve him a less potent, 86 proof liquor, thereby 86’ing him. The term may have come from Old Eighty-Six, a popular shaving powder in the old days. A pinch of that in a rowdy cowboy’s drink apparently would have him heading for the door.

Perhaps its origin lies in New York. Many stories back this up. There was a speakeasy bar at 86 Bedford Street in Greenwich Village called Chumley's, with no address on the door and several hidden exits. When the heat showed up, guests were known to 86 it, or remove themselves from the premises immediately.

In the days before a safety fence was installed on the observation deck of the Empire State Building, people would commit suicide by jumping from it. The deck was on the 86th floor.

Apparently, there was a local code in New York, Code 86, that made it a crime for bartenders to serve drunken patrons. The bartenders would tell such patrons that sorry, they’d been 86’d.

One of the elevated trains in New York terminated at 86th Street, at which point the conductor would toss any drunks who had passed out on board. The conductor’s began calling them 86’s.

Some say it started in the 86th precinct of the NYC police dept. Supposedly, when officers in other precincts made repeated mistakes, the threat of being sent out to the mean and shorthanded 86th was enough to make them straighten up.

Others say it originated at Delmonico's Restaurant in NYC. Number 86 on their menu was a steak, the most popular item on the menu and one that often sold out. The term morphed into shorthand for being out of any item.

Or was it a filmmaker’s term? Light filters are categorized by number, the darkest filter being a #85. The mythical 86 filter would therefore be totally dark, and completely negate the image being photographed, 86 it.

There are those who claim the term refers to 86 inches, the standard depth of a grave in the U.S. So to 86 something is to bury it.

Perhaps it was a holdover from the days when news was delivered via teletype. To expedite this process, coded numbers were used for common actions. A “30” indicated a completed story, for example. Apparently, when a story/item was sent in error or should be discarded, the number 86 was used.

Explanations even stretch as far as the electrical industry, where devices had numbers—a 27 was an undervoltage relay, 43 was a selector switch, and an 86 was a trip and lockout device, so an 86 operation means the affected piece of equipment was out of service.

Another theory says that the term originated with the number codes used by soda jerks: 86 was the code indicating they were out of an item.

So if anyone asks you where the term 86 originated, tell them what I tell people: I don’t really know, but there are about 86 theories.


Vaata videot: The Water City. Gujo Hachiman 名水の町郡上八幡