Must ajalugu - Ühendkuningriik ja Aafrika -Ameerika

Must ajalugu - Ühendkuningriik ja Aafrika -Ameerika


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  • Suurbritannia juhtivad näitajad
  • USA juhtivad aktivistid
  • Musta ajaloo kuu
  • Orjus USA -s
  • Kodanikuõigused USA -s
  • Ku Klux Klan (KKK)
  • Mustad jalgpallurid
  • Rassism ja jalgpall

Musta ajaloo tähtsus ja miks seda tuleks tähistada pärast veebruari

Carter G. Woodson alustas musta ajaloo tähistamise traditsiooni.

Mida tähendab musta ajaloo kuu teie jaoks?

1925. aastal tuli Harvardi koolitatud ajaloolane Carter G. Woodson, tuntud kui "musta ajaloo isa", julge ideega.

Sel aastal kuulutas ta välja "neegrite ajaloonädala" - rahva tähistamise, mida paljud selles riigis tol ajal uskusid, et neil pole ajaloos kohta.

Vastus sündmusele, mida tähistati esmakordselt 1926. aasta veebruaris, kuu, mis hõlmas Abraham Lincolni ja Frederick Douglassi sünnipäevi, oli ülekaalukas - kuna haridustöötajad, teadlased ja filantroobid astusid jõupingutuste heaks. Viiskümmend aastat hiljem, mis langes kokku riigi kahesaja aastapäevaga ja kodanikuõiguste liikumise tagajärjel, laiendati tähistamist kuuni pärast seda, kui president Gerald R. Ford määras riikliku austuse.

Alates Woodsoni surmast 1950. aastal on tema asutatud organisatsioon, neegrite elu ja ajaloo uurimise assotsiatsioon - nüüd nimega Association for the Study of African American Life and History (ASALH) - võidelnud oma pärandi elus hoidmise eest.

Nüüd, ligi 105 aastat pärast asutamist, on organisatsiooni üks suurimaid väljakutseid hoida inimesi kaasatuna ka pärast veebruari.

"Ei saa arutada Aafrika -Ameerika vabadusvõitlust ega kodanikuõiguste liikumist, pööramata tähelepanu valgetele liitlastele, kes töötasid mustanahaliste kõrval," ütles ASALHi programmide asepresident Lionel Kimble ABC Newsile. "Üks suurimaid probleeme, mida me näeme, eriti nende mitte-mustanahaliste inimeste puhul, on see, et mustanahalise ajaloo rõhutamine on lõhestav ja mõned nimetavad seda ekslikult rassistlikuks."

"Aga kui me jätkuvalt rõhutame, et kõik ameeriklased töötasid nende ühiste eesmärkide nimel, siis võivad kõik näha end suurema missiooni osana."

ASALH, kes korraldab aastaringselt üritusi mustanahalise ajaloo tutvustamiseks ja tähistamiseks, ütles, et organisatsioon on saavutanud suuri edusamme Aafrika -Ameerika ajaloo tutvustamisel laiemale publikule, kuid endiselt on liiga palju neid, kes tunnevad ära musta ajaloo alles veebruaris ja ignoreerige seda ülejäänud aasta jooksul.

"See on pettumus," ütles Kimble. "Kuid me peame tõesti tuginema musta ajaloo uurimisele ja panema inimesed mõistma mustanahaliste inimeste olulisi rolle Ameerika Ühendriikide laiemas narratiivis."

Riikliku kodanikuõiguste muuseumi suulise tõlke, kogude ja hariduse direktor Noelle Trent ütles, et on suurepärane koonduda Musta ajaloo kuu pidustustele, kuid "selleks pole ühtegi hooaega. See on pidev."

"Me teeme musta ajalugu 365 päeva aastas," ütles Trent ABC Newsile. "Me räägime loo Aafrika -Ameerika võitlusest kodanikuõiguste, inimõiguste ja kõigi aspektide eest oma programmeerimise ja aastanäituse erinevatel näitusel."

Muuseum, mis asub endises Lorraine'i motellis Memphises, kus 1968. aastal mõrvati kodanikuõiguste juht dr Martin Luther King Jr., ütles, et pöörab erilist tähelepanu musta ajaloo kuule ja kasutab seda ajana, et rõhutada laste õpetamist musta värvi kohta pärandit. Muuseum on spetsialiseerunud kodanikuõiguste ajastule, kuid Trent ütles, et Woodsoni missioon juhendab peaaegu kõiki nende algatusi.

"Kui loodi" neegrite ajaloonädal ", siis mustast ajaloost ei räägitud ega kirjutatud ning inimesed väitsid, et afroameeriklastel pole ajaloos kohalolekut," ütles Trent. "See, mida me saame täna siin muuseumis oma töö kaudu teha, võimendab seda ajaloolist kohalolekut."

"Woodson oli pühendunud sellele, et muuta Aafrika -Ameerika ajalugu igapäevasele inimesele kättesaadavaks. Ta soovis, et afroameeriklased ja tegelikult kõik ameeriklased teaksid Aafrika -Ameerika lugu ja näeksid end selles, sest esindatus on võim," lisas ta.

Osana oma tööst muuseumiga ütles Trent, et ta on pettunud, et populaarne kultuur kipub musta ajalugu pärast veebruari lõppu ignoreerima. Ta arvab, et musta ajaloo kuud tuleks pidada "lähtepunktiks" laiemale vestlusele selle kohta, kuidas musta ajalugu Ameerika ajaloosse tervikuna kaasata.

"Ma saan aru, et kultuuriliselt tegutsevad organisatsioonid on erinevates kohtades, kuid ideaaljuhul sooviksime 2020. aastal, et inimesed oleksid kaasavamad. Aga kui te hakkate seda tegema alles veebruaris, siis järgmine samm on see, kuidas me saame seda kaasata ka teiste päevadega." aastal, "ütles ta.

Kui ettevõtted, koolid ja muud organisatsioonid "muudavad loo lihtsalt veebruariks", jäävad nad Trenti sõnul musta ajaloo kuu punktist ilma.

Kimble ASALH -ist ütles, et organisatsioon on näinud üha suuremat arvu partnerlushuvisid ettevõtete rahastajatelt ja organisatsioonidelt, mis ei pruugi olla mustanahalised, kuna üha rohkem ettevõtteid püüab tegeleda mitmekesisuse ja kaasatusega seotud probleemidega.

Ta ütles, et kasv on "väga julgustav", kuid sellest ei piisa veel olulise trendi märkimiseks.

"Ma tahaksin, et ettevõtted teeksid rohkem," ütles Trent. "Kuid kõik, mida saame teha, on jätkata nende inimeste tõukamist ja harimist, kes on huvitatud mustast ajaloost ja mustast uuringust."

ASALH valib igal aastal teema, et juhtida avalikkuse tähelepanu olulistele arengutele, mis väärivad rõhutamist. Selle aasta teema on "Aafrika ameeriklased ja hääletus".

Aasta 2020 tähistab sajandat 19. muudatust ja naiste valimisliikumise kulminatsiooni. See tähistab ühtlasi 15. muudatuse sesquicentennenniali, mis andis mustanahalistele meestele valimisõiguse 1870. aastal pärast kodusõda.

"Hääleõiguslike kampaaniate ja kohtuasjade kaudu 20. sajandi vahetusest kuni 1960. aastate keskpaigani tegid afroameeriklased oma hääle häälte tähtsuse osas kuuldavaks," ütleb ASALH oma veebisaidil. "Tõepoolest, võitlus mustade hääleõiguste eest jätkub kohtutes täna."

Kimble ütles, et rühmal on aastaringselt kavas üritusi, mis käsitlevad kodanikuharidust, valijate allasurumist, hääleõigust ja muid selle aasta teemaga seotud küsimusi, kuid selle peamine eesmärk on suhelda inimestega väljaspool akadeemilisi ringkondi, et neid sellest teavitada. nende pärandi sügavust.

"See pole vestlus, mida peaksid pidama ainult mustanahalised. Kui me vaatame end mitmekesise rahvana, siis arvan, et igaüks peaks neid vestlusi oma ajaloo kohta arutama," ütles Kimble. "Me tahame, et inimesed näeksid, et nende lood on väärtuslikud ja et te ei pea olema see rahvusvaheliselt tuntud tegelane, et teha suuri asju."


Täiustatud triikimislaud, leiutas Sarah Boone 1892

Triikimislaud on toode, mida kasutati nii palju kui võimalik. 19. sajandi lõpus parandas seda orjusena sündinud afroameeriklanna Sarah Boone. Üks esimesi mustanahalisi naisi USA ajaloos, kes sai patendi, laiendas esialgset triikimislauda, ​​mis oli sisuliselt horisontaalne puitplokk, mis algselt patenteeriti 1858. aastal. Boone ’s 1892 täiendustega oli tahvlil kitsam ja kumeram disain, hõlbustab rõivaste, eriti naiste rõivaste triikimist. Boone'i disain muutuks tänapäevaseks triikimislauaks.

Avalik domeen ja AV -ikoonid/Getty Images


Kodanikuõiguste seadus liigub läbi kongressi

Kennedy mõrvati samal novembril Dallases, mille järel asus asja kohe käsile uus president Lyndon B. Johnson.

“ Olgu see kongressi istungjärk tuntud kui istung, mis aitas kodanikuõiguste heaks rohkem kui sada viimast istungit kokku, ” ütles Johnson oma esimeses kõnes liidus. USA esindajatekoja põrandal toimunud arutelul väitsid lõunamaalased muu hulgas, et eelnõu anastas põhiseadusega vastuolus üksikisiku vabadused ja osariikide õigused.

Vigade katsega eelnõu saboteerida tegi Virginia segregatsionäär muudatuse, millega keelatakse naiste diskrimineerimine tööhõives. See läks läbi, samas kui üle 100 teise vaenuliku muudatusettepaneku löödi. Lõpuks kiitis täiskogu eelnõu kahepoolsel toetusel heaks häältega 290-130.

Seejärel kolis eelnõu USA senati, kus lõuna- ja piiririigi demokraadid korraldasid 75-päevase filibustri, mis on#pikim USA ajaloos. Ühel korral rääkis Lääne -Virginia senaator Robert Byrd, endine Ku Klux Klani liige, üle 14 tunni järjest.

Kuid kulisside taga kauplemise abil said seaduseelnõu toetajad lõpuks arutelu lõpetamiseks vajalikud kaks kolmandikku häältest. Üks neist häältest tuli California senaatorilt Clair Engle'ilt, kes, kuigi rääkimiseks liiga haige, andis oma silmale osutades märku 𠇊ye ”.


Musta ajaloo kuu - märkimisväärsed õed läbi ajaloo

Kuna 2020 on õe ja ämmaemanda aasta, on sobiv aeg kiita kõiki õdesid, kes töötavad väsimatult kogu maailma elanikkonna tervise ja paremaks muutmise nimel.

Siiski ei peaks me ootama krediidi andmiseks „oma aastat”, kui seda tuleb tunnustada, kuid kahjuks on õendusringkondade väsimatu töö sageli (vähemalt avalikult) alahinnatud. Koos ligi 10% õdede kogukonnast kui mustanahaline või afroameeriklane, siis täna töötab üle 350 000 registreeritud õe ja LPN -i, kes väärivad avalikku tunnustust.

Täna on meil õnne esindusorganite nagu Riiklik mustade õdede ühendus aidata toetada vähemuste õdede juhte ülesande juhtimisel tervislikumasse globaalsesse kogukonda, kuid see ei olnud alati nii.

Arvestades, et veebruar on musta ajaloo kuu, vaatame ajalukku tagasi, et tunnustada uskumatuid mustanahaliste ja Aafrika -Ameerika õdede esivanemaid ja esiisasid, kes pidid tegelema palju enama kui lihtsalt kohmakate EHR -süsteemidega.

James Derham (1762-1800ndate algus)

James Derham oli esimene afroameeriklane ametlikult USAs meditsiiniõde ja -õde. Philadelphias orjusse sündinud Derham teenis lõpuks dr John Kearsley käe all, kes õpetas talle liitmeditsiini, professionaalset voodirežiimi ja kurguravi põhitõdesid. Seejärel viidi ta veel kaks korda üle, enne kui ta sai New Orleansis vabaduse ja avas oma praktika, esimese dokumenteeritud meditsiinipraktika, mida juhib ja omab afroameeriklane.

Külalisetõde (1797–1883)

Sojourner Truth (sündinud Isabella Baumfree) sündis orjusesse 1797. aastal. Ta on kõige tuntum oma töö tõttu abolitsionistina, naiste õiguste eestkõneleja ja kõnelejana ning esimene mustanahaline naine, kes võitis tagastatud omandiõiguse eest võitleva kohtuasja (vabadus) ) tema pojast. Samuti töötas ta aastaid õena. Teda kiidetakse kõige enam 1851. aastal peetud kõne eest pealkirjaga „Kas ma pole naine?”, Milles ta nõudis võrdseid õigusi nii naistele kui ka kõikidele afroameeriklastele.

Mary Jane Seacole (1805–1881)

Mary Seacole oli Briti-Jamaica meditsiiniõde ja ettevõtja. Mõned nimetavad teda Jamaica Firenze ööbikuks, sest mõlemad hoolitsesid haavatud sõdurite eest Krimmi sõja ajal (1853–1856). Pärast seda, kui Briti sõjaamet keeldus teenistusest, jälgis ta ise lahinguid, asutades mitteametlikult sõduritele varju- ja arstiabi keskused. Ta pälvis postuumselt Jamaika teenetemärgi 1991. aastal ja valiti 2004. aastal suurimaks mustanahaliseks britiks.

Harriet Tubman (1822–1913)

Harriet Tubman, kes oli tuntud oma maa -aluse raudteega seotud Ameerika kodusõja ajal tehtud tegevuste poolest, oli abolitsionistliku liikumise tugev sümbol. Sündinud Marylandis orjana 1822. aastal, põgenes ta hiljem ja tegi üle tosina eduka tagasisõidu tasuta sõprade ja pere juurde. Kodusõja ajal teenis ta põhjaosa õena ja luurajana. Ta oli esimene naine, kes juhtis sõja ajal relvastatud ekspeditsiooni, vabastades selle aja jooksul üle 700 orja. Port Royalis õena ravis ta sõdureid düsenteeria ja rõugetega, kasutades kohalike taimede ja maitsetaimedega loodud vahendeid ning kõike, mis tal oli, oli ta tõepoolest Jane-of-all-trades ressurss.

Mary Eliza Mahoney (1845-1926)

Mary Eliza Mahoney, teine ​​afroameeriklane, kes töötas USA -s professionaalselt õena, oli ka üks esimesi Aafrika -ameeriklasi, kes lõpetas õenduskooli. Ta võitles diskrimineerivate praktikatega meditsiinis ja asutas koos Adah Thomsiga värviliste kõrgkoolide õdede riikliku ühingu (1951. aastal ühines Ameerika õdede ühinguga). Ta seadis standardi sellele, mida ametlikult haritud afroameerika meditsiiniõed võiksid saavutada, ja veendus, et nad suudavad seda rassiliselt eelarvamustega ühiskonnas. Pärast surma on ta kantud nii Ameerika õdede kuulsuste halli kui ka naiste naiste kuulsuste saali.

Susie King Taylor (1848–1912)

Esimene musta armee meditsiiniõde Susie King Taylor toetas Lõuna-Carolinast pärit musta kodusõja vabatahtlikku jalaväerügementi (Union). Ta ei saanud teenistuse eest tasu ja oli sel ajal ainus afroameeriklane, kes kirjutas oma sõjaaegsetest kogemustest memuaari pealkirjaga Meenutusi minu elust laagris Ameerika Ühendriikide 33. värvilise väeosaga, 1. hiline vabatahtlik. Ta õpetas paljudele sõduritele töövälisel ajal lugema ja kirjutama ning oli esimene afroameeriklane, kes õpetas avalikult Gruusia endiste orjade koolis.

Jesse Sleet Scales (1865-1956)

Jesse Scales, esimene rahvatervise õde Ameerika Ühendriikides, on tänapäeval paljud tuntud kui üks esimesi terviseõe pioneere. Temast sai esimene mustanahaline õde heategevusorganisatsiooni seltsis, kus talle tehti ülesandeks harida ja veenda New Yorgi afroameeriklaste kogukonda saama hädavajalikku ravi tuberkuloosi vastu, mis vaevas seda kogukonda sel ajal. Ta asutas koos Elizabeth Tyleriga ka Stillmani maja, püüdes edendada ebasoodsaid terviseseisundeid suures osas mustanahalistest kogukondadest.

Adah Belle Samuel Thoms (1870–1943)

Adah Thoms asutas koos värviliste kõrgharidusega õdede riikliku ühingu (koos Mary Mahoney ja Martha Frankliniga), oli New Yorgi Lincolni õdede kooli direktor ja oli aktiivne pooldaja Aafrika ameeriklastest, kes töötasid maailmasõja ajal Punase Risti õdedena. Mina ja lõpuks saan võimaluse liituda armee õdede korpusega. Enne pensionile jäämist 1923. aastal oli ta olnud kirurgiaosakonna vanemõde, haigla vanemõde, õendusjuhataja ja õendusdirektor.

Martha Minerva Franklin (1870–1968)

Martha Franklin oli üks esimesi inimesi, kes avalikult võitlesid rassilise võrdõiguslikkuse eest õenduses. Ta viis läbi ka ühe esimese riikliku uuringu mustade õdede staatuse kohta, kus saatis kirju enam kui 500 õele üle riigi, et saada ülevaade nende kogemustest ja olukordadest. Ta leidis, et kuigi Aafrika -Ameerika õed võivad liituda Ameerika õdede ühinguga (riiklikul tasandil), jäid paljud riiklikud õendusühendused Aafrika -ameeriklastele suletuks. Adah Thomase ja Mary Maloney toel korraldas Franklin New Yorgis värviliste kõrgkoolide õdede riikliku assotsiatsiooni esimese koosoleku, mille eesmärk oli koolituse parandamine, rassilise ebavõrdsuse vähendamine ja mustade õdede kogukonna juhtide kasvatamine.

Mabel Keaton Staupers (1890-1989)

1890. aastal Barbadosel sündinud Mabel Staupers kolis koos vanematega 1903. aastal 13 -aastaselt New Yorki. Ta õppis Washingtonis õenduskoolis, lõpetades selle kiitusega ja töötades õena. Ta võitles avalikult Aafrika -Ameerika õdede kaasamise eest armeesse ja mereväkke II maailmasõja ajal. Tema jõupingutuste tõttu avas sõjaväeõdede korpus kõikidele kvalifitseeritud taotlejatele, olenemata rassist, 1945. aastal. Ta töötas ka selleks, et võidelda tuberkuloosi puhanguga toona Aafrika ameeriklaste seas, asutades Booker T. Washingtoni sanatooriumi.

Estelle Massey Osborne (1901-1981)

Estelle Osborne (Riddle) oli veel üks suur tegelane võitluses rassiliste eelarvamuste kõrvaldamise eest, millega mustad ja afroameerika õed sel ajal silmitsi seisid. Ta oli ka esimene afroameeriklane, kes sai 1931. aastal õendushariduse magistrikraadi. Teise maailmasõja ajal nimetati ta sõjaväeteenistuse riikliku õendusnõukogu konsultandiks, selle aja jooksul töötas ta koos õenduskoolidega diskrimineeriva poliitika kõrvaldamiseks. . 1945. aastal sai temast esimene afroameerika juhendaja New Yorgi ülikooli õendusosakonnas.

Lillian Holland Harvey (1912-1994)

Lillian Harvey sai 1966. aastaks õe bakalaureuse-, magistri- ja doktorikraadi. Temast sai 1945. aastal õdede koolituse direktor Tuskegee õdede koolis, temast sai kooli dekaan 1948. aastal. Ta muutis kooli diplomiprogrammi bakalaureusekraadiks üks, esimene omataoline Alabamas. Ta töötas ka selleks, et suurendada mustanahaliste ja Aafrika -Ameerika õdede osalemist Teise maailmasõja jõupingutustes, luues rohkem võimalusi armee õdede korpuses.

Mary Elizabeth Carnegie (1916–2008)

Mary Carnegie oli kliiniline koolitaja ja õenduse autor. Ta oli esimene afroameeriklane, kes tegutses a juhatuses hääleõigusliku liikmena osariik (Florida) õdede ühendus. Ta omandas õe bakalaureuse- ja magistrikraadi ning avaliku halduse doktorikraadi. Ta veetis suure osa oma tööaastatest kliinilise juhendajana, olles ka Florida A & ampM ülikooli õenduskooli professor ja dekaan. Ta tegutses ka Ameerika Õendusakadeemia presidendina ja võeti Ameerika Õdede Assotsiatsiooni kuulsuste saali.

Hazel W. Johnson-Brown (1927-2011)

Lisaks õdede kasvatajale, kes teenis aastatel 1955-1983 Ameerika Ühendriikide armees, oli Hazel Johnson-Brown ka esimene armee afroameerika naiskindral. ja armee õdede korpuse esimene must pealik. Kui ta lõpuks armeest pensionile läks, juhtis ta Ameerika Õdede Assotsiatsiooni valitsussuhete meeskonda ja õpetas George Masoni ülikooli tervisepoliitika keskuses.

Betty Smith Williams (alates 1929)

Dr Betty Smith Williams on eluaegne õpetaja, kellel on üle 50 -aastane õpetamis- ja teadustöö kogemus. Ta oli esimene Aafrika -Ameerika meditsiiniõde, kes palgati California osariigi kõrghariduse õpetajaks. Ta oli UCLA Mount Saint Mary kolledži professor ja California osariigi Long Beachi assistent dekaan UCLA dekaani õenduskoolis ning Colorado ülikooli terviseteaduste keskuse õenduskooli professor ja kooli asutaja. Õendusabi Ameerika Terviseteaduste Ülikoolis. Ta oli ka riikliku mustade õdede ühingu asutaja ja harta liige 1971.

Niisiis, siin on õed - eriti uskumatud tegelased läbi ajaloo, mõned millest on eespool juttu - ja õe ja ämmaemanda aastale! Lähme välja ja näitame maailmale, kui palju õed on võimelised!


Fakt nr 1: Lapsepõlves keeldus  Muhammad Ali tema poksi -iidol Sugar Ray Robinson autogrammidest. Kui Ali sai auhinnavõitlejaks, lubas ta mitte kunagi eitada autogrammitaotlust, mida ta oma karjääri jooksul austas.

Fakt nr 2:ਊli, kõigi aegade enim välja kuulutatud "poksija", sai algselt nime oma isa järgi, kes sai nime 19. sajandi abolitsionisti ja poliitiku ꃊssius Marcellus Clay järgi.

Fakt nr 3: & #xA0Allensworth on esimene mustanahaline California linn, mille asutasid ja rahastab Aafrika ameeriklased. Kolonelleitnant Allen Allensworthi poolt 1908. aastal loodud linn ehitati eesmärgiga luua isemajandav linn, kus Aafrika-ameeriklased saaksid elada oma elu rassilistest eelarvamustest vabalt.

Fakt nr 4: & #xA0Jazz, Aafrika -Ameerika muusikavorm, mis sündis bluusi-, ragtime- ja marsibändidest, sai alguse Louisianast 19. sajandi vahetusel. Sõna "jazz" on slängitermin, mis ühel hetkel viitas seksuaalsele teole.

Fakt nr 5: & #xA01930ndatel asutas maalikunstnik Charles Alston grupi 306, mis kogunes tema stuudioplatsile ning pakkus tuge ja praktikat Aafrika-Ameerika kunstnikele, sealhulgas Langston Hughesi skulptor Augusta Savage'ile ja segameedia visionäärile  Romare Bearden.

Fakt nr 6: & #xA0Enne kui Wally Amos sai kuulsaks šokolaadiküpsistega "Kuulsad Amos", oli ta talendiagent William Morrise agentuuris, kus ta töötas koos The Supremesi,#xA0 ja Simon & amp; Garfunkel -iga.

Fakt nr 7: & #xA0Martin Luther King juunior mõrvati sõbra Maya Angelou ja apossi sünnipäeval, 4. aprillil 1968. Angelou lõpetas aastaid hiljem oma sünnipäeva tähistamise ja saatis lilled kuninga ja apossi lesele Coretta Scott Kingile üle 30 aasta, kuni Coretta ja aposs suri 2006. aastal. .

Fakt #8: & #xA0Louis Armstrong õppis korneti mängima, elades Colored Waif & aposs Home for Boys.

Foto: Hultoni arhiiv/Getty Images

Fakt nr 9:ਊrmstrong pälvis hüüdnime & quot; Satchmo & quot; see oli lühendatud versioon monikeri ja quotsatcheli suust. & quot

Fakt nr 10: & #xA0Pärast pikka näitleja- ja lauljakarjääri omandas Pearl Bailey 1985. aastal Georgetowni ülikoolis bakalaureuse- ja apossikraadi teoloogias.

Fakt #11: & #xA0Pärast seda, kui afroameerika esineja Josephine Baker   Prantsusmaale emigreerus, smugeldas ta Teise maailmasõja ajal kuulsalt sõjaväeluure Prantsuse liitlastele. Ta tegi seda, kinnitades oma kleidi sisse saladusi ja peites need oma noodidesse.

Fakt #12: & #xA0Teadlasele ja matemaatikule Benjamin Bannekerile omistatakse abi Washingtoni plaanide kavandamisel.

Fakt #13: & #xA0Enne tuntud kunstnikuks saamist oli Romare Bearden ka andekas pesapallur. Philadelphia kergejõustik värbas ta ettekäändel, et on nõus valgena edasi minema. Ta lükkas pakkumise tagasi, valides selle asemel oma kunsti kallal töötamise.

Fakt #14: & #xA0Kuigi ta on pärit Kariibi mere päritolust ja tal oli oma 1956. aasta albumiga  Kalipso, Harry Belafonte sündis tegelikult Ameerika Ühendriikides. Rahvusvaheliselt tuntud meelelahutusikoon ja inimõiguste aktivist on pärit New Yorgi Harlemist.

Fakt #15: & #xA0Muusik ja aktivist ꂾlafonte mõtles algselt välja singli "We are the World", milleks ta lootis aidata koguda raha näljahäda leevendamiseks Aafrikas. Laul oli tohutu edu, sai mitme plaatina ja tõi sisse miljoneid dollareid.

Fakt nr 16: & #xA0Enne professionaalseks muusikuks saamist õppis Chuck Berry   juuksuriks.

Fakt #17: & #xA0Chuck Berry & aposs kuulus & quotduck walk & quot tants sai alguse 1956. aastal, kui ta üritas varjata oma pükste kortse, raputades neid oma nüüdseks juba allkirjastatud kehaliigutustega.

Fakt #18: & #xA0Näitlejanna Halle Berry vanemad valisid oma tütre ja apossi nime Halle & aposs kaubamajast, mis on kohalik vaatamisväärsus tema sünnikohas Clevelandis, Ohio.

Fakt #19: & #xA0Aastal 1938 vaidlustas esimene leedi Eleanor Roosevelt Alabamas Birminghamis toimuval lõunaosas toimuval inimeste heaolu konverentsil segregatsioonireeglid, et ta saaks istuda Aafrika -Ameerika haridustöötaja ja aktivisti Mary McLeod Bethune'i kõrval. Roosevelt viitaks Bethune'ile kui oma vanuserühma lähimale sõbrale. "

James Brown koos Ed Sullivaniga

Foto: CBS fotoarhiiv/Getty Images

Fakt #20: & #xA0Legendaarne laulja James Brown esines Bostonis telesaadete ees päev pärast Martin Luther King Jr mõrvatut. Brownile antakse sageli au selle eest, et ta etendusega edasisi rahutusi ära hoidis.

Fakt #21: & #xA0Chester Arthur & quot; Howlin & apos Wolf & quot; Burnett oli üks maailma olulisemaid bluusilauljaid, laulukirjutajaid ja muusikuid, mõjutades populaarseid rokktegusid nagu Rolling Stones ja Eric Clapton. Howlin & apos Wolf säilitas rahalise edu kogu oma elu, sõlmis stabiilse abielu ja töötas heategevuslike eesmärkide nimel oma Chicago kogukonnas.

Fakt #22: & #xA0Naine ulmekirjanik Octavia Butler oli düsleksiaga. Vaatamata oma korrarikkumisele võitis ta oma kirjutamise eest Hugo ja Nebula auhindu ning MacArthuri fondi "geenius" stipendiumi.

Fakt #23: & #xA0Kui Aafrika -Ameerika neurokirurg Ben Carson oli laps, nõudis ema, et ta loeks nädalas kaks raamatukoguraamatut ja annaks talle kirjalikke aruandeid, kuigi ta oli vaevalt kirjaoskaja. Seejärel võttis ta paberid ja teeskles, et vaatab need hoolikalt üle, pannes lehe ülaossa linnukese, mis näitab tema heakskiitu. Ülesanded inspireerisid Carsoni ja apossi lõpuks lugemis- ja õppimisarmastust.

Fakt #24: & #xA0Poliitik, haridustöötaja ja Brooklyni põliselanik Shirley Chisholm elas 1972. aastal USA presidendiks nimetamise kampaania käigus üle kolm mõrvakatset.

Fakt nr 25: & #xA0Räppkunstnik Chuck D on lõpetanud Adelphi ülikooli, kus õppis graafilist disaini.

Fakt nr 26: & #xA0Dr Mayme A. Clayton, Los Angelese raamatukoguhoidja ja ajaloolane, kogus laialdase ja väärtusliku Black Americana kogu, mis on nüüd leitud muuseumis, kus on hinnanguliselt 3,5 miljonit eset. Kollektsioonis on laias valikus valgustite teoseid, sealhulgas Countee Cullen, Marcus Garvey, Zora Neale Hurston ja Lena Horne.

Fakt #27: & #xA0Enne kui advokaat Johnnie Cochran saavutas üleriigilise kuulsuse oma rolli eest O.J. Simpsoni kohtuprotsess, näitleja Denzel Washington intervjueeris Cochranit auhinnatud filmi uurimise raames Philadelphia (1993).

Fakt #28: & #xA0Muusiku ja laulja Nat King Cole'i ​​plaadimüük aitas 1950. aastatel Capitol Recordsi edule nii palju kaasa, et selle peakorter sai tuntuks kui & quotthe maja, mille Nat ehitas.

Fakt #29: & #xA0Saint John Coltrane'i Aafrika õigeusu kirik San Franciscos, Californias, kasutab religioossete avastuste allikana džässmuusikut John Coltrane'i ja apossi muusikat ning filosoofiat.

Fakt #30: & #xA0Filantroop, laevakapten ja pühendunud kveeker Paul Cuffee, kes toetas mustanahaliste kodanike naasmist Aafrikasse, transportis 1815. aastal Sierra Leonesse 38 vaba Aafrika ameeriklast. Samuti asutas ta 1797. aastal ühe esimese Ameerika integreeritud kooli.

Fakt #31: & #xA0Tice Davids, Kentuckyst põgenenud orjastatud inimene, võis olla inspiratsiooniks mõiste "maa -alune raudtee" esmakordsel kasutamisel, kuigi selle päritolu on varjatud saladusega. Aruannete kohaselt ei suutnud tema "omanik" pärast seda, kui Davids üle Ohio jõe ujus, teda leida. Väidetavalt rääkis ta kohalikule ajalehele, et kui Davids oleks põgenenud, oleks ta pidanud sõitma & quotani maaraudteel. & Quot; Arvatakse, et Davids on jõudnud Ohio osariiki Ripley.

Fakt #32: & #xA0Ajal, mil ülikoolid tavaliselt mustanahalistele sportlastele rahalist abi ei pakkunud, pakuti Aafrika -Ameerika jalgpallistaarile Ernie Davisele üle 50 stipendiumi.

Fakt #33: & #xA0"Gospelmuusika isaks" peetud Thomas Andrew Dorsey oli tuntud oma pühade sõnade ja ilmalike rütmide sulandumise poolest. Tema kuulsaima kompositsiooni "Võta mu käsi, kallis härra" salvestasid näiteks Elvis Presley ja Mahalia Jackson.

Foto: Keystone/Getty Images

Fakt #34: & #xA0VÕRK. Du Bois ja William Monroe Trotter asutasid mustanahaliste kodanikuõiguste organisatsiooni The Niagara Movement, mis sai oma nime grupi ja apossi kohtumispaigast Niagara Falls.

Fakt #35: & #xA0Du Bois suri üks päev enne seda, kui Martin Luther King Jr pidas Washingtonis märtsis (28. august 1963) oma kõne "Mul on unistus".

Fakt #36: & #xA0Enne kui ta tunnustatud romaani kirjutas Nähtamatu mees,  Ralph Ellison teenis Teise maailmasõja ajal kaubalaevastikus kokana.

Fakt #37: & #xA0Veidi enne oma salapärast kadumist 1934. aastal asutas Wallace D. Fard islami rahvuse.

Fakt nr 38: & #xA0Ella Fitzgerald, kes on tuntud märkimisväärse kolme oktaavi ulatuse poolest, sai alguse Apollo teatris.

Fakt #39: & #xA0Pärast seda, kui sõber ja muusikapartner Tammi Terrell ajukasvajasse suri, salvestas leinav Marvin Gaye oma tulevase hiti singli "What & aposs Goin & apos On", kus Detroit Lions ja sportlased Lem Barney ja Mel Farr panid laulu ja aposside sissejuhatuseks vokaali maha. Hiljem kohtus Gaye Lions & apos treeneri Joe Schmidtiga, et pakkuda välja idee mängida meeskonnas, mille Schmidt tagasi lükkas.

Fakt nr 40: & #xA0Nancy Green, kes oli varem orjastatud, töötas 1890ndatel tädi Jemima kaubamärgi reklaamimisel, demonstreerides pannkoogisegu näitustel ja laatadel. Ta oli populaarne vaatamisväärsus oma sõbraliku isiksuse, jutustamisoskuse ja soojuse tõttu. Green sõlmis pannkoogifirmaga eluaegse lepingu ning tema pilti kasutati pakendamiseks ja reklaamideks.

Jimi Hendrix Martin Luther Kingi noorema publiku hulgas sai kasu New Yorgis 1968. aasta juunis, mõni kuu pärast kodanikuõiguste juhti ja mõrva.

Fakt nr 41: & #xA0Kuulsad kitarrist Jimi Hendrixit tundsid lähedased sõbrad ja pereliikmed lihtsalt kui "Buster"

Fakt #42: & #xA0Josiah Henson põgenes 1830. aastal Marylandi orjusest ja rajas hiljem Kanadas Ontarios asula teiste põgenenud mustanahaliste kodanike jaoks. Tema autobiograafia, Endise orja, nüüd Kanada elaniku Josiah Hensoni elu, nagu ta ise jutustas (1849), arvatakse olevat Harriet Beecher Stowe ja inspireerinud peategelast aastal Onu Tom & aposs Cabin.

Fakt #43: & #xA0Aafrika -ameeriklane Matthew Henson saatis Robert Edwin Peary esimest USA edukat ekspeditsiooni Põhjapoolusele, jõudes sihtkohta 6. aprillil 1909. 2000. aastal autasustati Henson   postuumselt National Geographic Society & aposs Hubbardi medaliga.

Fakt #44: & #xA0Blueslaulja Billie Holiday kuulsaks saanud laul "Kummaline vili", lõunaosas toimunud must lintšimine lõunas, oli algselt luuletus, mille kirjutas New Yorgi Bronxist pärit juudi kooliõpetaja Abel Meeropol.

Fakt #45: & #xA0Tuntud kirjatundja Langston Hughesi isa heidutas oma poega kirjutamast, soovides, et ta astuks "praktilisemale" kutsele.

Fakt #46: & #xA0Jesse Jackson pidas edukalt läbirääkimisi 1983. aastal Süüria kohal alla tulistatud ja pantvangi langenud afroameerika lenduri leitnant Robert O. Goodman juuniori vabastamise üle.

Fakt #47: & #xA0"Pop of King" ja Michael Jackson kirjutasid koos Motowni legendi Lionel Richiega singli "We are the World". Palast sai üks kõigi aegade enimmüüdud singleid, teenides Aafrikas näljahäda leevendamiseks miljoneid dollareid.

Fakt #48: & #xA0Abolitsionist Harriet Ann Jacobs avaldas Juhtumid orjatüdruku elus aastal 1861 varjunime Linda Brent all. Raamatus kirjeldatakse raskusi ja seksuaalset väärkohtlemist, mida ta koges orjuses kasvava naisena. Jacobs põgenes orjusest 1835. aastal, peites end seitse aastat vanaema ja pööningul roomamisruumis, enne kui sõitis paadiga Philadelphiasse ja lõpuks New Yorki.

Fakt #49: & #xA0Rapper Jay-Z reportedly developed his stage name as a reference to New York&aposs J/Z subway lines, which have a stop in his Bed-Stuy, Brooklyn, neighborhood.

Fact #50: The popular clothing line FUBU stands for "For Us, By Us." It was originally created by designer Daymond John along with three other friends and was supported by fellow Queens native LL Cool J .

Fact #51: Jack Johnson , the first African American heavyweight champion, patented a wrench in 1922.

Fact #52: After the success of Negro Digest, publisher John H. Johnson decided to create a magazine to showcase Black achievement while also looking at current issues affecting African Americans. The first issue of his publication, Eebenipuu, sold out in a matter of hours.

Fact #53: The theme song for the groundbreaking African American sitcom Sanford and Sons was composed by music great Quincy Jones .

Fact #54: Before he became an NBA legend, Michael Jordan was cut from his high school basketball team.

Fact #55: Chaka Kahn , dubbed the "Queen of Funk Soul," is also well known for singing the theme song to the public television&aposs popular educational program Reading Rainbow.

Fact #56: Alicia Keys was accepted into Columbia University on a full scholarship, but decided to pursue a full-time music career instead.

Fact #57: In her early life, Coretta Scott King was as well known for her singing and violin playing as she was for her civil rights activism. The young soprano won a fellowship to the New England Conservatory of Music in Boston, Massachusetts, the city where she met future husband Martin Luther King Jr.

Fact #58: Martin Luther King Jr. was stabbed by a woman in 1958 while attending a book signing at Blumstein&aposs department store in Harlem, New York. The following year, King and his wife visited India to meet Mahatma Gandhi , whose philosophies of nonviolence greatly influenced King&aposs work.

Fact #59: Lewis Howard Latimer drafted patent drawings for Alexander Graham Bell&aposs telephone while working at a patent law firm. 

Fact #60: In 1967, chemist and scholar Robert H. Lawrence Jr. became the first Black man to be trained as an astronaut. Sadly, Lawrence died in a jet crash during flight training and never made it into space.

Fact #61: Heavyweight boxing champion Joe Louis helped to end segregation in the U.S. armed forces while serving in the Army during World War II.

Fact #61: Nat "Deadwood Dick" Love, a renowned and skilled cowboy, wrote his autobiographical work The Life and Adventures of Nat Love, Better Known in the Cattle Country as Deadwood Dick, published in 1907.

Fact #62: African American fashion designer Ann Lowe designed the wedding dress of Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, the bride of future President John F. Kennedy.

Fact #63: Jazz pianist and composer Alice McLeod married pioneering saxophonist John Coltrane in 1965. She played with his band and appeared on his later recordings.

Fact #64: Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall said that he was punished for misbehavior in school by being forced to recite the Constitution, ultimately memorizing it.

Fact #65: Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall was a classmate of jazz vocalist Cab Calloway, Harlem Renaissance writer Langston Hughes and future Ghanaian president Kwame Nkrumah during their studies at Lincoln University.

Fact #66: Buffalo Soldiers— a name given by Native-American plainsmen—were the all-Black regiments created in the U.S. Army beginning in 1866. These soldiers received second-class treatment and were often given the worst military assignments, but had the lowest desertion rate than their white counterparts. More than 20 Buffalo Soldiers received the Medal of Honor for their service. The oldest living Buffalo Soldier, Sergeant Mark Matthews, died at the age of 111 in 2005 and was buried at Arlington National Cemetery.

Fact #67: The Loew&aposs Grand Theatre on Peachtree Street in Atlanta, Georgia, was selected to air the premiere of the film Tuulest viidud in 1939. All of the film&aposs Black actors, including future Academy Award winner Hattie McDaniel , were barred from attending.

Fact #68: George Monroe and William Robinson are thought to be two of the first African Americans to work as Pony Express riders.

Fact #69: Pony Express rider George Monroe was also a highly skilled stagecoach driver for U.S. presidents Ulysses S. Grant , James Garfield and Rutherford B. Hayes. Monroe, who was known as "Knight of the Sierras," frequently navigated passengers through the curving Wanona Trail in the Yosemite Valley. As a result, Monroe Meadows in Yosemite National Park is named after him.

Fact #70: Garrett Morgan, the inventor of the three-way traffic signal, also became the first African American to own a car in Cleveland, Ohio.

Fact #71: Jockey Isaac Burns Murphy was the first to win three Kentucky Derbies and the only racer to win the Kentucky Derby, the Kentucky Oaks and the Clark Handicap within the same year. He was inducted into the National Museum of Racing&aposs Hall of Fame in 1956.

Fact #72: For a time during his youth, future U.S. President Barack Obama used the moniker "Barry."

Fact #73: Barack Obama has won two Grammy Awards. He was first honored in 2005 for the audio version of his memoir, Unistused minu isalt (best spoken word album), and received his second Grammy (in the same category) in 2007 for his political work, Lootuse jultumus.

Fact #74: In 1881, Sophia B. Packard and Harriet E. Giles founded what would become the first college for Black women in the United States. The school was named Spelman College after Laura Spelman Rockefeller and her parents, who were abolitionists. Laura was also the wife of John D. Rockefeller , who made a significant donation to the school.

Fact #75: Legendary baseball player Satchel Paige would travel as many as 30,000 miles a year to pitch as a free agent, to locales that included Cuba and the Dominican Republic. In 1971, Paige also became the first African American pitcher to be inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame.

Fact #76: Bill Pickett, a renowned rodeo performer, was inducted into the National Cowboy Hall of Fame in 1971, the first African American to receive the honor. He was also recognized by the U.S. Postal service as one of the 20 "Legends of the West" in a series of stamps.

Fact #77: Since 1997, actor and director Sidney Poitier has served as non-resident Bahamian ambassador to Japan.

Fact #78: In addition to her career in Washington, D.C.,਌ondoleezza Rice is an accomplished pianist who has accompanied cellist Yo-Yo Ma, played with soul singerਊretha Franklin and performed for Queen Elizabeth II .

Fact #79: A serious student, Condoleezza Rice entered the University of Denver at the age of 15 and earned her Ph.D. by age 26.

Fact #80: At the very peak of his fame, rock &aposn&apos roll pioneer Little Richard ਌oncluded that his music was the Devil&aposs work and subsequently became a traveling preacher, focusing on gospel tunes. When the Beatles revived several of his songs in 1964, Little Richard returned to the rock stage.

Fact #81: Actor, singer and civil rights activist Paul Robeson was once considered for a U.S. vice presidential spot on Henry A. Wallace&aposs 1948 Progressive Party ticket.

Fact #82: An heirloom tomato variety originating in Russia is named after actor, athlete and civil rights activist Paul Robeson , who enjoyed and spoke highly of Russian culture.

Fact #83: Performer Paul Robeson was conversant in many different languages.

Fact #84: African American baseball legend Jackie Robinson had an older brother, Matthew, who won a silver medal in the 200-meter dash at the 1936 Olympics. He came in second to Jesse Owens .

Fact #85: Before Branch Rickey offered future Hall-of-Famer Jackie Robinson the contract that integrated professional baseball, he personally tested Robinson&aposs reactions to the racial slurs and insults he knew the player would endure.

Fact #86: After retiring from baseball, Hall-of-Famer Jackie Robinson helped establish the African American-owned and -controlled Freedom Bank.

Jackie Robinson, his wife Rachel and their son Jackie Jr. posing by their car in Brooklyn, New York in July 1949.

Photo: Nina Leen:Time & Life Pictures:Getty Images

Fact #87: In 1944 in Fort Hood, Texas, future baseball legend Jackie Robinson , who was serving as a lieutenant for the U.S. Army at the time, refused to give up his seat and move to the back of a bus when ordered to by the driver. Robinson dealt with racial slurs and was court-martialed, but was ultimately acquitted. His excellent reputation, combined with the united efforts of friends, the NAACP and various Black newspapers, shed public light on the injustice. Robinson requested to be discharged soon afterward.

Fact #88: Before becoming a professional baseball player, Jackie Robinson played football for the Honolulu Bears.

Fact #89: Ray Charles Robinson , a musical genius and pioneer in blending gospel and the blues, shortened his name to Ray Charles to prevent confusion with the great boxer Sugar Ray Robinson . Ray Charles began losing his sight at an early age and was completely blind by the time he was 7, but never relied upon a cane or guide dog. He was one of the first inductees into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame at its inaugural ceremony in 1986.

Fact #90: Reverend Al Sharpton preached his first sermon at the age of 4, and later toured with world-famous gospel singer Mahalia Jackson.

Fact #91: Joseph "Run" Simmons of Run-D.M.C. is the brother of hip-hop promoter and mogul Russell Simmons .

Fact #92: Upon her death in 2003, singer Nina Simone&aposs ashes were spread across the continent of Africa, per her last request.

Fact #93: African American tap dancer Howard Sims was known as the "Sandman" because he often sprinkled sand onstage at the Apollo Theater to amplify his steps. Sims was an acclaimed dancer and footwork master whose students included Muhammad Ali, Gregory Hines and Ben Vereen.

Fact #94: Mamie Smith is considered to be the first African American female artist to make a blues record with vocals—"Crazy Blues," released in 1920, sold 1 million copies in half a year.

Fact #95: Olympic medal-winning athletes John Carlos and Tommie Smith made headlines around the world by raising their black-gloved fists at the 1968 award ceremony. Both athletes wore black socks and no shoes on the podium to represent Black poverty in America.

Fact #96: Walker Smith Jr. became known as Sugar Ray Robinson when, as an under-aged boxer, he used fellow boxer Ray Robinson&aposs Amateur Athletic Union card to fight in a show. Smith won a Golden Glove featherweight title in 1939 under the assumed name and continued using it thereafter, with the additional "Sugar" coming from a reporter.

Fact #97: Considered one of the greatest boxers of all time, Sugar Ray Robinson held the world welterweight title from 1946 to 1951, and by 1958, he had become the first boxer to win a divisional world championship five times.

Fact #98: In the 1920s and &apos30s, multi-instrumentalist Valaida Snow captivated audiences with her effervescent singing and jazz trumpet playing. Her abilities earned her the nicknames "Queen of the Trumpet" and "Little Louis," in reference to the style of musician Louis Armstrong .

Fact #99: John Baxter Taylor, the first African American to win an Olympic gold medal, also held a degree in veterinary medicine from the University of Pennsylvania.

Fact #100: African American Olympic figure skating medalist Debi Thomas attended Stanford University and later studied medicine at Northwestern University, becoming an orthopedic surgeon.

Fact #101: In addition to being a millionaire entrepreneur, Madam C.J. Walker was a civil rights activist. In 1917, she was part of a delegation that traveled to the White House to petition President Woodrow Wilson to make lynching a federal crime.

Fact #102: Muddy Waters , known for his infusion of the electric guitar into the Delta country genre, is considered the "Father of Chicago Blues." Waters influenced some of the most popular rock acts, including the Bluesbreakers and the Rolling Stones, who named themselves after his popular 1950 song, "Rollin&apos Stone."

Fact #103: Rapper Kanye West&aposs father, Ray West𠅊 former Black Panther—was one of the first Black photojournalists at the Atlanta ajakiri-põhiseadus, receiving accolades for his work.

Fact #104: The mother of rapper and producer Kanye West was an English professor before switching careers to serve as her son&aposs manager.

Fact #105: Phillis Wheatley became the first published African American poet in 1774 with her collection Poems on Various Subjects, a work of distinction that looked to many literary classical traditions.

Fact #106: Before Forest Whitaker was a film star, he was accepted into the music conservatory at the University of Southern California to study opera as a tenor.

Fact #107: Jesse Ernest Wilkins Jr., a physicist, mathematician and engineer, earned a Ph.D. in mathematics from the University of Chicago in 1942, at age 19.

Fact #108: The "Dee" in actor Billy Dee Williams&apos name is short for his middle name, "December."

Fact #109: Cathay Williams was the first and only known female Buffalo Soldier. Williams was born into slavery and worked for the Union army during the Civil War. She posed as a man and enlisted as William Cathay in the 38th infantry in 1866, and was given a medical discharge in 1868.

Fact #110: NFL player John Williams won the Super Bowl as part of the Baltimore Colts before he eventually quit the league to become a dentist.

Fact #111: Renowned African American architect Paul R. Williams mastered the art of rendering drawings upside-down so that his clients would see the drawings right side up. Williams&aposs style became associated with California glamour, beauty and naturalism, and he joined the American Institute of Architects in 1923.

Fact #112: Because he worked during the height of segregation, most of the homes designed by African American architect Paul R. Williams had deeds that barred Black people from buying them.

Fact #113: Musician Stevie Wonder recorded the cries of his newborn daughter, Aisha Morris, for his popular song, "Isn&apost She Lovely?"

Fact #114: In 1926, Carter Godwin Woodson established Negro History Week, which later became Black History Month. The month of February was chosen in honor of Frederick Douglass and Abraham Lincoln , who were both born in that month.

Fact #115: Explorers Lewis and Clark were accompanied by York, an African American enslaved by Clark, when they made their 1804 expedition from Missouri to Oregon. York was an invaluable member of the expedition, connecting with the Native American communities they encountered. He is considered the first African American man to cross what would become U.S. territory.

Fact #116: The Selma to Montgomery marches marked the peak of the voting rights movement in Selma, Alabama. Of the three marches, only the last made it all the way to the capital of Montgomery, Alabama, which paved the way for 1965&aposs Voting Right Act. The path is now a U.S. National Historic Trail.

Fact #117: Wilberforce University is one of the first historically African American institutions of higher learning. Located in Wilberforce, Ohio, and named after British abolitionist William Wilberforce, the school&aposs notable graduates include famed composer William Grant Still and James H. McGee, the first African American mayor of Dayton, Ohio.

Fact #118: Owned by African American designer, entrepreneur and television personality Daymond John, the popular FUBU clothing line has won various awards, including an Advertising Age award, an NAACP award, the Pratt Institute Award, the EssenceAchievement Award, the Asper Award for social entrepreneurship and a citation of honor from the Queens Borough President.

Fact #119: According to the American Community Survey, in 2005, there were 2.4 million Black military veterans in the United States—the highest of any minority group.

Fact #120: In the 1800s, Philadelphia was known as the "Black Capital of Anti–Slavery" because of its strong abolitionist presence, which included groups like the Philadelphia Anti–Slavery Society.


The Overlooked Black History of Memorial Day

N owadays, Memorial Day honors veterans of all wars, but its roots are in America’s deadliest conflict, the Civil War. Approximately 620,000 soldiers died, about two-thirds from disease.

The work of honoring the dead began right away all over the country, and several American towns claim to be the birthplace of Memorial Day. Researchers have traced the earliest annual commemoration to women who laid flowers on soldiers’ graves in the Civil War hospital town of Columbus, Miss., in April 1866. But historians like the Pulitzer Prize winner David Blight have tried to raise awareness of freed slaves who decorated soldiers’ graves a year earlier, to make sure their story gets told too.

According to Blight’s 2001 book Race and Reunion: The Civil War in American Memory, a commemoration organized by freed slaves and some white missionaries took place on May 1, 1865, in Charleston, S.C., at a former planters’ racetrack where Confederates held captured Union soldiers during the last year of the war. At least 257 prisoners died, many of disease, and were buried in unmarked graves, so black residents of Charleston decided to give them a proper burial.

In the approximately 10 days leading up to the event, roughly two dozen African American Charlestonians reorganized the graves into rows and built a 10-foot-tall white fence around them. An archway overhead spelled out “Martyrs of the Race Course” in black letters.

About 10,000 people, mostly black residents, participated in the May 1 tribute, according to coverage back then in the Charleston Daily Courier and the New York Tribüün. Starting at 9 a.m., about 3,000 black schoolchildren paraded around the race track holding roses and singing the Union song “John Brown’s Body,” and were followed by adults representing aid societies for freed black men and women. Black pastors delivered sermons and led attendees in prayer and in the singing of spirituals, and there were picnics. James Redpath, the white director of freedman’s education in the region, organized about 30 speeches by Union officers, missionaries and black ministers. Participants sang patriotic songs like “America” and “We’ll Rally around the Flag” and “The Star-Spangled Banner.” In the afternoon, three white and black Union regiments marched around the graves and staged a drill.

The New York Tribüün described the tribute as “a procession of friends and mourners as South Carolina and the United States never saw before.” The gravesites looked like a “one mass of flowers” and “the breeze wafted the sweet perfumes from them” and “tears of joy” were shed.

This tribute, “gave birth to an American tradition,” Blight wrote in Race and Reunion: “The war was over, and Memorial Day had been founded by African Americans in a ritual of remembrance and consecration.”

In 1996, Blight stumbled upon a New York Herald Tribune article detailing the tribute in a Harvard University archive &mdash but the origin story it told was not the Memorial Day history that many white people had wanted to tell, he argues.

About 50 years after the Civil War ended, someone at the United Daughters of the Confederacy asked the Ladies Memorial Association of Charleston to confirm that the May 1, 1865, tribute occurred, and received a reply from one S.C. Beckwith: “I regret that I was unable to gather any official information in answer to this.” Whether Beckwith actually knew about the tribute or not, Blight argues, the exchange illustrates “how white Charlestonians suppressed from memory this founding.” A 1937 book also incorrectly stated that James Redpath singlehandedly organized the tribute &mdash when in reality it was a group effort &mdash and that it took place on May 30, when it actually took place on May 1. That book also diminished the role of the African Americans involved by referring to them as “black hands which only knew that the dead they were honoring had raised them from a condition of servitude.”

The origin story that tegi stick involves an 1868 call from General John A. Logan, president of a Union Army veterans group, urging Americans to decorate the graves of the fallen with flowers on May 30 of that year. The ceremony that took place in Arlington National Cemetery that day has been considered the first official Memorial Day celebration. Memorial Day became a national holiday two decades later, in 1889, and it took a century before it was moved in 1968 to the last Monday of May, where it remains today. According to Blight, Hampton Park, named after Confederate General Wade Hampton, replaced the gravesite at the Martyrs of the Race Course, and the graves were reinterred in the 1880s at a national cemetery in Beaufort, S.C.

The fact that the freed slaves’ Memorial Day tribute is not as well remembered is emblematic of the struggle that would follow, as African Americans’ fight to be fully recognized for their contributions to American society continues to this day.


Society and Life

  1. First published in 1936, &ldquoNegro Motorist Green Book&rdquo was a comprehensive guide for Black travelers about locations across America&mdashand eventually overseas&mdashthat were either Black-owned or didn't engage in segregationist practices. The guide was printed for 30 years. It stopped publication in 1966, two years after the Civil Rights Act was passed.
  2. The oldest Black female Greek-letter organization, Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc. (AKA), was founded at Howard University in 1908. Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, Inc. (Alpha), the first Black male Greek-letter organization, was founded in 1906 at Cornell University.
  3. It's estimated that around 100,000 enslaved people escaped to the North via the Underground Railroad from 1810 to 1850.
  4. In July 1777, Vermont became the first colony to ban slavery.
  5. In 1738, a group of newly freed men and women founded the town Gracia Real De Santa Teresa De Mose, Florida. Just two miles away from St. Augustine, it's considered to be the first-ever free Black settlement in the U.S., but was abandoned following the Seven Years' War in 1763.

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Black History Month Recipes

Chef Joe Randall&rsquos Sautéed Shrimp Cakes Photo by Raya Sfeir

The Museum’s James Beard Award-nominated Sweet Home Café has created a special menu for Black History Month. Among the recipes featured here are sautéed shrimp cakes, barbeque ribs, and apple pie. Be sure to check the Museum’s event page for more programs honoring the nation's African American culinary legends.

Chef Joe Randall’s Sautéed Shrimp Cakes with Herb Mustard Sauce

Yield: 8 servings

Koostis:

2 pounds (10 to 15 jumbo shrimp)

1 tablespoon chopped fresh dill weed

1 teaspoon fresh lemon juice

3 cups fresh bread crumbs

Juhised:

Peel and devein shrimp and remove tails. Place half of the shrimp meat in a food processor fitted with metal blade. Puree smooth 1 to 2 minutes. Add the egg whites and puree for 1 minute longer. Pour the mixture into a large bowl and stir in the mayonnaise, dill, mustard, lemon juice, salt, and pepper to taste. Sega hästi. Chop the remaining shrimp coarsely and add to the mixture. Form into six cakes (each about 3 1/2 ounces) about 1-inch thick. Coat each cake with fresh bread crumbs. Heat the oil in a cast iron skillet over medium high heat. Fry shrimp cakes 3 to 4 minutes on both sides or until golden brown. Drain on paper towels.

Chef Patrick Clark’s Barbecued Ribs Photo by Raya Sfeir

Chef Patrick Clark’s Barbecued Ribs with Spicy Coleslaw and Buttermilk-Chile Corn Muffins

Yield: 6 servings

Koostis:

2 tablespoons Old Bay Seasoning

1 tl Cayenne'i pipart

2 tablespoons chile powder

2 teaspoons garlic powder

2 slabs of pork ribs (3 pounds or less), underflap removed

Buttermilk-Chile Corn Muffins

2 tablespoons chopped chives

Juhised:

Sift the spices, salt, and sugar together into a bowl. Combine the spice mixture and vinegar to make a paste. Rub the paste into the meat, cover, wrap in plastic, and refrigerate overnight. Preheat the oven to 250°. Unwrap the ribs and place on an aluminum foil-lined sheet pan. Bake for 3 1/2 hours. Do not turn the meat. Heat a grill until very hot. Remove the ribs from the oven and allow to rest for 10 minutes. Place the ribs on the grill top side down for 2 to 3minutes, or until the fat starts to sizzle. Turn the ribs over and brush with the barbecue sauce. Cook for 1 minute. Turn the ribs over and brush with barbecue sauce. Remove the meat from the grill and cut the ribs into 3- to 4-rib pieces. Place a mound of coleslaw on the side of each plate. Arrange a piece of the ribs leaning against the coleslaw and place 2 muffins next to the ribs. Place a ramekin of barbecue sauce on each plate and sprinkle the coleslaw with the chives.

Chef Edna Lewis’s Fried Apple Pie

Koostis:

3 tablspoons cold unsalted butter, cut into ½ inch cubes

3 tablespoons cold vegetable shortening (preferably trans fat free), cut into ½ pieces

1 large egg, lightly beaten

4 to 5 tablespoons ice water

4 ½ ounces unsulfured dried apples (2 cups)

2 cups unfiltered apple cider

2 ½ tablespoons packed light brown sugar

1 teaspoon grated lemon zest

Frying and Serving:

About 2 quarts vegetable oil

Confectioners sugar for dusting

Juhised:

Blend together flour, butter, shortening, baking powder, and salt in a bowl with your fingertips or a pastry blender (or pulse in a food processor) until mixture just resembles coarse meal. Whisk egg with 1/4 cup ice water, then drizzle evenly over flour mixture and gently stir with a fork until incorporated.

Squeeze a small handful: If it doesn't hold together, add more ice water, 1/2 tablespoon at a time, stirring (or pulsing) until incorporated.

Gather dough and knead just until smooth, 3 or 4 times, on a lightly floured surface (do not overwork, or pastry will be tough). Form dough into 2 (5-inch) disks and chill, wrapped in plastic wrap, until firm, at least 1 hour.

Briskly simmer all filling ingredients and a pinch of salt in a heavy medium saucepan, uncovered, stirring occasionally and mashing apples with a potato masher as they soften, until a thick purée forms, about 20 minutes. Cool completely.

Divide 1 disk of dough into 6 equal pieces. Roll out 1 piece on a lightly floured surface with a lightly floured rolling pin into a 6-inch round, then put 2 heaping tablespoons of filling in center. Lightly moisten edge with water and fold dough over to form a half-circle, pressing out air around filling, then pressing edge to seal. Transfer to a large sheet of parchment paper and press floured tines of a fork around edge. Make more pies with remaining dough and filling (you may have some filling left over).

Set a cooling rack on a large baking sheet or tray. Heat 2 inches of oil in a 4- to 5-quart heavy pot (preferably cast-iron) over medium heat until it registers 360 to 370°F on thermometer. Fry pies, 3 or 4 at a time, turning occasionally, until deep golden-brown, 7 to 8 minutes per batch. Transfer to rack to drain. Return oil to 360 to 370°F between batches. Dust warm pies with confectioners’ sugar before serving.

For more on the new wave of African American chefs safeguarding southern foodways, see the Museum blog post "African American Culinary Chefs."


Black History

It is with a heavy heart that the EBONY family must say goodbye to an acting and cultural force, Clarence Williams III. The New York-born performer, who starred as the brooding undercover cop Lincoln “Linc” Hayes on ABC’s The Mod Squad, has died. He was 81. According to a report by The Hollywood Reporter, Williams’

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Naomi Campbell Welcomes Baby Girl, District Attorney Says Deputies Were Justified In Shooting Of Andrew Brown Jr., and TV Series About Emmett Till’s Mother Headed To ABC

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From Black History Week to Black History Month

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Today history was made. The first Black female Vice President was sworn into office. As a nation we should be proud but not surprised. Black women have been a force in every aspect of American life, though rarely given the credit they deserve. From the inauguration stage President Biden called for national healing, a sentiment

The Blacks of the 1960s: Black History from the Pages of EBONY

Black Americans of the 1960s were fighting to define their future and themselves on their own terms EBONY was there to capture the journey.

Black History from the Pages of EBONY: The Black Americans of the 1980’s

In the 󈨞s, regardless of the topic, EBONY remained true to its mission to encourage and empower Black Americans to move forward and to continue to move up.

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It is with a heavy heart that the EBONY family must say goodbye to an acting and cultural force, Clarence Williams III. The New York-born performer, who starred as the brooding undercover cop Lincoln “Linc” Hayes on ABC’s The Mod Squad, has died. He was 81. According to a report by The Hollywood Reporter, Williams’

Black Wall Street Today: The Community Was Not Destroyed

I boarded my Saturday morning flight from Newark, headed to Tulsa, with an unclear picture of what I would see when I touched down in my destination. Pieced together news stories and accounts from Black Tulsans had taught me that “Black Wall Street,” a thriving community in early 1900’s Tulsa, Oklahoma, had been decimated by

Elvis Was ‘A Racist,’ And Other Eye-Popping Moments From Quincy Jones’ Interview

If Quincy Jones isn’t on your list of musical G.O.A.T.s, you need to re-examine your list. Being a good storyteller comes with the whole legend thing, and the Grammy award-winning producer, composer and artist has plenty. Jones has been given the mantle of “THR Icon” by The Hollywood Reporter, and in his signature ‘tell it

The Role of Black History in Our Current Racial Discourse

This story was originally published on February 2, 2021. Last summer’s Black Lives Matter protests brought racism to the forefront of our national discourse. The demonstrations were sparked by current events, particularly the deaths of George Floyd, and Breonna Taylor, but the BLM rallying cry is a response to a deep-rooted history—a history of being

Trailblazing Comedian Paul Mooney Dead at Age 79

Paul Mooney, the pioneering comedian and actor who worked with some of the industry’s greatest names, has died at the age of 79. The news was broken by Roland Martin and confirmed through his official twitter account. The family confirmed to TMZ he passed in his Oakland home Wednesday morning after suffering a heart attack.

Lena Waithe Takes a Look Back at Some of Our Most Iconic Ebony Covers

EBONY has been a portal of Black history, serving as a time capsule that has captured the essence of Black people, chronicling our stories, and bearing witness to our collective excellence, documenting not just our struggles, but also saluting our many triumphs, for 75 years and counting. Greatness was embedded in the EBONY DNA by

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Celeb Mothers and Daughters: A Visual Love Story

In Maya Angelou’s book Mom & Me & Mom, she summarizes the undying dedication her mother felt for her with these words, “I will look after you and I will look after anybody you say needs to be looked after, any way you say. I am here. I brought my whole self to you. Mina

From Black History Week to Black History Month

The seeds for Black History Month were planted in 1926 when the Association for the Study of African American Life and History (ASALH) established the second week of February as Black History Week. Historian Carter G. Woodson pioneered the idea and got a handful of education departments to recognize the week in their schools. Kiire

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Today history was made. The first Black female Vice President was sworn into office. As a nation we should be proud but not surprised. Black women have been a force in every aspect of American life, though rarely given the credit they deserve. From the inauguration stage President Biden called for national healing, a sentiment

The Blacks of the 1960s: Black History from the Pages of EBONY

Black Americans of the 1960s were fighting to define their future and themselves on their own terms EBONY was there to capture the journey.

Black History from the Pages of EBONY: The Black Americans of the 1980’s

In the 󈨞s, regardless of the topic, EBONY remained true to its mission to encourage and empower Black Americans to move forward and to continue to move up.