Rooma amfiteater - Aleksandria

Rooma amfiteater - Aleksandria


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The Rooma amfiteater Aleksandrias Egiptuses on suur ümmargune Rooma teater ja ainus seda tüüpi riigis leiduv. Kuigi seda saiti nimetatakse sageli amfiteatriks, on see koht pigem väikese Rooma teatri kui suurema spordiareeni oma.

Kohapeal toimunud väljakaevamistel - mis algasid Aleksander Suure haua otsimisel - avastati Rooma marmorist algsed istmed, mitmed sisehoovide mosaiigid ja isegi grafitid, mis olid seotud kohalike sõjavankrimeeskondade toetajate rivaalitsemisega. Lisaks teatrile on kohapeal ka vannikompleksi jäänused ning mitmed teised kambrid ja eluruumid.

Edasised uuringud ja väljakaevamised on veel käimas, need leiud heidavad kompleksile uut valgust. Mõned viimased teooriad on keskendunud ideele, et teater oli tegelikult väike loengusaal ja tõepoolest, et kompleks tervikuna oli akadeemiline institutsioon - võib -olla isegi iidne ülikool, mis oli seotud Aleksandria suure raamatukoguga.


Aleksandria ajalugu

Aleksander Suur asutas linna pärast Pärsia kampaania algust aastal 332 eKr. See pidi olema tema uue Egiptuse domineerimise pealinn ja mereväebaas, mis kontrollis Vahemerd. Koha valiku, mis hõlmas iidset Rhakotis asulat (mis pärineb aastast 1500 eKr), määras Maryūṭ järve veeküllus, mida toitis seejärel Canopic -Niilus, ja hea kinnituskoht saare avamerel Pharosest.

Pärast Aleksander Egiptusest lahkumist jätkas tema asevalitseja Cleomenes Aleksandria loomist. Kuna impeerium lagunes pärast Aleksandri surma aastal 323 eKr, läks linna üle tema asevalitseja Ptolemaios I Soter, kes rajas tema nime saanud dünastia. Varajane Ptolemaios ühendas edukalt Vana -Kreeka ja Egiptuse religioonid Serapise (Sarapis) kultuses ning juhtis Aleksandria kuldaega. Aleksandria sai kasu foiniikia võimu kadumisest pärast seda, kui Aleksander vallutas Tüürose (332 eKr), ja Rooma kasvavast kaubavahetusest idaga Niiluse ja kanali kaudu, mis seejärel ühendas selle Punase merega. Tõepoolest, Aleksandriast sai sajandi jooksul pärast selle asutamist üks Vahemere suurimaid linnu ning Kreeka stipendiumi ja teaduse keskus. Sellised teadlased nagu Eukleides, Archimedes, filosoof Plotinus ning Ptolemaios ja Eratosthenes, geograafid õppisid Mouseionis - suures uurimisinstituudis, mille asutasid III sajandi alguses e.m.a. Ptolemaios, sealhulgas linna kuulus raamatukogu. Iidses raamatukogus oli arvukalt tekste, millest enamik kreeka keeles asutati Serapise templis umbes 235 eKr. Raamatukogu ise hävis hiljem kodusõjas, mis leidis aset Rooma keisri Aurelianuse ajal 3. sajandi lõpus, samas kui tütarettevõte hävitati 391. aastal (vaata Aleksandria, raamatukogu).

Aleksandrias asus ka rahvarohke juudi koloonia ja see oli juutide peamine keskus, kus õpiti Vana Testamendi tõlget heebrea keelest kreeka keelde Septuaginta. Linnas olid esindatud paljud teised etnilised ja religioossed rühmitused ning Aleksandria oli sel perioodil paljude rahvustevaheliste tülide koht.


Kreeka-Rooma muuseum

Aleksandria on tuntud selle poolest, et tal on oma ajaloolise ajalooga vähe näidata. Linna ja rsquose asukoht Vahemere ja Niiluse märgalade vahel tähendab, et see on sõna otseses mõttes mitu korda enda peale ehitatud, et see sellesse piiratud ruumi sobiks. Lisage sellele ajaloo jooksul korduvate vallutuste, piiramiste ja pommituste laastamine ning asjaolu, et tänapäeval on väga vähe näha iidset Aleksandriat, muutub arusaadavamaks.

Selle linna kui kaubanduse ja kultuuri keskuse tähtsusest alates selle loomisest aastal 331 eKr võib olla raske oma mõtteid ümbritseda. Kreeka-Rooma muuseumi ja Kom Al-Dikka külastus võib aidata teil sellest probleemist üle saada.

Kreeka-Rooma muuseum on väike, kuid sisaldab esemeid põnevast perioodist Egiptuse ajaloos, kui Kreeka, Rooma ja Vana-Egiptuse tsivilisatsioon kõik siin suhtlesid, mille tulemuseks oli huvitav traditsioonide liitmine. Selles väikeses muuseumis puutute kokku mitme legendaarse tegelasega maailma ajaloost, kes kõik mängisid Aleksandrias oma elu olulisi osi.

Siin on esindatud Aleksander Suur, Julius Caesar, Marc Antony ja Kleopatra. Näete ka ainsat olemasolevat koopiat Pharosi tuletornist, mis varem tähistas Aleksandriat ja rsquose sadamat ning mis oli Egiptuses iidse maailma seitsmest imest teine. Teine on Giza püramiidid Kairos.

Muuseumi lähedal on Kom Al-Dikka. Nimi on araabia keelest tõlgitud kui killustik ja rdquo, kuid see on üks vähestest saitidest selles kohas, kus arheoloogid on avastanud osa iidsest linnast. Siin käimasolevad kaevamised on paljastanud hästi säilinud Rooma amfiteatri, mis on ainus paljudest, mis väidetavalt kaunistasid iidset linna. Sait on näidanud ka Rooma vanni ja Rooma villa, mille mosaiikkaunistused on endiselt taktis.


Sisu

Muinasaeg Muuda

Hiljutised merekarbi fragmentide radiosüsiniku dateeringud ja plii saastumine näitavad inimtegevust selles kohas Vana Kuningriigi perioodil (27. – 21. Sajand eKr) ja uuesti ajavahemikul 1000–800 eKr, millele järgnes tegevuse puudumine. [11] Iidsetest allikatest on teada, et selles kohas oli Ramsees Suure ajal kauplemiskoht Kreetaga, kuid see oli Aleksandri saabumise ajaks juba ammu kadunud. [9] Väike Egiptuse kaluriküla nimega Rhakotis (egiptuse: rꜥ-qdy.t, "See, mis on üles ehitatud") eksisteeris alates 13. sajandist eKr selle läheduses ja kasvas lõpuks linna Egiptuse kvartaliks. [9] Aleksandriast ida pool (kus praegu asub Abu Qiri laht) asus muinasajal sood ja mitu saart. Juba 7. sajandil eKr eksisteerisid olulised sadamalinnad Canopus ja Heracleion. Viimane avastati hiljuti uuesti vee all.

Aleksander Suur asutas Aleksandria aprillis 331 eKr nimega Ἀλεξάνδρεια (Aleksandria). Egiptusest läbi minnes tahtis Aleksander Egiptuse rannikule ehitada suure Kreeka linna, mis kannaks tema nime. Ta valis Aleksandria koha, kavandades rajada tee lähedal asuvasse Pharosi saarele, mis tekitaks kaks suurt looduslikku sadamat. [9] Aleksandria eesmärk oli asendada vanem Kreeka koloonia Naucratis kui hellenistlik keskus Egiptuses ning olla ühenduslüliks Kreeka ja rikkaliku Niiluse oru vahel. Mõni kuu pärast asutamist lahkus Aleksander Egiptusest ega naasnud elu jooksul linna.

Pärast Aleksandri lahkumist jätkas tema asevalitseja Cleomenes laienemist. Rhodose arhitekt Dinocrates kujundas linna, kasutades hipodamlaste võrguplaani. Pärast Aleksandri surma aastal 323 eKr võttis tema kindral Ptolemaios Lagides Egiptuse enda valdusesse ja tõi Aleksandri surnukeha Egiptusesse kaasa. [12] Ptolemaios valitses algul Egiptuse vanast pealinnast Memphisest. Aastatel 322/321 eKr lasi ta Cleomenesel hukata. Lõpuks, aastal 305 eKr kuulutas Ptolemaios end vaaraoks Ptolemaios I Soteriks ("Päästjaks") ja kolis oma pealinna Aleksandriasse.

Kuigi Cleomenes juhtis peamiselt Aleksandria varase arengu jälgimist, Heptastadion ja mandri kvartalid näivad olevat olnud peamiselt Ptolemaiose töö. Pärandades rikutud Tüürose kaubanduse ja saades uue kaubanduse keskuseks Euroopa ning Araabia ja India ida vahel, kasvas linn vähem kui ühe põlvkonnaga suuremaks kui Kartaago. Sajandiga oli Aleksandriast saanud maailma suurim linn ja veel mõned sajandid oli see Rooma järel teisel kohal. Sellest sai Egiptuse peamine Kreeka linn, kus elasid erineva taustaga kreeka inimesed. [13]

Aleksandria ei olnud mitte ainult hellenismi keskus, vaid ka koduks maailma suurimale linnajuudi kogukonnale. Seal toodeti Tanakhi kreekakeelne versioon Septuaginta. Varased Ptolemaiosid hoidsid seda korras ja soodustasid selle muuseumi kujunemist hellenistlikuks õppekeskuseks (Aleksandria raamatukogu), kuid hoidsid hoolikalt oma elanikkonna kolme suurima rahvuse - kreeka, juudi ja egiptuse - eristamist. [14] Augustuse ajaks oli linnamüüride pindala 5,34 km 2 ja kogu elanikkond Rooma vürstiriigi ajal oli umbes 500 000–600 000, mis Rooma võimu ajal järgneva nelja sajandi jooksul vahaks ja kahanes. . [15]

Aleksandria Filoni sõnul puhkesid ühise ajastu 38. aastal juutide ja Aleksandria Kreeka kodanike vahel korrarikkumised kuningas Agrippa I Aleksandriasse visiidi ajal, peamiselt seoses austusega, mida Heroodia rahvas Rooma keisrile osutas. mis eskaleerus kiiresti avatud rünnakuteks ja vägivallaks kahe etnilise rühma vahel ning Aleksandria sünagoogide rüvetamiseks. Seda sündmust on nimetatud Aleksandria pogrommideks. Vägivald summutati pärast seda, kui Caligula sekkus ja lasi Rooma kuberneri Flaccuse linnast ära viia. [16]

Aastal 115 pKr hävis Kitos sõja ajal suur osa Aleksandriast, mis andis Hadrianusele ja tema arhitektile Decriannusele võimaluse see uuesti üles ehitada. Aastal 215 külastas linna keiser Caracalla ja mõningate solvavate satiiride tõttu, mille elanikud olid talle suunanud, käskis oma vägedel järsult tappa kõik relvi kandvad noored. 21. juulil 365 laastas Aleksandriat tsunami (365 Kreeta maavärin), [17] mis on sündmus, mida igal aastal mäletatakse kui "õuduspäeva". [18]

Islami ajastu Muuda

Aastal 619 langes Aleksandria Sassaniidide pärslaste kätte. Kuigi Bütsantsi keiser Herakleios taastas selle aastal 629, tungisid aastal 641 araablased kindrali 'Amr ibn al-'As' all Egiptuse moslemite vallutamise ajal pärast 14 kuud kestnud piiramist. Esimene Egiptuse araablaste kuberner, kes on Aleksandriat külastanud, oli Utba ibn Abi Sufyan, kes tugevdas araablaste kohalolekut ja ehitas aastatel 664–665 linna kuberneri palee. [19] [20]

Pärast 1517. silmapaistvus Mahmoudiyahi kanali ehitamisega 1807. aastal.

Aleksandria osales silmapaistvalt Napoleoni Egiptuse ekspeditsiooni sõjalises operatsioonis 1798. aastal. Prantsuse väed tungisid linna 2. juulil 1798 ja see jäi nende kätte kuni Briti ekspeditsiooni saabumiseni 1801. aastal. Britid saavutasid prantslaste üle märkimisväärse võidu Aleksandria lahingus 21. märtsil 1801, mille järel nad piirasid linna, mis langes nende kätte 2. septembril 1801. Egiptuse Osmanite kuberner Muhammad Ali alustas ümberehitust ja ümberehitust umbes 1810. aastal ning aastaks 1850 oli Aleksandria tagasi midagi sarnast oma endise hiilgusega. [21] Egiptus pöördus riigi poole moderniseerimiseks Euroopa poole. Kreeklased, kellele järgnesid teised eurooplased ja teised, hakkasid linna kolima. 20. sajandi alguses sai linnast kirjanike ja luuletajate kodu. [10]

Juulis 1882 langes linn Briti merevägede pommitamise alla ja okupeeriti. [22]

Juulis 1954 oli linn Iisraeli pommitamiskampaania sihtmärk, mis sai hiljem tuntuks Lavoni afäärina. 26. oktoobril 1954 toimus Aleksandria Mansheya väljakul ebaõnnestunud atentaat Gamal Abdel Nasserile. [23]

Eurooplased hakkasid Aleksandriast lahkuma pärast 1956. aasta Suessi kriisi, mis tõi kaasa araabia rahvusluse puhangu. Vara riigistamine Nasseri poolt, mis saavutas oma kõrgeima punkti 1961. aastal, ajas peaaegu kõik ülejäänud välja. [10]

Ibn Battuta Aleksandrias Muuda

Viidates Egiptusele Aleksandriale, räägib Ibn Battuta suurtest pühakutest, kes siin elasid. Üks neist on imaam Borhan Oddin El Aaraj. Öeldi, et tal on imetegemise jõud. Ta ütles Ibn Battutale, et peaks otsima üles oma kolm venda, Indias elanud Farid Oddini, Sindias elanud Rokn Oddin Ibn Zakarya ja Hiinas elanud Borhan Oddin. Seejärel seadis Battuta oma eesmärgi need inimesed üles leida ja neile komplimente teha. Sheikh Yakut oli veel üks suur mees. Ta oli šeik Abu Abbas El Mursi jünger, kes oli teadaolevalt Jumala teenija Abu El Hasan El Shadali jünger. Abu Abbas oli raamatu Hizb El Bahr autor ning kuulus vagaduse ja imede poolest. Abu Abd Allah El Murshidi oli suurepärane tõlgendav pühak, kes elas Ibn Murshedi Minjatis eraldatuna. Ta elas üksi, kuid teda külastasid iga päev emiirid, visiidid ja rahvahulgad, kes soovisid koos temaga süüa. Teda külastas ka Egiptuse sultan (El Malik El Nasir). Ibn Battuta lahkus Aleksandriast kavatsusega teda külastada. [24]

Ibn Battuta külastas ka 1326. aastal 2 korral Pharosi tuletorni, leidis, et see on osaliselt varemetes ja 1349. aastal oli see veelgi halvenenud, muutes hoone sissepääsu võimatuks. [25]

Ajaskaala redigeerimine

Aleksandria kõige olulisemad lahingud ja piiramised hõlmavad järgmist:

    , Julius Caesari kodusõda, Rooma vabariigi viimane sõda, Bütsantsi-Pärsia sõjad, Rashiduni vallutamine Bütsantsi Egiptuses (1365), ristisõda, mida juhtis Küprose Peter de Lusignan, mille tulemuseks olid mammulite ja linna rüüstamise lüüasaamine . , Napoleoni sõjad, Napoleoni sõjad, Napoleoni sõjad (1882), millele järgnes Briti okupeerimine Egiptuses

Kreeka Aleksandria jagunes kolmeks piirkonnaks:

Kaks peatänavat, mis olid vooderdatud sammaskäikudega ja mille laius oli umbes 60 meetrit (200 jalga), ristusid linna keskel, Aleksandri (tema mausoleumi) Sema (või Soma) tõusu lähedal. See punkt on väga lähedal praegusele Nebi Danieli mošeele ja suure ida -lääne "Canopic" tänava joonele, mis on vaid pisut erinenud tänapäevase Boulevard de Rosette'i (nüüd Sharia Fouad) omast. Rosetta värava lähedalt on leitud selle kõnnitee ja kanali jälgi, kuid tänavate ja kanalite jäänused paljastasid 1899. aastal Saksa ekskavaatorid väljaspool idakindlustusi, mis asuvad hästi iidse linna piirkonnas.

Aleksandria koosnes algselt veidi rohkemast kui Pharosi saar, mida ühendas mandriga 1260 meetri pikkune (4130 jalga) mutt ja mida nimetati Heptastadion ("seitse staadionit" - a staadion oli Kreeka pikkusühik, mille mõõtmed olid umbes 180 meetrit ehk 590 jalga). Selle lõpp tabas praeguse Suure väljaku eesotsas asuvat maad, kus tõusis "Kuuvärav". Kõik, mis nüüd asub selle punkti ja kaasaegse Ras al-Tini kvartali vahel, on ehitatud mudale, mis seda mooli järk-järgult laiendas ja hävitas. Ras al-Tini kvartal kujutab endast kõike, mis on jäänud Pharosi saarest, kus tegeliku tuletorni asukoht oli mere poolt ilmastiku käes. Mutt ida pool oli Suur sadam, nüüd oli avatud lahe lääneosas Eunostose sadam koos selle sisebasseiniga Kibotos, mis on nüüdseks oluliselt laienenud, moodustades tänapäevase sadama.

Strabo ajal (1. sajandi teisel poolel eKr) olid peamised hooned järgmised, loetletud nii, nagu neid võis näha Suursadamasse sisenevalt laevalt.

  1. Kuninglikud paleed, mis täidavad linna kirdenurka ja hõivavad Lochiase nina, mis suleti idasuures sadamas. Lochias (tänapäevane Pharillon) on koos paleede, "privaatsadama" ja Antirrhodose saarega peaaegu täielikult merre kadunud. Siin on toimunud maa vajumine, nagu kogu Aafrika kirderannikul.
  2. Suur teater, kaasaegsel haiglamäel Ramlehi jaama lähedal. Seda kasutas Julius Caesar linnusena, kus ta pidas pärast Pharsalose lahingut Egiptuse vallutamisel vastu linnahulga piiramisele.tsiteerimine vajalik] [selgitust vaja]
  3. Poseidon ehk merejumala tempel teatri lähedal
  4. Timonium, mille ehitas Marc Antony
  5. Emporium (vahetus)
  6. Apostasid (ajakirjad)
  7. Navalia (dokid), mis asub Timoniumist läänes, piki mereäärt kuni muttini
  8. Emporiumi taga tõusis Suur Caesareum, mille ääres seisid kaks suurt obeliskit, mis said tuntuks kui "Kleopatra nõelad" ja mis veeti New Yorki ja Londonisse. Sellest templist sai aja jooksul patriarhaalne kirik, kuigi on avastatud mõned iidsed templi jäänused. Tegelik Caesareum, osad, mida lained ei erodeerinud, asub uue mereseina vooderdavate majade all.
  9. Gümnaasium ja Palaestra asuvad mõlemad sisemaal, Boulevard de Rosette'i lähedal linna tundmatus kohas.
  10. Saturni tempel aleksandria lääne pool.
  11. Aleksandri (Soma) mausolea ja Ptolemaios ühes ringtaias, kahe peatänava ristumiskoha lähedal.
  12. Muuseum koos oma kuulsa raamatukogu ja teatriga samas piirkonnas on tundmatu.
  13. Aleksandria Serapeum, kuulsaim kõigist Aleksandria templitest. Strabo ütleb meile, et see seisis linna läänes ja hiljutised avastused ulatuvad kaugele, paigutades selle "Pompeyuse samba" lähedale, mis oli Diocletianuse linna piiramise mälestuseks püstitatud sõltumatu monument.

Mõnede teiste avalike hoonete nimed mandril on teada, kuid nende tegeliku asukoha kohta on vähe teavet. Ükski neist pole aga nii kuulus kui hoone, mis seisis Pharosi saare idapunktis. Seal asus Suur tuletorn, üks maailma seitsmest imest, mille kõrgus oli 138 meetrit (453 jalga). Esimene Ptolemaios alustas projekti ja teine ​​Ptolemaios (Ptolemaios II Philadelphus) viis selle lõpule, kogumaksumusega 800 talenti. Selle valmimiseks kulus 12 aastat ja see oli prototüübiks kõigile hilisematele tuletornidele maailmas. Valgust tootis ülaosas asuv ahi ja torn ehitati enamasti tahketest paekiviplokkidest. Pharosi tuletorn hävis 14. sajandil toimunud maavärina tagajärjel, mistõttu on see Giza Suure püramiidi järel pikim säilinud iidne ime. Pharosel seisis muti eesotsas ka Hefaistose tempel.

1. sajandil sisaldas Aleksandria elanikke 32. aastast pärineva rahvaloenduse andmetel üle 180 000 täiskasvanud meeskodaniku [26], lisaks arvukalt vabadikke, naisi, lapsi ja orje. Hinnangute kohaselt on kogu elanikkond vahemikus 216 000 [27] kuni 500 000 [28], mis teeb sellest ühe suurima linna, mis kunagi enne tööstusrevolutsiooni on ehitatud, ja suurima tööstuseelse linna, mis ei olnud keiserlik pealinn. [ tsiteerimine vajalik ]


Rooma Aleksandria amfiteater

Amfiteater tähistab Vana -Kreeka terminit, mis tähendab vabaõhupiirkonda, mida kasutatakse etenduste jaoks. Kreeka amfiteatrid olid tavaliselt üles ehitatud ümmarguse või ovaalse kujuga, kus oli publikule palju istuvaid samme. See oli tegelikult rohkem nagu vabaõhustaadion ja oli levinud kõikidesse riikidesse nagu Itaalia, Türgi, Jordaania ja Kreeka, kui roomlased domineerisid kõigis nendes piirkondades. Aleksandria amfiteater avastati juhuslikult aastal 1960. Kui Egiptuse valitsus hakkas valmistuma oma hoonete paigutamiseks kom El Dekka piirkonda, leidis üks töötajatest asukoha ettevalmistamisel tolmu ja liiva alt kindla samba. inseneride poolt. Kohe kaevetööde meeskond, kes asub asukohas, et uurida, mis on leitud. Rooma teater oli 20. sajandil väga oluline avastus. Tõestati, et teater on ehitatud alates 4. sajandist e.m.a. ja seda kasutati kuni 7. sajandini, möödudes Rooma, Bütsantsi ja Islami ajastutest. Travel to Egypt Company on täiesti teadlik nendest iidsetest saitidest, mida meie kliendid väga soovivad. Oleme kaasanud palju Egiptuse ekskursioone kreeka -rooma aladele ja kui soovite leida rohkem Rooma saite, leiate need kõik Aleksandria päevaekskursioonidest.


Rooma amfiteatri ajalugu

  • Rooma amfiteater, mida me täna Aleksandrias näeme, ehitati 4. sajandil pKr ja see oli kreeka -rooma perioodi ühine joon. Amfiteatrid olid spetsiaalsed katusega teatrid, mis ehitati Egiptuses roomlaste ajal muusikatseremooniate ja luuletajate võistluste korraldamiseks.
  • Aleksandria Rooma amfiteatris on marmorist vaatajaskond, mis on sümmeetriline laiendatud tiivaga ja mahutab 600 pealtvaatajat.
  • Rooma amfiteatri publiku sektsiooni läbimõõt on umbes 33 meetrit ja see koosneb 13 reast, mis on valmistatud Euroopa valgest marmorist, ülemine osa on portsein, mis on valmistatud Aswanist toodud graniidist veergudest ja mõned neist on endiselt püsti. täna.
  • Aleksandria Rooma amfiteatri kolmteist rida nummerdati Rooma numbrite ja tähtedega, et reguleerida publiku istumist erinevatel puhkudel.
  • Samuti oli viis sektsiooni, mis olid ehitatud publiku sektsiooni ülaossa ja mida kasutati etenduste ajal oluliste tegelaste ja rikaste kaupmeeste võõrustamiseks.
  • Nendel sektsioonidel olid varem kuplitega laed, mis põhinesid suurtel graniidist veergudel, et kaitsta publikut päikese ja vihma eest. Pealegi kasutati neid kupleid muusika ja laulude heli suurendamiseks erinevate esituste ajal.

Teatrit kasutati kolmel erineval perioodil: Rooma, Bütsantsi ja Varajane islami ajastu.

Kahjuks hävisid kõik need ehitised 6. sajandil pKr Aleksandriat tabanud maavärina ajal ja selle tagajärjel said paljud toona olulised ehitised kahjustada.

Aleksandria Rooma amfiteatri, mida peetakse Egiptuse üheks olulisemaks Rooma arhitektuurisaavutuseks, avastasid 1960. aastal pelgalt juhuslikult põhjuslikud töötajad, kes eemaldasid koha puhastamiseks ja valitsushoone ehitamiseks liiva. .

Aleksandria Rooma amfiteater asub piirkonnas nimega Kom El Dekka.


Kes olid roomlased ja miks nad amfiteatreid ehitasid?

Oma haripunktis levis Vana-Rooma impeerium loodeosas Briti vahekäikudest kuni tänapäeva Egiptuse ja Iraagini kagus. Rooma tõusis võimule alates aastast 509 eKrja lõpuks kukkus sisse 476 CE. Rooma keisrid nägid pidevalt vaeva, et säilitada rahu miljonite Rooma kodanike vahel, ning ehitasid amfiteatreid, kus inimesed said koguneda ja nautida Rooma populaarseid vaatemänge. See aitas tõepoolest säilitada impeeriumis korda ja kuni nad olid meelelahutuses, olid inimesed valdavalt rahumeelsed.

Millised on parim Rooma amfiteatrid?

See nimekiri on arvutuslik pingutus, et valida kakskümmend Vana -Rooma amfiteatrit, mida saab veel täna külastada. me kogusime palju andmeid ja koostasime selle loendi kolme peamise kriteeriumi järgi. Esiteks amfiteatri suurus, mida tavaliselt mõõdetakse istekohtade järgi. Teiseks välisfassaadi säilitamine ja lõpuks istumis- ja vaateala säilitamine. Need kriteeriumid kokku määravad Rooma amfiteatrite paremusjärjestuse allpool, alustades suurimaga neist ja lõpetades amfiteatritega, mis kahjuks on aastate jooksul enamasti lammutatud.

1. Colosseum – Rooma, Lazio, Itaalia

pildi autor Diliff Wikimedia Commonsist

Mahutavus: 80 000+ Säilitatud struktuur: 60% ±

Rooma amfiteatritest suurim ja kuulsaim on muidugi Colosseum. Võimalik mahutada hinnanguliselt 80 000 pealtvaatajat, see on tohutu vahega suurim areen. Ehitus algas keiser Vespasianuse valitsemisajal aastal 72 CE aastal ja valmis keiser Tiituse valitsemisajal aastal 80 CE. Kaks märkimisväärset maavärinat muu hulgas tegid konstruktsioonile olulist kahju ning suur osa välisfassaadist ja istmetest paigutati ümber paljudesse Rooma teistesse hoonetesse. Suurem osa fassaadist oli valmistatud travertiinist ja marmorspooniga ning ülejäänud konstruktsioon oli tellistest ja betoonist. Sisse 2018 Colosseum oli kõige külastatavam maa -ala ning see jääb Rooma linna ja Rooma impeeriumi sümboliks.

2. Nîmesi amfiteater – Nîmes, Occitanie, Prantsusmaa

pildi autor Wolfgang Staudt Wikimedia Commonsist

Mahutavus: 24 000+ Säilitatud struktuur: 90% ±

Aastal valmis Nîmesi amfiteater 100 CE varsti pärast Colosseumi valmimist Roomas. Sarnaselt teistele Rooma amfiteatritele kasutati seda struktuuri kaitsekindlusena pärast Rooma impeeriumi allakäiku ja langust. Praegu on enamik areenist endiselt puutumata, sealhulgas peaaegu kõik istekohad ja kõik 60 rida algset väliskaart. Kaasaegses Prantsusmaal kasutatakse amfiteatrit suvekuudel härjavõitlusareenina.

3. El Djemi amfiteater – El Djem, Mahdia, Tuneesia

pildi autor Agnieszka Wolska Wikimedia Commonsist

Mahutavus: 35 000+ Säilitatud struktuur: 70% ±

El Djemi amfiteater on kogu linna kõrgeim ja muljetavaldavam ehitis. See on selles nimekirjas suuruselt kolmas amfiteater ja on kantud UNESCO maailmapärandi nimistusse. Ehitus lõpetati aastal 238 CE ja see ehitati täielikult maast üles, mitte maasse vajunud nagu paljud teised areenid. Kõik kivist kaared ja istmed on valmistatud kollasest liivakivist, mida tavaliselt Tuneesias leidub. Kuigi see pole nii säilinud kui teised Rooma amfiteatrid, muudab välisfassaadi nihkevõime ja kõrgus selle üheks Vana -Rooma muljetavaldavaks jäänuseks. (selle postituse kaanepildil on El Djemi amfiteatri välisilme)

4. Arlesi amfiteater – Arles, Provence, Prantsusmaa

pildi autor Guido Radig Wikimedia Commonsist

Mahutavus: 20 000+ säilitatud struktuur: 90% ±

Arlesi amfiteater ei ole nii suur kui paljud teised selles loendis, kuid see on uskumatult hästi säilinud. Enamik istmeid on endiselt terved, samuti suurem osa välisfassaadist. See on kantud UNESCO maailmapärandi nimistusse koos paljude teiste Arlesis asuvate Rooma hoonetega. Keskajal oli areen ümber kujundatud kaitsekindluseks. Kivikonstruktsiooni sisse ja peale ehitati palju puitkonstruktsioone. Lisandus ka kolm kivist kaitsetorni, mida võib näha ka tänapäeval.

5. Verona amfiteater – Verona, Veneto, Itaalia

pildi autor Kevin Poh Wikimedia Commonsist

Mahutavus: 30 000+ Säilitatud struktuur: 80% ±

Itaalia, mis on impeeriumi paljudest piirkondadest vanim ja keskseim piirkond, sisaldab rooma amfiteatrite suurt kontsentratsiooni. Piazza Bra linnas asuv Verona amfiteater on üks paremini säilinud kogu Itaalias. Praktiliselt 100% istekohtadest ja sisekonstruktsioonist on alles, kuid kõik, välja arvatud neli, olid algsed välisfassaadi kaared teiste hoonete jaoks demonteeritud. (maavärin aastal 12. sajand kahjustas oluliselt välisfassaadi, mistõttu tehti otsus materjali taaskasutada mujal) Areen ehitati aasta ringi 30 CE. Täna on see Verona üks tähelepanuväärsemaid saite ja seda kasutatakse endiselt kontsertide ja etenduste jaoks, mida vaatab igal aastal üle poole miljoni pealtvaataja.

6. Pula amfiteater – Pula, Istria, Horvaatia

pildi autor Jeroen Komen Wikimedia Commonsist

Mahutavus: 23 000+ Säilitatud struktuur: 70% ±

Pula amfiteater on üks silmapaistvamaid Rooma vaatamisväärsusi kogu Horvaatias. Sellel on vaieldamatult üks silmapaistvamaid ja hästi säilinud välisfassaade Rooma amfiteatris. Ehkki seda on oma ajaloos mitu korda muudetud, valmis see struktuur, mida me täna näeme 81 CE. Kõrgem fassaad ulatub üle 100 ’kõrgusele ja sisaldab kolme astet kaarekujulisi.

7. Pompei amfiteater – Pompei, Campania, Itaalia

pildi autor Mosborne01 Wikimedia Commonsist

Mahutavus: 20 000+ säilitatud struktuur: 90% ±

Pompei amfiteater on vanim Rooma amfiteater, mis säilib tänapäevani. Koos kogu linnaga mattis areeni maha Vesuuvi purskamine aastal 79 CE. Täna on Pompei arheoloogilise ala külastajatel lubatud jalutada amfiteatris ja selle ümbruses. Hoolimata pealtvaatajate arvust, mida see mahutab, on välisfassaad tegelikult ainult üks tase, erinevalt teistest selle loendi areenidest. Seda seetõttu, et suur osa konstruktsioonist kaevati sügavale maasse. Pompei amfiteatrit kasutas ka rokkbänd Pink Floyd, et salvestada laulust “echoes” otseversioon 1971vaadake kaadreid et näha suurepäraseid pilke amfiteatrist!

8. Uthina amfiteater – Mohammedia, Ben Arous kubermang, Tuneesia

pildi autor Maurizio Hublitz Wikimedia Commonsist

Mahutavus: 16 000+ säilitatud struktuur: 60% ±

Põhja -Aafrika oli impeeriumis oluline piirkond ja tänapäeval on paljud Põhja -Aafrika ja#8217 Rooma amfiteatrid märkimisväärselt hästi säilinud. Uthina amfiteatri ja#8217 istmed on vaid umbes 60% terved, kuid mitmed kivist kaared algsest fassaadist säilivad tänapäevani. Umbes pool areenist ehitati külgnevaks künkaks uputatuna. Ülejäänud ehitati maapinnast välja suurejoonelise fassaadiga, mis pidi iidsetel aegadel olema ime. Õnneks, kuna see on eraldatud loodusest teistest suurtest linnadest eemal, on areen tõenäoliselt tulevikus üha enam välja kaevatud.

9. Leptis Magna amfiteater – Khoms, Murqub, Liibüa

pildi autor Capuozzo Pietro Wikimedia Commonsist

Mahutavus: 16 000+ säilitatud struktuur: 70% ±

Rooma impeeriumi ajal silmapaistev Põhja -Aafrika linn Leptis Magna sisaldab mitmeid märkimisväärseid Vana -Rooma vaatamisväärsusi, sealhulgas Triumfikaar pühendatud keiser Septimius Severusele. Leptis Magna amfiteater on kogu piirkonna esiletõstmine, istekohad ja vahekäigud on väga hästi säilinud. Kuna amfiteater ehitati Maa sisse, loodusliku süvendi piires, pole säilinud välisfassaadi. Ehitus oli pühendatud keiser Nerole, mille valmimisaeg on umbes 56 CE.

Nagu Vana -Rooma? vaadake meie artiklit ja#822020 parimat Vana -Rooma akvedukti.”

10. Avenches Amphitheater – Avenches, Vaud, Šveits

pildi autor Õendusabi Wikimedia Commonsist

Mahutavus: 16 000+ säilitatud struktuur: 50% ±

Avenches'i amfiteater valmis aastal 165 CE ja see on üks moodsamaid saite Modern Avenches'is. Algselt nimega Aventicum oli linn Rooma Šveitsi pealinn. Teiste hoonete jaoks eemaldati suur osa välisfassaadist ja paljud istekohad on endiselt kaevamata. Külastajatel on lubatud siseneda areeni keskele ja seista täpselt seal, kus varem gladiaatorite lahingud toimusid. See areen on selles nimekirjas ainus Šveitsi amfiteater ja üks tähelepanuväärne omadus on kaitsetorn, mis lisati hoonele 11. sajand.

11. Tarragona amfiteater – Tarragona, Kataloonia, Hispaania

pildi autor Malopez 21 Wikimedia Commonsist

Mahutavus: 15 000+ säilitatud struktuur: 40% ±

Tarragonas asuv Vana -Rooma amfiteater on koos teiste linna iidsete ehitistega klassifitseeritud praegu UNESCO maailmapärandi nimistusse. Areenil on idülliline positsioon, kust avaneb vaade lõunasse Vahemerele. About 50% of the seating rows are still preserved, as well as a good portion of the archways on the south façade. Construction began in the 2nd century CE when the city was called, Tarraco. Today, visitors to amphitheater can walk around the rows of seats, and if you climb to the top you are rewarded with a magnificent view of the ocean beyond.

12. Mérida Amphitheater – Mérida, Extremadura, Spain

Photo by José Manuel García from flickr

Capacity: 15,000+ Preserved Structure: 20% ±

Mérida’s Roman Amphitheater, as well as the Roman Theater, aqueduct, and Bridge, are some of the most notable Roman sites in all of Spain. Together, these structures are classified as UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The majority of the structure, including the top two seating sections, were repurposed in other buildings.

13. Italica Amphitheater – Santiponce, Andalusia, Spain

Photo by Diego Delso from Wikimedia Commons

Capacity: 25,000+ Preserved Structure: 20% ±

Italica is a historic site, located about 5 miles north of the town of Santiponce in Spain. The amphitheater and other remnants of the Ancient Roman city are a popular day trip from nearby Seville. Italica was a large city in Roman times, founded in 206 BCE by the general now known as Scipio Africanus. The birthplace of at least two Roman Emperors, Hadrian, and Trajan, Italica was known to have large and notable buildings. The amphitheater was also recently used as a filming location for Game of Thrones in 2017, in a scene where a few main characters (and their dragons) meet.

14. Trier Amphitheater – Trier, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany

Photo by Berthold Werner from Wikimedia Commons

Capacity: 20,000+ Preserved Structure: 50% ±

Trier Amphitheater is the best-preserved Ancient Roman Amphitheater in all of Germany. At the time of its construction, Trier was a leading city in the Roman province of Gaul. Trier continued to grow in importance later becoming a regional capital in the later stages of the Western Roman Empire. Today the Roman monuments of Trier, along with several other historic buildings in the city, are recognized as UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

15. Alexandria Amphitheater – Alexandria, Alexandria, Egypt

Photo by ASaber91 from Wikimedia Commons

Capacity: 600+ Preserved Structure: 30% ±

By far the smallest on this list, Alexandria’s Amphitheater could only have held about 600+ spectators. Many historians believe it was used more for concerts and plays rather than gladiatorial combat. But one noticeable difference is the actual marble seats that still exist today. Completed in the 4th century CE this amphitheater was built during the Roman occupation of Egypt. It’s one of the top Roman sites located in the ancient city which was founded by Alexander the Great.

16. Lecce Amphitheater – Lecce, Apulia, Italy

Photo by Paolo de Reggio from Wikimedia Commons

Capacity: 25,000+ Preserved Structure: 20% ±

The Amphitheater of Lecce is still largely unexcavated. It’s highly unlikely it will ever be excavated since the remainder of the structure is covered up by modern roads and buildings. During the time of the Romans, the city was named Lupiae and was a major city on the “heel” of the Italian Peninsula. The seats and façade of the arena are made of yellow-white sandstone, the same material which is used on many other significant buildings in the city.

Check out our article, “Top 15 Ancient Roman Triumphal Arches” to learn more about the architecture of the Roman Empire!

17. Cagliari Amphitheater – Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy

Photo by Ruben Holthuijsen from flickr

Capacity: 10,000+ Preserved Structure: 40% ±

The Roman Amphitheater of Cagliari differs from many of the others on this list since it was partially carved out of solid rock in the surrounding hillside. The hill of Buon Cammino is one of the tallest and steepest in Cagliari. Most of the seating was carved to match the slope of the hill, and there was also a large entry façade on the southern side. Today restoration work is still ongoing, so there’s a strong chance that more of the remains will be uncovered in the future.

18. Flavian Amphitheater of Pozzuoli – Pozzuoli, Campania, Italy

Photo by ho visto nina volare from Wikimedia Commons

Capacity: 50,000+ Preserved Structure: 40% ±

The Flavian Amphitheater of Pozzuoli is the third-largest Amphitheater built during the Roman Empire. (“Flavian Amphitheater” is also a term widely associated with the Colosseum in Rome) Today several of the exterior arches and the vast majority of the seats remain, although all of the exterior marble veneers were reused in other buildings. The underground portion of this arena is among the best-preserved of all Roman Amphitheaters. Even some portions of the lifting mechanisms that connected the arena floor to the underground chambers are still intact.

19. Capua Amphitheater – Santa Maria Capua Vetere, Campania, Italy

Photo by Rico Heil from Wikimedia Commons

Capacity: 60,000+ Preserved Structure: 30% ±

The Amphitheater of Capua is the second-largest amphitheater that still survives from antiquity. It is believed to be the model for the Colosseum in Rome. Today only a few of the original arches and about 30% of the original seating rows are still intact. The arena was the center point in a very well known event in Roman history, the Revolt of Spartacus that started in 73 BCE.

20. Aquincum Amphitheater – Budapest, Central Hungary, Hungary

Photo by Civertan Grafik from Wikimedia Commons

Capacity: unknown Preserved Structure: 10% ±

The Ancient Roman City of Aquincum was located on the Danube River in what is now Budapest. The city actually contained two separate Roman Amphitheaters, the Aquincum Miltary Amphitheater (depicted above) and the Aquincum Civil Amphitheater. In addition to being used for organized spectacles, the Aquincum Military Amphitheater was an important military training facility. Today the amphitheater lies at the southern edge of the Obuda district of Budapest.

Roman Amphitheaters Today

Today, Roman Amphitheaters have left a lasting legacy on architectural history. Many of the amphitheaters on this list are still used for events to this day. They remain symbols of the Roman Empire and the fact that they can be found all over the Mediterranean is a testament to the reach and power of the Romans.

The model for the Roman Amphitheater has been reproduced all over the globe. One great example is the Harvard Colosseum located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States. Used as a football stadium for Harvard University, the exterior facade resembles what most Roman Amphitheaters would have looked like in their prime.

Photo of the Harvard Colosseum in Cambridge Massachusettes.
Photo by Nick Allen from Wikimedia Commons

Järeldus

The Roman Empire was one of the most influential civilizations to have ever existed. They created monumental structures and made incredibly significant advancements in construction and engineering. Their largest and most emblematic structures were their amphitheaters. Throughout the lands of the Roman Empire, some 400 arenas remain. This list shows 20 of the best-preserved examples, each one a significant site that is worth a visit. Two honorable mentions that did not make this list are the Roman Amphitheater of Lucca Italy, which has since been repurposed as a public square, and Serdica Amphitheater in Sofia Bulgaria, where today a modern hotel atrium is built surrounding the ancient structure.

Autori kohta

Rob Carney, the founder and lead writer for Architecture of Cities has been studying the history of architecture for over 10 years. He is an avid traveler and photographer, and he is passionate about buildings and building history. Rob has a B.S. and a Master’s degree in Architecture and has worked as an architect and engineer in the Boston area for several years.

Exterior facade of the Amphitheater of El Djem in Tunisia
Photo by Mrabet.amir from Wikimedia Commons

The Roman Amphitheatre

The only known Roman amphitheater in Egypt is located in Kom El-Dekka, Alexandria, and is an extraordinarily well-preserved structure consisting of 13 terraces built in the traditional Greek style with a flat stage in the center of the lower level.

The Roman Amphitheater of Alexandria is the only Roman amphitheater in Egypt, dating back to the 2nd century AD. It was discovered by chance in 1960 by the Polish Egyptian expedition to Kom el-Dekka. It was found when the expedition team was trying to remove some remains from Napoleon’s time. The theater dates back to the 1st -2nd century BC. During the times this place was changing its plan and function until in the 6th century it became a place to celebrate religious feasts. The theatre consists of 2 main parts: AUDITORIUM – conference hall and SKENE’ – performance hall. Between these two parts, there was a special place for the orchestra. The diameter of the theatre was 42 meters. Now it is impossible to identify exactly how many steps the theatre had until the 6th century. After that, it became 33.5 meters in diameter and 16 steps. In the same century, it was decided to turn the open theatre into a close celebration hall. In the beginning, it was a semicircular auditorium with a number of rows of seats and a skenè in the middle.

Then it was decided to remove 3 steps (rows) and extend the auditorium. In addition, 6 columns on two rows were made to cover the theater and support a dome that was designed to be placed on the body of the theater (steps) and 6 columns. But after construction, the dome collapsed due to incorrect scientific calculations. After the theater is no longer used statp…So far you can see some remains of mosaic floors that once covered the entire floor of the scene. The steps of the theatre are made of white marble with the exception of the lower one in pink granite. The site is also home to the Villa degli Uccelli – four well-preserved floor mosaics depicting birds rather than risk damaging the mosaics by moving them, a museum has been built over the opera to protect it from the elements.

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Sisu

Pergamon lies on the north edge of the Caicus plain in the historic region of Mysia in the northwest of Turkey. The Caicus river breaks through the surrounding mountains and hills at this point and flows in a wide arc to the southwest. At the foot of the mountain range to the north, between the rivers Selinus and Cetius, there is the massif of Pergamon which rises 335 metres above sea level. The site is only 26 km from the sea, but the Caicus plain is not open to the sea, since the way is blocked by the Karadağ massif. As a result, the area has a strongly inland character. In Hellenistic times, the town of Elaia at the mouth of the Caicus served as the port of Pergamon. The climate is Mediterranean with a dry period from May to August, as is common along the west coast of Asia Minor. [4]

The Caicus valley is mostly composed of volcanic rock, particularly andesite and the Pergamon massif is also an intrusive stock of andesite. The massif is about one kilometre wide and around 5.5 km long from north to south. It consists of a broad, elongated base and a relatively small peak - the upper city. The side facing the Cetius river is a sharp cliff, while the side facing the Selinus is a little rough. On the north side, the rock forms a 70 m wide spur of rock. To the southeast of this spur, which is known as the 'Garden of the Queen', the massif reaches its greatest height and breaks off suddenly immediately to the east. The upper city extends for another 250 m to the south, but it remains very narrow, with a width of only 150 m. At its south end the massif falls gradually to the east and south, widening to around 350 m and then descends to the plain towards the southwest. [5]

Pre-Hellenistic period Edit

Settlement of Pergamon can be detected as far back as the Archaic period, thanks to modest archaeological finds, especially fragments of pottery imported from the west, particularly eastern Greece and Corinth, which date to the late 8th century BC. [6] Earlier habitation in the Bronze Age cannot be demonstrated, although Bronze Age stone tools are found in the surrounding area. [7]

The earliest mention of Pergamon in literary sources comes from Xenophon's Anabasis, since the march of the Ten Thousand under Xenophon's command ended at Pergamon in 400/399 BC. [8] Xenophon, who calls the city Pergamos, handed over the rest of his Greek troops (some 5,000 men according to Diodorus) to Thibron, who was planning an expedition against the Persian satraps Tissaphernes and Pharnabazus, at this location in March 399 BC. At this time Pergamon was in the possession of the family of Gongylos from Eretria, a Greek favourable to the Achaemenid Empire who had taken refuge in Asia Minor and obtained the territory of Pergamon from Xerxes I, and Xenophon was hosted by his widow Hellas. [9]

In 362 BC, Orontes, satrap of Mysia, based his revolt against the Persian Empire at Pergamon, but was crushed. [10] Only with Alexander the Great was Pergamon and the surrounding area removed from Persian control. There are few traces of the pre-Hellenistic city, since in the following period the terrain was profoundly changed and the construction of broad terraces involved the removal of almost all earlier structures. Parts of the temple of Athena, as well as the walls and foundations of the altar in the sanctuary of Demeter go back to the fourth century.

Possible coinage of the Greek ruler Gongylos, wearing the Persian cap on the reverse, as ruler of Pergamon for the Achaemenid Empire. Pergamon, Mysia, circa 450 BC. The name of the city ΠΕΡΓ ("PERG"), appears for the first on this coinage, and is the first evidence for the name of the city. [11]

Coin of Orontes, Achaemenid Satrap of Mysia (including Pergamon), Adramyteion. Circa 357-352 BC

Hellenistic period Edit

Lysimachus, King of Thrace, took possession in 301 BC, but soon after his lieutenant Philetaerus enlarged the town, the kingdom of Thrace collapsed in 281 BC and Philetaerus became an independent ruler, founding the Attalid dynasty. His family ruled Pergamon from 281 until 133 BC: Philetaerus 281–263 Eumenes I 263–241 Attalus I 241–197 Eumenes II 197–159 Attalus II 159–138 and Attalus III 138–133. The domain of Philetaerus was limited to the area surrounding the city itself, but Eumenes I was able to expand them greatly. In particular, after the Battle of Sardis in 261 BC against Antiochus I, Eumenes was able to appropriate the area down to the coast and some way inland. The city thus became the centre of a territorial realm, but Eumenes did not take the royal title. In 238 his successor Attalus I defeated the Galatians, to whom Pergamon had paid tribute under Eumenes I. [12] Attalus thereafter declared himself leader of an entirely independent Pergamene kingdom, which went on to reach its greatest power and territorial extent in 188 BC.

The Attalids became some of the most loyal supporters of Rome in the Hellenistic world. Under Attalus I (241–197 BC), they allied with Rome against Philip V of Macedon, during the first and second Macedonian Wars. In the Roman–Seleucid War against the Seleucid king Antiochus III, Pergamon joined the Romans' coalition and was rewarded with almost all the former Seleucid domains in Asia Minor at the Peace of Apamea in 188 BC. Eumenes II supported the Romans again, against Perseus of Macedon, in the Third Macedonian War, but the Romans did not reward Pergamon for this. On the basis of a rumour that Eumenes had entered into negotiations with Perseus during the war, the Romans attempted to replace Eumenes II with the future Attalus II, but the latter refused. After this, Pergamon lost its privileged status with the Romans and was awarded no further territory by them.

Image of Philetaerus on a coin of Eumenes I

The Kingdom of Pergamon, shown at its greatest extent in 188 BC

Over-life-size portrait head, probably of Attalus I, from early in the reign of Eumenes II

Nevertheless, under the brothers Eumenes II and Attalus II, Pergamon reached its apex and was rebuilt on a monumental scale. Until 188 BC, it had not grown significantly since its founding by Philetaerus, and covered c. 21 hectares (52 acres). After this year, a massive new city wall was constructed, 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) long and enclosing an area of approximately 90 hectares (220 acres). [13] The Attalids' goal was to create a second Athens, a cultural and artistic hub of the Greek world. They remodeled the Acropolis of Pergamon after the Acropolis in Athens. Epigraphic documents survive showing how the Attalids supported the growth of towns by sending in skilled artisans and by remitting taxes. They allowed the Greek cities in their domains to maintain nominal independence. They sent gifts to Greek cultural sites like Delphi, Delos, and Athens. The Library of Pergamon was renowned as second only to the Library of Alexandria. Pergamon was also a flourishing center for the production of parchment (the word itself, a corruption of pergamenos, meaning "from Pergamon"), which had been used in Asia Minor long before the rise of the city. The story that parchment was invented by the Pergamenes because the Ptolemies in Alexandria had a monopoly on papyrus production is not true. [14] The two brothers Eumenes II and Attalus II displayed the most distinctive trait of the Attalids: a pronounced sense of family without rivalry or intrigue - rare amongst the Hellenistic dynasties. [15] Eumenes II and Attalus II (whose epithet was 'Philadelphos' - 'he who loves his brother') were even compared to the mythical pair of brothers, Cleobis and Biton. [16]

When Attalus III died without an heir in 133 BC, he bequeathed the whole of Pergamon to Rome. This was challenged by Aristonicus who claimed to be Attalus III's brother and led an armed uprising against the Romans with the help of Blossius, a famous Stoic philosopher. For a period he enjoyed success, defeating and killing the Roman consul P. Licinius Crassus and his army, but he was defeated in 129 BC by the consul M. Perperna. The kingdom of Pergamon was divided between Rome, Pontus, and Cappadocia, with the bulk of its territory becoming the new Roman province of Asia. The city itself was declared free and was briefly the capital of the province, before it was transferred to Ephesus.

Roman period Edit

In 88 BC, Mithridates VI made the city the headquarters in his first war against Rome, in which he was defeated. At the end of the war, the victorious Romans deprived Pergamon of all its benefits and of its status as a free city. Henceforth the city was required to pay tribute and accommodate and supply Roman troops, and the property of many of the inhabitants was confiscated. The members of the Pergamene aristocracy, especially Diodorus Pasparus in the 70s BC, used their own possessions to maintain good relationships with Rome, by acting as donors for the development of city. Numerous honorific inscriptions indicate Pasparus’ work and his exceptional position in Pergamon at this time. [17]

Pergamon still remained a famous city and the noteworthy luxuries of Lucullus included imported wares from the city, which continued to be the site of a conventus (regional assembly). Under Augustus, the first imperial cult, a neocorate, to be established in the province of Asia was in Pergamon. Pliny the Elder refers to the city as the most important in the province [18] and the local aristocracy continued to reach the highest circles of power in the 1st century AD, like Aulus Julius Quadratus who was consul in 94 and 105.

Yet it was only under Trajan and his successors that a comprehensive redesign and remodelling of the city took place, with the construction a Roman 'new city' at the base of the Acropolis. The city was the first in the province to receive a second neocorate, from Trajan in AD 113/4. Hadrian raised the city to the rank of metropolis in 123 and thereby elevated it above its local rivals, Ephesus and Smyrna. An ambitious building programme was carried out: massive temples, a stadium, a theatre, a huge forum and an amphitheatre were constructed. In addition, at the city limits the shrine to Asclepius (the god of healing) was expanded into a lavish spa. This sanctuary grew in fame and was considered one of the most famous therapeutic and healing centers of the Roman world. In the middle of the 2nd century, Pergamon was one of the largest cities in the province, along with these two, and had around 200,000 inhabitants. Galen, the most famous physician of antiquity aside from Hippocrates, was born at Pergamon and received his early training at the Asclepeion. At the beginning of the third century, Caracalla granted the city a third neocorate, but the decline had already set in. During the crisis of the Third Century, the economic strength of Pergamon finally collapsed, as the city was badly damaged in an earthquake in 262 and was sacked by the Goths shortly thereafter. In late antiquity, it experienced a limited economic recovery.

Byzantine period Edit

The city gradually declined during Late Antiquity, and its settled core contracted to the acropolis, which was fortified by Emperor Constans II ( r . 641–668 ). [19] In AD 663/4, Pergamon was captured by raiding Arabs for the first time. [19] As a result of this ongoing threat, the area of settlement retracted to the citadel, which was protected by a 6-meter-thick (20 ft) wall, built of spolia.

During the middle Byzantine period, the city was part of the Thracesian Theme, [19] and from the time of Leo VI the Wise ( r . 886–912 ) of the Theme of Samos. [20] The presence of an Armenian community, probably from refugees from the Muslim conquests, is attested during the 7th century, from which the emperor Philippikos ( r . 711–713 ) hailed. [19] [20] In 716, Pergamon was sacked again by the armies of Maslama ibn Abd al-Malik. It was again rebuilt and refortified after the Arabs abandoned their Siege of Constantinople in 717–718. [19] [20]

It suffered from the attacks of the Seljuks on western Anatolia after the Battle of Manzikert in 1071: after attacks in 1109 and in 1113, the city was largely destroyed and rebuilt only by Emperor Manuel I Komnenos ( r . 1143–1180 ) in c. 1170 . It likely became the capital of the new theme of Neokastra, established by Manuel. [19] [20] Under Isaac II Angelos ( r . 1185–1195 ), the local see was promoted to a metropolitan bishopric, having previously been a suffragan diocese of the Metropolis of Ephesus. [20]

With the expansion of the Anatolian beyliks, Pergamon was absorbed into the beylik of Karasids shortly after 1300, and then conquered by the Ottoman beylik. [20] The Ottoman Sultan Murad III had two large alabaster urns transported from the ruins of Pergamon and placed on two sides of the nave in the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul. [21]

Pergamon, which traced its founding back to Telephus, the son of Heracles, is not mentioned in Greek myth or epic of the archaic or classical periods. However, in the epic cycle the Telephos myth is already connected with the area of Mysia. He comes there following an oracle in search of his mother, and becomes Teuthras' son-in-law or foster-son and inherits his kingdom of Teuthrania, which encompassed the area between Pergamon and the mouth of the Caicus. Telephus refused to participate in the Trojan War, but his son Eurypylus fought on the side of the Trojans. This material was dealt with in a number of tragedies, such as Aeschylus' Mysi, Sophocles' Aleadae, and Euripides' Telephus ja Auge, but Pergamon does not seem to have played any role in any of them. [22] The adaptation of the myth is not entirely smooth.

Thus, on the one hand, Eurypylus who must have been part of the dynastic line as a result of the appropriation of the myth, was not mentioned in the hymn sung in honour of Telephus in the Asclepieion. Otherwise he does not seem to have been paid any heed. [23] But the Pergamenes made offerings to Telephus [24] and the grave of his mother Auge was located in Pergamon near the Caicus. [25] Pergamon thus entered the Trojan epic cycle, with its ruler said to have been an Arcadian who had fought with Telephus against Agamemnon when he landed at the Caicus, mistook it for Troy and began to ravage the land.

On the other hand, the story was linked to the foundation of the city with another myth - that of Pergamus, the eponymous hero of the city. He also belonged to the broader cycle of myths related to the Trojan War as the grandson of Achilles through his father Neoptolemus and of Eetion of Thebe through his mother Andromache (concubine to Neoptolemus after the death of Hector of Troy). [26] With his mother, he was said to have fled to Mysia where he killed the ruler of Teuthrania and gave the city his own name. There he built a heroon for his mother after her death. [27] In a less heroic version, Grynos the son of Eurypylus named a city after him in gratitude for a favour. [28] These mythic connections seem to be late and are not attested before the 3rd century BC. Pergamus' role remained subordinate, although he did receive some cult worship. Beginning in the Roman period, his image appears on civic coinage and he is said to have had a heroon in the city. [29] Even so, he provided a further, deliberately crafted link to the world of Homeric epic. Mithridates VI was celebrated in the city as a new Pergamus. [30]

However, for the Attalids, it was apparently the genealogical connection to Heracles that was crucial, since all the other Hellenistic dynasties had long established such links: [31] the Ptolemies derived themselves directly from Heracles, [32] the Antigonids inserted Heracles into their family tree in the reign of Philip V at the end of the 3rd century BC at the latest, [33] and the Seleucids claimed descent from Heracles' brother Apollo. [34] All of these claims derive their significance from Alexander the Great, who claimed descent from Heracles, through his father Philip II. [35]

In their constructive adaptation of the myth, the Attalids stood within the tradition of the other, older Hellenistic dynasties, who legitimized themselves through divine descent, and sought to increase their own prestige. [36] The inhabitants of Pergamon enthusiastically followed their lead and took to calling themselves Telephidai ( Τηλεφίδαι ) and referring to Pergamon itself in poetic registers as the 'Telephian city' ( Τήλεφις πόλις ).

The first mention of Pergamon in written records after ancient times comes from the 13th century. Beginning with Ciriaco de' Pizzicolli in the 15th century, ever more travellers visited the place and published their accounts of it. The key description is that of Thomas Smith, who visited the Levant in 1668 and transmitted a detailed description of Pergamon, to which the great 17th century travellers Jacob Spon and George Wheler were able to add nothing significant in their own accounts. [37]

In the late 18th century, these visits were reinforced by a scholarly (especially ancient historical) desire for research, epitomised by Marie-Gabriel-Florent-Auguste de Choiseul-Gouffier, a traveller in Asia Minor and French ambassador to the Sublime Porte in Istanbul from 1784 to 1791. At the beginning of the 19th century, Charles Robert Cockerell produced a detailed account and Otto Magnus von Stackelberg made important sketches. [38] A proper, multi-page description with plans, elevations, and views of the city and its ruins was first produced by Charles Texier when he published the second volume of his Description de l’Asie mineure. [39]

In 1864/5, the German engineer Carl Humann visited Pergamon for the first time. For the construction of the road from Pergamon to Dikili for which he had undertaken planning work and topographical studies, he returned in 1869 and began to focus intensively on the legacy of the city. In 1871, he organised a small expedition there under the leadership of Ernst Curtius. As a result of this short but intensive investigation, two fragments of a great frieze were discovered and transported to Berlin for detailed analysis, where they received some interest, but not a lot. It is not clear who connected these fragments with the Great Altar in Pergamon mentioned by Lucius Ampelius. [40] However, when the archaeologist Alexander Conze took over direction of the department of ancient sculpture at the Royal Museums of Berlin, he quickly initiated a programme for the excavation and protection of the monuments connected to the sculpture, which were widely suspected to include the Great Altar. [41]

As a result of these efforts, Carl Humann, who had been carrying out low-level excavations at Pergamon for the previous few years and had discovered for example the architrave inscription of the Temple of Demeter in 1875, was entrusted with carry out work in the area of the altar of Zeus in 1878, where he continued to work until 1886. With the approval of the Ottoman empire, the reliefs discovered there were transported to Berlin, where the Pergamon Museum was opened for them in 1907. The work was continued by Conze, who aimed for the most complete possible exposure and investigation of the historic city and citadel that was possible. He was followed by the architectural historian Wilhelm Dörpfeld from 1900 to 1911, who was responsible for the most important discoveries. Under his leadership the Lower Agora, the House of Attalos, the Gymnasion, and the Sanctuary of Demeter were brought to light.

The excavations were interrupted by the First World War and were only resumed in 1927 under the leadership of Theodor Wiegand, who remained in this post until 1939. He concentrated on further excavation of the upper city, the Asklepieion, and the Red Hall. The Second World War also caused a break in work at Pergamon, which lasted until 1957. From 1957 to 1968, Erich Boehringer worked on the Asklepieion in particular, but also carried out important work on the lower city as a whole and performed survey work, which increased knowledge of the countryside surrounding the city. In 1971, after a short pause, Wolfgang Radt succeeded him as leader of excavations and directed the focus of research on the residential buildings of Pergamon, but also on technical issues, like the water management system of the city which supported a population of 200,000 at its height. He also carried out conservation projects which were of vital importance for maintaining the material remains of Pergamon. Since 2006, the excavations have been led by Felix Pirson. [42]

Most of the finds from the Pergamon excavations before the First World War were taken to the Pergamon Museum in Berlin, with a smaller portion going to the İstanbul Archaeological Museum after it was opened in 1891. After the First World War the Bergama Museum was opened, which has received all finds discovered since then.

Pergamon is a good example of a city that expanded in a planned and controlled manner. Philetairos transformed Pergamon from an archaic settlement into a fortified city. He or his successor Attalos I built a wall around the whole upper city, including the plateau to the south, the upper agora and some of the housing - further housing must have been found outside these walls. Because of the growth of the city, the streets were expanded and the city was monumentalised. [43] Under Attalos I some minor changes were made to the city of Philetairos. [44] During the reign of Eumenes II and Attalos II, there was a substantial expansion of the city. [45] A new street network was created and a new city wall with a monumental gatehouse south of the Acropolis called the Gate of Eumenes. The wall, with numerous gates, now surrounded the entire hill, not just the upper city and the flat area to the southwest, all the way to the Selinus river. Numerous public buildings were constructed, as well as a new marketplace south of the acropolis and a new gymnasion in the east. The southeast slope and the whole western slope of the hill were now settled and opened up by streets.

The plan of Pergamon was affected by the extreme steepness of the site. As a result of this, the streets had to turn hairpin corners, so that the hill could be climbed as comfortably and quickly as possible. For the construction of buildings and laying out of the agoras, extensive work on the cliff-face and terracing had to be carried out. A consequence of the city's growth was the construction of new buildings over old ones, since there was not sufficient space.

Separate from this, a new area was laid out in Roman times, consisting of a whole new city west of the Selinus river, with all necessary infrastructure, including baths, theatres, stadiums, and sanctuaries. This Roman new city was able to expand without any city walls constraining it because of the absence of external threats.

Housing Edit

Generally, most of the Hellenistic houses at Pergamon were laid out with a small, centrally-located and roughly square courtyard, with rooms on one or two sides of it. The main rooms are often stacked in two levels on the north side of the courtyard. A wide passage or colonnade on the north side of the courtyard often opened onto foyers, which enabled access to other rooms. An exact north-south arrangement of the city blocks was not possible because of the topographical situation and earlier construction. Thus the size and arrangement of the rooms differed from house to house. From the time of Philetairos, at the latest, this kind of courtyard house was common and it was ever more widespread as time went on, but not universal. Some complexes were designed as Prostas houses, similar to designs seen at Priene. Others had wide columned halls in front of main rooms to the north. Especially in this latter type there is often a second story accessed by stairways. In the courtyards there were often cisterns, which captured rain water from the sloping roofs above. For the construction under Eumenes II, a city block of 35 x 45 m can be reconstructed, subject to significant variation as a result of the terrain. [46]

Open spaces Edit

From the beginning of the reign of Philetairos, civic events in Pergamon were concentrated on the Acropolis. Over time the so-called 'Upper agora' was developed at the south end of this. In the reign of Attalos I, a Temple of Zeus was built there. [47] To the north of this structure there was a multi-story building, which propbably had a function connected to the marketplace. [48] With progressive development of the open space, these buildings were demolished, while the Upper Agora itself took on a more strongly commercial function, while still a special space as a result of the temple of Zeus. In the course of the expansion of the city under Eumenes, the commercial character of the Upper Agora was further developed. The key signs of this development are primarily the halls built under Eumenes II, whose back chambers were probably used for trade. [49] In the west, the 'West Chamber' was built which might have served as a market administration building. [50] After these renovations, the Upper Agora thus served as a centre for trade and spectacle in the city. [51]

Because of significant new construction in the immediate vicinity - the renovation of the Sanctuary of Athena and the Pergamon altar and the redesign of the neighbouring area - the design and organisational principle of the Upper Agora underwent a further change. [52] Its character became much more spectacular and focussed on the two new structures looming over it, especially the altar which was visible on its terrace from below since the usual stoa surrounding it was omitted from the design. [53]

The 80 m long and 55 m wide 'Lower Agora' was built under Eumenes II and was not significantly altered until Late Antiquity. [54] As with the Upper Agora, the rectangular form of the agora was adapted to the steep terrain. The construction consisted in total of three levels. Of these the Upper Level and the 'Main Level' opened onto a central courtyard. On the lower level there were rooms only on the south and east sides because of the slope of the land, which led through a colonnade to the exterior of the space. [55] The whole market area extended over two levels with a large columned hall in the centre, which contained small shop spaces and miscellaneous rooms. [56]

Streets and bridges Edit

The course of the main street, which winds up the hill to the Acropolis with a series of hairpin turns, is typical of the street system of Pergamon. On this street were shops and warehouses. [57] The surface of the street consisted of andesite blocks up to 5 metres wide, 1 metre long and 30 cm deep. The street included a drainage system, which carried the water down the slope. Since it was the most important street of the city, the quality of the material used in its construction was very high. [58]


Alexandria Attractions

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